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See detailCharacterisation of KLUA-9, a beta-lactamase from extended-spectrum cephalosporin-susceptible Kluyvera ascorbata, and genetic organisation of bla(KLUA-9)
Rodriguez, M. M.; Power, Pablo ULg; Bauvois, C. et al

in International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (2007), 29(3), 332-337

This study characterised the genetic environment of the chromosomally encoded blaKLUA-9 gene from a clinical Kluyvera ascorbata isolate and performed a kinetic characterisation of KLUA-9. Purified KLUA-9 ... [more ▼]

This study characterised the genetic environment of the chromosomally encoded blaKLUA-9 gene from a clinical Kluyvera ascorbata isolate and performed a kinetic characterisation of KLUA-9. Purified KLUA-9 showed the highest catalytic efficacies towards benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, piperacillin, first-generation cephalosporins, cefuroxime and cefoperazone; like other 'cefotaximases', it showed a much higher rate of hydrolysis of cefotaxime than ceftazidime, whilst dicloxacillin, cefoxitin and imipenem behaved as poor substrates. A 9 kb insert from K. ascorbata was cloned (Escherichia coli KK68C1) and sequenced. blaKLUA-9 and its 266 bp upstream flanking region (almost identical to the integron-associated bla(CTX-M-2)) are preceded by an aspat variant, a ypdABC-like operon and two open reading frames with unknown functions. Unlike IS CRI -associated bla(CTX-M-2) genes, we failed to detect the putative orf513 recombination sites. Instead, we were able to localise the 5 bp target sites for insertion of ISEcp1B, suggesting that this element could be responsible for future (or still undetected) mobilisation of blaKLUA-9 to more efficiently transferred elements. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of low, medium and high responders following FSH stimulation prior to ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte retrieval in cows
De Roover, R.; Bols, P. E. J.; Genicot, G. et al

in Theriogenology (2005), 63

In human IVF, the concept of 'low responders' is well known and generally defined as women with poor-response to gonadotrophin stimulation in a previous induction cycle. The objective of this ... [more ▼]

In human IVF, the concept of 'low responders' is well known and generally defined as women with poor-response to gonadotrophin stimulation in a previous induction cycle. The objective of this retrospective study is to describe and characterise the concepts of 'low-, medium-, and high-response' and 'low, medium, and high responders' in bovine-assisted reproduction by analysing the OPU-IVF results obtained following 665 gonadotrophin-stimulated sessions conducted in 112 animals, nearly all of which were previously unsuccessful in traditional multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) programs. They were submitted to OPU and IVP between 1999 and 2003. In reference to these 665 OPU sessions, categories of response were defined based on the overall mean+/-S.D. follicles aspirated and COC obtained i.e., for follicles 14.7+/-9.8 and for COCs 11.7+/-8.1. So arbitrary cut-off values to define the categories of sessions were for follicles 5 and 25, and for COC 4 and 20. The three categories for follicles punctured in one session were therefore follicle low-response (FLR)<or=5 follicles, follicle medium-response (FMR) 6-24 follicles or follicle high-response (FHR)>or=25 follicles and for COCs recovered in one session COC low-response (CLR)<or=4 COC, COC medium-response (CMR) 5-19 COC or COC high-response (CHR)>or=20 COC. In addition, four categories of animals were also defined: (1) a low responder animal (LRA) had at least one OPU session in which FLR and CLR were observed (genuine low-response, see Section ); these animals did not have any high-response sessions, (2) a medium responder animal (MeRA) had only medium-responses, (3) a high responder animal (HRA) had at least one OPU session in which FHR and CHR were observed; these animals did not have any low-response sessions, and (4) mixed responder animals (MiRA) had both low and high-responses. Finally, we distinguished biological (animals) and technical (recovery rate and ultrasound resolution) causes of response differences. In 'low, high, medium and mixed reponders,' different results were obtained (p<0.05): mean follicle numbers (8.8+/-4.8a, 22.4+/-10.5c, 13.2+/-5.2b,15.1+/-10.2d), COC numbers (6.3+/-3.9a, 18.5+/-8.2c, 10.4+/-4b, 12.0+/-8.3d), embryo numbers (1.8+/-2.1a, 5.6+/-4.9c, 2.5+/-2.7b, 3.5+/-3.8d) and also for recovery rate (72%a, 83%b,79%, 79%) and percentage embryo development (29%, 30%a, 24%b, 29%). In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that variability in OPU results has technical (ultrasound resolution and recovery rate) as well as biological (animal) aspects. Selection of animals with extreme (high or low) follicle and COC production results allows us to distinguish three populations: 'low, medium, and high responders' to FSH stimulation. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of macadamia nuts using X-ray microtomography
Plougonven, Erwan ULg; Srichamnong, Warangkana; Srzednicki, George et al

