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See detailComparison of Different Selection Strategies in Monte-Carlo Tree Search for the Game of Tron
Perrick, Pierre; Lupien St-Pierre, David ULg; Maes, Francis ULg et al

in IEEE Conference on Computational and Intelligence in Games 2012 (2012)

Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) techniques are essentially known for their performance on turn-based games, such as Go, for which players have considerable time for choosing their moves. In this paper, we ... [more ▼]

Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) techniques are essentially known for their performance on turn-based games, such as Go, for which players have considerable time for choosing their moves. In this paper, we apply MCTS to the game of Tron, a simultaneous real-time two-player game. The fact that players have to react fast and that moves occur simultaneously creates an unusual setting for MCTS, in which classical selection policies such as UCB1 may be suboptimal. In this paper, we perform an empirical comparison of a wide range of selection policies for MCTS applied to Tron, with both deterministic policies (UCB1, UCB1-Tuned, UCB-V, UCBMinimal, OMC-Deterministic, MOSS) and stochastic policies (Epsilon-greedy, EXP3, Thompson Sampling, OMC-Stochastic, PBBM). From the experiments, we observe that UCB1-Tuned has the best behavior shortly followed by UCB1. Even if UCB-Minimal is ranked fourth, this is a remarkable result for this recently introduced selection policy found through automatic discovery of good policies on generic multi-armed bandit problems. We also show that deterministic policies perform better than stochastic ones for this problem. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of different techniques for inoculation of "Candidatus Phytoplasma mali" on apple and periwinkle in biological indexing procedure.
Aldaghi, M.; Massart, Sébastien ULg; Roussel, S. et al

in Communications in agricultural and applied biological sciences (2007), 72(4), 779-784

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See detailComparison of different techniques for inoculation of Candidatus phytoplasma mali in biological indexing
Aldaghi, M.; Massart, Sébastien ULg; Roussel, S. et al

Poster (2007)

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See detailComparison of different treatments of atrial fibrillation in the horse
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Muylle, Etienne; Henroteaux, Marc ULg et al

in Zentralblatt für Veterinarmedizin. Reihe A (1981), 28(6), 475-480

In view of the disadvantages of the traditional method of atrial defibrillation, three different methods of treatment (intravenous perfusion of quinidine sulphate, intravenous perfusion of ... [more ▼]

In view of the disadvantages of the traditional method of atrial defibrillation, three different methods of treatment (intravenous perfusion of quinidine sulphate, intravenous perfusion of dihydroquinidine gluconate and repeated oral administration of quinidine sulphate) moere tested in 6 horses (7 attacks) from the point of view of efficacy, quantity of drug required, duration and convenience of the treatment, and toxicity. The authors conclude that the intravenous perfusion of quinidine sulphate under continuous ECG monitoring seems to be the method of choke for the treatment of atrial fibrillation in the horse. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison of different types of commercial FBP and OSEM SPECT reconstruction software
Seret, Alain ULg; Forthomme, Julien

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology (2009), 37(3), 179-187

This study aimed at comparing the performance of filtered backprojection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM) reconstruction algorithms available in several types of commercial SPECT ... [more ▼]

This study aimed at comparing the performance of filtered backprojection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM) reconstruction algorithms available in several types of commercial SPECT software. Methods: Numerical simulations of SPECT acquisitions of two phantoms were used: the NEMA line used for the assessment of SPECT resolution and a phantom with uniform, hot and cold rod compartments. The investigated types of software were: General Electric Xeleris and Vision, Philips Jetstream, Segami Mirage, Siemens eSoft and Icon, and Sopha Medical Vision XT. For FBP, no filtering and filtering of the projections with either Butterworth (order 3 or 6) or Hanning filters at various cut-off frequencies were considered. For OSEM, the number of subsets was 1, 4, 8, or 16 and the number of iterations was chosen to obtain a product number of iterations times the number of subsets equal to 16, 32, 48 or 64. The line phantom enabled us to obtain the reconstructed central, radial and tangential full-widths at half-maximum. The uniform compartment of the second phantom delivered the mean reconstructed pixel values and the standard deviations from which the coefficients of variation were calculated. Hot and cold contrasts were obtained from its rod compartments. Results: For FBP, full-widths at half-maximum, mean pixel values, coefficients of variation and contrasts were almost software independent. The only exceptions were: smaller (0.5 mm) full-widths at half-maximum for Vision, larger mean pixel values for Vision and XT, and better contrasts for Vision and XT for some filtering conditions. For OSEM, full-widths at half-maximum differed between the different types of software from 0.1 to 2.5 mm but these were almost independent of the number of subsets or iterations. There was a high dependence of the mean pixel value on the type of software used and a moderate dependence of the coefficient of variation. The contrasts were almost software independent. Mean pixel value varied greatly with the number of iterations for Mirage and Vision, and the coefficient of variation increased with the number of iterations for all types of software. The mean pixel value, the coefficient of variation and the contrasts were almost constant for a fixed product number of iterations times the number of subsets, whatever the number of subsets or iterations. Conclusion: Most of the types of software were equivalent for FBP or OSEM reconstruction. However, a few differences were observed for some types of software and should be considered when using them. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of different X-ray computed tomography techniques for the quantitative characterisation of the 3D microstructure of pear fruit tissue
Verboven, Pieter; Kerckhofs, Greet ULg; Mebatsion, Hibru K. et al