in Micro-CT User Meeting Abstract Book (2012, April 05)

Macadamia nuts are among the most nutritious and highest in monounsaturated oil content among edible nuts1. They are widely grown in Australia (46 % of total production), United States of America ... [more ▼]

Macadamia nuts are among the most nutritious and highest in monounsaturated oil content among edible nuts1. They are widely grown in Australia (46 % of total production), United States of America, especially in Hawaii, South Africa and Guatemala2. In practice, there are several steps involved in macadamia processing, including sorting and grading, drying, cracking, roasting, packaging and storage. Drying is a very crucial step as it needs to preserve macadamia quality as well as enhance storage stability through the reduction of water activity. It is obvious that physical properties of the nut contribute to its drying characteristics, and hence its storage stability. Accurate measures such as kernel volume ratio or shell density could help for improving drying efficiency. We present a methodology to investigate structural differences between varieties of macadamia nuts in order to understand the factors involved in storage stability. Fresh nuts-in-shell are scanned by X-ray microtomography, and the different parts of the nuts (shell, kernel, tracheids) are segmented by a set of classical 3D image operators. After image segmentation, volumes are determined, and additional weighing of the nuts allows density measurements. These quantities are plotted for several nuts from each variety. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of meso-and micro-scale morphological and mechanical properties of surface modified 3D Ti6Al4V open porous structures
Pyka, Grzegorz; Kerckhofs, Greet ULg; Van Bael, Simon et al

in Proceedings of MetFoam 2011 (2011)

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See detailCharacterisation of Phosphate Accumulating Organisms and Techniques for Polyphosphate Detection: A Review
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Nguyen, Huu-Thanh; Brognaux, Alison ULg et al

in Sensors (2016), 16(797), 1-14

Phosphate minerals have long been used for the production of phosphorus-based chemicals used in many economic sectors. However, these resources are not renewable and the natural phosphate stocks are ... [more ▼]

Phosphate minerals have long been used for the production of phosphorus-based chemicals used in many economic sectors. However, these resources are not renewable and the natural phosphate stocks are decreasing. In this context, the research of new phosphate sources has become necessary. Many types of wastes contain non-negligible phosphate concentrations, such as wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, phosphorus is eliminated by physicochemical and/or biological techniques. In this latter case, a specific microbiota, phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), accumulates phosphate as polyphosphate. This molecule can be considered as an alternative phosphate source, and is directly extracted from wastewater generated by human activities. This review focuses on the techniques which can be applied to enrich and try to isolate these PAOs, and to detect the presence of polyphosphate in microbial cells. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of polymorphic microsatellite loci in Hephaestus fuliginosus and cross-amplification in closely related Hephaestus tulliensis
Jamandre, Brian Wade ULg; Real, K.; Hughes, J.

in Conservation Genetics Resources (2012), 4(2), 213-216

Eleven polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterised from sooty grunter (Hephaestus fuliginosus) and Tully grunter (H. tulliensis) from Northern Australia. Each primer pair amplified ... [more ▼]

Eleven polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterised from sooty grunter (Hephaestus fuliginosus) and Tully grunter (H. tulliensis) from Northern Australia. Each primer pair amplified good quality and polymorphic products. The versatilities of these markers were tested using different H. fuliginosus populations and cross-amplified to a closely related species, H. tulliensis, found within the northern Australian wet tropics. The number of alleles ranged from 5 to 20 per locus and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.043 to 0.926. All loci conformed to Hardy-Weinberg expectations, with the exception of 2Hf44 and 2Hf53 for Daly R. and Mitchell R. populations of H. fuliginosus, respectively. No evidence of linkage disequilibrium was detected between any pair of loci. The markers reported here would be very useful for population genetic studies, evolution and conservation of these species. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of pregnancy losses after embryo transfer by measuring plasma progesterone and bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1 concentrations
Breukelman, S. P.; Perényi, Z.; Taverne, M. A. M. et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2012), 194(1), 71-76

The aim of this analysis was to determine whether pregnancy loss (PL) after embryo transfer (ET) in cattle was related to maternal progesterone (P4) concentrations during and shortly after ET, and ... [more ▼]

The aim of this analysis was to determine whether pregnancy loss (PL) after embryo transfer (ET) in cattle was related to maternal progesterone (P4) concentrations during and shortly after ET, and maternal bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1 (bPAG-1) concentrations in plasma at days 25–35 of gestation. Embryos (n = 260) were produced either in vivo after superovulation (n = 115), or in vitro from oocytes (obtained with ovum pick-up) in co-culture (n = 44) or cultured in a synthetic medium (n = 101). Overall, PL was 56.9% (148) and no significant differences occurred in calving rate among the three embryo production groups. There was no difference in P4 concentrations on days 7–14 of gestation in the three groups, nor between ongoing and interrupted pregnancies. Between days 25 and 35 of pregnancy, bPAG-1 concentrations were unaffected by embryo production, but in cattle that had PL between days 26 and 120, four bPAG-1 profiles could be detected. Between days 25 and 32, bPAG-1 concentrations were influenced by PL, and concentrations were significantly lower in animals in which PL occurred between days 26 and 120 than in those animals that aborted later or calved at term. Early P4 concentrations suggested that maternal luteal factors were not responsible for PL which appeared to be caused by impaired conceptus development (regardless of embryo type) as reflected by low maternal bPAG-1 concentrations prior to embryonic death [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of proteins from date palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by a proteomic approach
Ben Thabet, Imène; Francis, Frédéric; De Pauw, Edwin et al

in Food Chemistry (2010)

The proteins contained in juice tapped from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), from Deglet Nour variety, were analysed by the application of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Identification was ... [more ▼]

The proteins contained in juice tapped from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), from Deglet Nour variety, were analysed by the application of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Identification was carried out by mass spectrometry analyses. The SDS–PAGE patterns showed more than 100 spots of which 52 spots were identified. A proportion of the identified proteins were related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae that may belong to the natural microflora of date palm sap. These proteins are principally involved in glycolysis. While other proteins were assigned to be vegetable proteins, probably a mixture of proteins from the vascular system, which have several biological functions within the palm tree. Thus, we found enzymes involved in stress and defence reactions, in glycolysis, and photosynthesis reactions. Other enzymes are associated with carbohydrates and proteins metabolisms. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of sand transport in gravel-bed rivers using iron slag dated by historical studies
Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULg; Levecq, Yannick; Petit, François ULg

Poster (2012, April 25)

Considerable quantities of iron-smelting slag are present in the bed of the Ardennian rivers. These waste products come from hundreds of ironworks (mainly blast furnaces and finery forges) built close to ... [more ▼]