in Proceedings: Busse, G., Van Hemelrijck, D., Solodov, I., Anastasopoulos, A. (Eds.) (2007)

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See detailComparison of Eae, Tir, Esp a and Esp b Genes of Bovine and Human Attaching and Effacing Escherichia Coli by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
China, B.; Goffaux, F.; Pirson, V. et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (1999), 178(1), 177-82

Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) virulence genes include the eae, the tir, the espA and the espB genes. These genes have been sequenced from several AEEC strains. The sequences alignments ... [more ▼]

Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) virulence genes include the eae, the tir, the espA and the espB genes. These genes have been sequenced from several AEEC strains. The sequences alignments revealed the presence of constant and variable regions. Multiplex polymerase chain reactions were developed, in order to determine the subtype of each gene present in a particular isolate. AEEC strains isolated from calves dead of diarrhea, from healthy calves and from infected humans were compared. The same pathotypes were found in sick and healthy calves but in inverted proportion. These pathotypes were also found in human AEEC. Although, the human EHEC strains from serotype O157 possessed their own pathotype. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Egg Composition and Conservation Ability in Two Belgian Local Breeds and One Commercial Strain
Moula, Nassim ULg; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in International Journal of Poultry Sciences (2009), 8(8), 768-774

The study was conducted to evaluate the egg quality of two Belgian local chicken breeds (the Ardennaise and the Famennoise) and to compare it with a commonly bred commercial strain (Lohmann brown). Two ... [more ▼]

The study was conducted to evaluate the egg quality of two Belgian local chicken breeds (the Ardennaise and the Famennoise) and to compare it with a commonly bred commercial strain (Lohmann brown). Two criteria were used to describe egg quality: egg composition (measured through yolk to albumen ratio) and its stability during conservation (measured through pH). Egg weight, size, composition as well as albumen pH were measured on 140 eggs. Measurements were performed at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after laying. The egg weight was highest in the Lohmann strain (62.86 g), followed by the Famennoise breed (55.51 g) and lowest in the Ardennaise (50.31 g). Yolk to albumen ratio was significantly higher in the Ardennaise (0.53) when compared with the Famennoise (0.49) and Lohmann breeds (0.43). Albumen pH at laying was lowest in the Lohmann when compared with the local breeds. However, no statistical differences among the three breeds could be detected for this parameter at days 14 or 21 postlaying. The high pH in local breed eggs is often reported to be caused by a lower conservation ability. The present results suggest some physiologically higher pH at laying not resulting from defaults in conservation. As a measure of egg freshness, pH must be adapted by the various poultry breeds. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of ENFA and GLM modelling for summer habitat suitability of the sperm whale in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea
Praca, Emilie; Gannier, Alexandre; Das, Krishna ULg et al

Conference (2007)

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See detailComparison of external morphological traits of newborns to inner morphological traits of the dam in the double-muscled Belgian Blue Beef breed
Coopman, F.; Gengler, Nicolas ULg; Groen, A. F. et al

in Journal of Animal Breeding & Genetics (2004), 121(2), 128-134

In the double-muscled (DM) Belgian Blue Beef (BBB) breed, caesarean section (CS) is used as a routine management tool to prevent dystocia. This practice is criticized on animal welfare grounds. With ... [more ▼]