Considerable quantities of iron-smelting slag are present in the bed of the Ardennian rivers. These waste products come from hundreds of ironworks (mainly blast furnaces and finery forges) built close to different-sized rivers between the 14th and the 19th centuries. In general, slag was crushed by hammers, sorted and piled up in heaps around the furnaces, generally onto the floodplains. Furthermore, some archives mention that they were sometimes thrown out directly into the rivers. This means that for centuries, slag elements have been swept away by floods, mixed with the sediment and spread out along river courses. Due to their distinctive appearance, slag particles are easily recognizable among the natural elements. Thanks to many historical studies conducted on the early iron industry, we are able to date quite precisely the inception and the periods of activity of the different sites established in the catchments. These data are indispensable in order to use slag as a tracer to quantify the particles’ velocity in rivers. Downstream of ironworks, samples of sand have been collected in the surface layer of many gravel-bed rivers. Then, the slag concentration of each sample has been measured in the coarse sand fraction. The representation of the longitudinal evolution of slag concentration in these rivers permits the dispersion of slag to be analysed, the relative bed-material discharges at confluences to be quantified and the velocity of coarse sand to be determined. A survey of the bedload discharge in the Ardennian rivers established that more than 90 % of the bedload transport consists of coarse sand grains that are transported on the bottom of the bed. However, in the literature, this grain-size fraction is generally not considered in bedload discharge estimations because the sandy particles are very difficult to tag and to recover. Consequently, the huge amounts of slag injected in rivers several centuries ago can be considered as a very useful opportunity to characterise the sand transport in gravel-bed rivers. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of sand transport in gravel-bed rivers using iron slag dated by historical studies
Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULg; Levecq, Yannick ULg; Petit, François ULg

Poster (2013, October 15)

De grandes quantités de scories sidérurgiques sont présentes dans les sédiments des rivières ardennaises. Ces éléments proviennent de centaines d’établissements établis le long des cours d’eau entre le ... [more ▼]

De grandes quantités de scories sidérurgiques sont présentes dans les sédiments des rivières ardennaises. Ces éléments proviennent de centaines d’établissements établis le long des cours d’eau entre le 14ème et le 19ème siècle. Lors de l’exploitation, ces déchets étaient rejetés à proximité des sites sidérurgiques, voire directement déversés dans les cours d’eau. Cela signifie que depuis plusieurs siècles, de grandes quantités de scories de taille variée, se sont mélangées aux alluvions naturelles. Leur couleur et leur éclat les différencient aisément des éléments naturels. Les lieux et périodes d’exploitations sont connus précisément grâce à de nombreuses sources historiques, ce qui rend les scories particulièrement utiles comme marqueurs du déplacement des sédiments dans les cours d’eau (Houbrechts et al., 2011). Dans plusieurs rivières du massif ardennais, des échantillons de sédiments sableux ont été prélevés en aval d’anciens sites métallurgiques. La concentration en scories a été mesurée dans la fraction des sables grossiers (1680 – 2360 µm). La dispersion longitudinale des scories permet d’estimer la vitesse d’avancée des alluvions sableuses. Les sables grossiers constituent une part importante des sédiments transportés dans le fond du lit des cours d’eau. En effet, le suivi d’un piège à sédiment dans un cours d’eau ardennais (la Chavanne) à montré qu’ils représentent plus de 90 % de la charge solide transportée sur le fond des rivières. La présence de scories dans le lit des cours d’eau permet également d’estimer l’épaisseur de la couche active de charriage durant les derniers siècles. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of silica low-density xerogels in presence of additives by image analysis and nitrogen adsorption-desorption
Blacher, Silvia ULg; Alié, Christelle ULg; Gommes, Cédric ULg et al

in Characterization of Porous Solids VI (2002)

Micro- and mesopore structure modifications in silica low-density xerogels induced by additives in TEOS-based alcogels precursors are discussed on the basis of image analysis of transmission electron ... [more ▼]

Micro- and mesopore structure modifications in silica low-density xerogels induced by additives in TEOS-based alcogels precursors are discussed on the basis of image analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs and nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiments. To perform image analysis, novel image processing has been developed on the basis of classical signal treatment and mathematical morphology theory. The obtained results have been correlated with classical and fractal interpretation of nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of stability behaviour of ultra fine alumina powder in view its colloidal processing by gel-casting
Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan ULg; Ay, P.

in Onal G. et al. (Ed.) Proceedings of XXIII International Mineral Processing Congress, 3-8 September 2006, Istanbul (2006, September)

The paper reports on results study aimed at assessing of the influence of dispersant type on the electrochemical properties of highly concentrated alumina suspension. The relationship between the type of ... [more ▼]

The paper reports on results study aimed at assessing of the influence of dispersant type on the electrochemical properties of highly concentrated alumina suspension. The relationship between the type of dispersant and the stabilization ability towards ultrafine alumina powder CT3000 has been studied. The effectiveness was determined mainly by the zeta potential value, specific surface charge, the shift in the pH(iep) and by visual controlling the fluidity of the slurry at constant solid loading. A good agreement between the zeta potential and the specific surface charge as a way to determine the optimal dose of dispersant has been documented. Gel-casting experiments showed that the Dolapix CE64, an ammonium polyacrylate dispersant was the best dispersant for the studied powder. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of structural determinants and molecular mechanisms involved in Stromelysin-3 activation by 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate and furin-type convertases.
Santavicca, M.; Noël, Agnès ULg; Stoll, I. et al

in Biochemical Journal (1996), 315

Stromelysin-3 (ST3) is a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) which has been implicated in cancer progression and in a number of conditions involving tissue remodelling. In contrast to other MMPs which are ... [more ▼]

Stromelysin-3 (ST3) is a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) which has been implicated in cancer progression and in a number of conditions involving tissue remodelling. In contrast to other MMPs which are secreted as zymogens requiring extracellular activation, ST3 is found in the extracellular space as a potentially active mature form, suggesting that the activation of the ST3 proform differs from that of other MMPs. We show in the present study that the ST3 proform is not autocatalytically processed in the presence of 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA). By using ST3/ST2 chimeras, we demonstrate that resistance to APMA is due to properties associated with both the ST3 pro- and catalytic domains. In agreement with the observation made by Pei and Weiss [Pei and Weiss (1995) Nature (London) 375, 244-247], we find that the requirement for activation of the ST3 proform by the furin convertase is entirely contained within a stretch of 10 amino acids located at the junction between the ST3 pro- and catalytic domains. Furin cleaves human and mouse ST3 equally well. However, PACE-4, a furin-like convertase, is much more efficient on the mouse enzyme, suggesting that ST3 protein determinants other than the conserved Ala-Arg-Asn-Arg-Gln-Lys-Arg sequence preceding the furin cleavage site are implicated in PACE-4 action. Finally, we show that processing of the ST3 proform is inhibited by a furin inhibitor in human MCF7 breast cancer cells stably transfected to constitutively express a full-length human ST3 cDNA. Using brefeldin A, we demonstrate that, in these MCF7 cells, the 56 kDa precursor form of ST3 is post-translationally modified in the cis- or media-Golgi into a 62 kDa proform. Thereafter, its processing into the 47 kDa mature form occurs in the trans-Golgi network and is followed by secretion into the extracellular space. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of the acute and reversible airway inflammation induced by cadmium chloride inhalation in healthy dogs and evaluation of the effects of salbutamol and prednisolone.
Bolognin, M.; Kirschvink, N.; Leemans, Jérôme ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2009), 179(3), 443-450

The aims of this study were firstly to characterise a model of subclinical and reversible bronchial inflammation induced by cadmium chloride inhalation in healthy dogs and then to examine the effect of ... [more ▼]

The aims of this study were firstly to characterise a model of subclinical and reversible bronchial inflammation induced by cadmium chloride inhalation in healthy dogs and then to examine the effect of prednisolone or salbutamol treatment on the resulting bronchitis. The model characterisation and the effects of treatment were studied using clinical symptoms, haematology, thoracic radiography, bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage, barometric whole-body plethysmography and histamine broncho-provocation tests. In addition, the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 were determined in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Cadmium inhalation induced: (1) a transient bronchial inflammation, dominated by neutrophils; (2) a neutrophilia of the blood that persisted for up to 4weeks; (3) a transient increased bronchial reactivity, and (4) a significant increase in MMP-9 activity in the BALF. Prednisolone treatment reduced the influx of inflammatory cells into the BALF, but not significantly, had no effect on pulmonary function, and did not reduce of airway hypersensitivity. Salbutamol had almost no effect on any of the parameters investigated. [less ▲]

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