In the double-muscled (DM) Belgian Blue Beef (BBB) breed, caesarean section (CS) is used as a routine management tool to prevent dystocia. This practice is criticized on animal welfare grounds. With unassisted (natural) births, difficulties arise because of disproportion between the sizes of the newborn and inner pelvic sizes of the dam. In this study external morphological traits of newborns are compared with inner morphological traits of the dam. Results of this study indicate that in the DM-BBB, CS is the only means to successful calving. Therefore, no calving ease scores are available to select for less dystocia in this breed. Selection for fewer CS must be achieved by focusing on lower birth weight (BW) and decreased muscular conformation at birth, both having a sufficiently high heritability. Simultaneously, pelvic sizes of the dam should be increased. It is very likely that the look of the DM-BBB will change when selecting for less dystocia. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of fattening performances of booars casrated or immunized against GnRF and evaluation of the vaccination efficiency
Wavreille, Jose; Boudry, Christelle ULg; Romnée, J. M. et al

in EAAP (Ed.) Book of absracts of the 62nd annual meeing of the european federation of animal science (2011, August 29)

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See detailComparison of feeding behaviour and performance of weaned piglets fed with two types of dry feeders with integrated Drinkers
Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Desiron, Alain et al

in Proceedings of the 32nd International congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (1998)

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See detailComparison of FEM simulations for the incremental forming process
Henrard, Christophe ULg; Habraken, Anne ULg; Szekeres, A. et al

in Advanced Materials Research (2005), 6-8

Incremental forming is an innovative and highly flexible sheet metal forming technology for small batch production and prototyping that does not require any adapted dies or punches to form a complex shape ... [more ▼]

Incremental forming is an innovative and highly flexible sheet metal forming technology for small batch production and prototyping that does not require any adapted dies or punches to form a complex shape. The purpose of this article is to perform FEM simulations of the forming of a cone with a 50-degree wall angle by incremental forming and to investigate the influence of some crucial computational parameters on the simulation. The influence of several parameters will be discussed: the FEM code used (Abaqus or Lagamine, a code developed at the University of Liège), the mesh size, the potential simplification due to the symmetry of the part and the friction coefficient. The output is given in terms of final geometry (which depends on the springback), strain history and distribution during the deformation, as well as reaction forces. It will be shown that the deformation is localized around the tool and that the deformations constantly remain close to a plane strain state for this geometry. Moreover, the tool reaction clearly depends on the way the contact is taken into account. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of fermentation industrial components such as corn steep and yeast extract for lactic bacteria production
Cornelius, C.; Erpicum, T.; Jacques, P. et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (1996), 61/4a

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See detailComparison of Field Transfer Methods between two meshes
Bussetta, Philippe ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Proceedings of "IV European Conference on Computational Mechanics" (2010)

In many cases, the numerical computation of mechanical problem with Finite Element Method has to transfer some information between two different meshes. For example, if a remeshing is needed or if several ... [more ▼]

In many cases, the numerical computation of mechanical problem with Finite Element Method has to transfer some information between two different meshes. For example, if a remeshing is needed or if several meshes are used (e.g. one for a thermal problem and another one for a mechanical problem). In spite of the research on the Transfer Methods, none of them has been so far clearly established as the best. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. Many problems can happen during the field transfer, like the minimization of the numerical diffusion, the value of the field on the boundaries, etc. This paper compares on the one hand the performances of the Field Transfer Method by classical interpolation with on the other hand one using Mortar Elements. The comparison of the two methods is based on two indicators: the numerical diffusion and the evaluation of the field on the boundaries. In this paper, only the continuous fields are considered. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of five radioimmunoassay systems for PAG measurement: Ability to detect early pregnancy in cows
Ayad, A.; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2007), 42(4), 433-440

This study was conducted to describe the minimum detection limit, reproducibility, accuracy, specificity and parallelism of different pregnancy-associated glycoprotein radioimmunoassay (PAG-RIA) systems ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted to describe the minimum detection limit, reproducibility, accuracy, specificity and parallelism of different pregnancy-associated glycoprotein radioimmunoassay (PAG-RIA) systems: RIA-497, RIA-706, RIA-780, RIA-809 and RIA-Pool. Their ability to distinguish between non-pregnant and pregnant females at day 30 after artificial insemination (Al) was investigated. The antisera were raised in rabbits against different PAG preparations. All RIA systems proved to be sensitive, repeatable and accurate for measuring PAG concentrations. The dilutions of plasma samples taken at an early stage of pregnancy were found to be parallel to the standard curves. No cross-reaction was observed with different carbohydrates, either with Pregnant Marc Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) or human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). The concentrations of PAG in pregnant females at day 30 after Al were shown to be higher with the use of antisera R#706, R#780, R#809 and Pool when compared with antiserum R#497. All the RIA systems gave 100% sensitivity and negative predictive values. On the other hand, the use of antisera R#780 and R#809 resulted in lower specificity and positive predictive values. The present study clearly shows that the ability of PAG-RIA systems to diagnose pregnancy specifically at day 30 after Al can be improved by using a combination of antisera raised against different forms of PAG. [less ▲]

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