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See detailChanges in the amygdala amino acid microdialysate after conditioning with a cue associated with ethanol
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; De Neuville, Jessica; De Witte, Philippe

in Psychopharmacology (1998), 139

Excitatory amino acid neurotransmission within the amygdala has been implicated in learning associations between external stimuli and intrinsic reward values, such that it may play a key role in ... [more ▼]

Excitatory amino acid neurotransmission within the amygdala has been implicated in learning associations between external stimuli and intrinsic reward values, such that it may play a key role in conditioned drug effects. In the present studies, the responses of the excitatory amino acids, aspartate and glutamate, together with the neuromodulatory sulphonated amino acid, taurine, within the basolateral amygdala, to an odor cue repeatedly associated with acute ethanol injections (2 g/kg, IP) have been investigated by a microdialysis technique combined with HPLC-EC analysis. After presentation of the ethanol-conditioned stimulus, a single IP saline injection induced an immediate and significant increase in the taurine microdialysate content which could be related to the neuromodulatory action of taurine. Furthermore, when the conditioned stimulus was combined with the ethanol injection (2 g/kg, IP), significant increases in both taurine and glutamate microdialysate content were observed and indicated a learned compensatory response to counteract the acute effects of ethanol. These results demonstrate that changes in amygdala extracellular glutamate and taurine concentrations can be conditioned to ethanol-associated stimuli and are therefore probably implicated in the phenomenon of environmental-dependent tolerance to ethanol. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in the amygdala amino acid microdialysate after conditioning with a cue associated with ethanol
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; de Neuville, Jessica; De Witte, Philippe

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (1999), 34

The excitatory amino acid neurotransmission within the amygdala has been implicated in learning associations between external stimuli and intrinsic reward values such that it may play a key role in ... [more ▼]

The excitatory amino acid neurotransmission within the amygdala has been implicated in learning associations between external stimuli and intrinsic reward values such that it may play a key role in conditioned drug effects. In the present studies, the responses of the excitatory amino acids, aspartate and glutamate together with the neuromodulatory sulphonated amino acid taurine, within the basolateral amygdala, to an odor cue repeatedly associated with acute ethanol injections (2g/kg, IP) have been investigated by a microdialysis technique combined with HPLC-EC analysis. After presentation of the ethanol-conditioned stimulus, a single IP saline injection induced an immediate and significant increase in the taurine microdialysate content which could be related to the neuromodulatory action of taurine. Furthermore, when the conditioned stimulus was combined with the ethanol injection (2g/kg, IP), significant increases in both taurine and glutamate microdialysate content were observed and indicated a learned compensatory response to counteract the acute effects of ethanol. These results demonstrate that changes in amygdala extracellular glutamate and taurine concentrations can be conditioned to ethanol-associated stimuli and are therefore probably implicated in the phenomenon of environmental-dependent tolerance to ethanol. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in the arginine-vasopressin immunoreactive systems in male mice lacking a functional aromatase gene
Plumari, L.; Viglietti-Panzica, C.; Allieri, F. et al

in Journal of Neuroendocrinology (2002), 14(12), 971-978

In male rodents, the arginine-vasopressin-immunoreactive (AVP-ir) neurones of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial amygdala are controlled by plasma testosterone levels (decreased ... [more ▼]

In male rodents, the arginine-vasopressin-immunoreactive (AVP-ir) neurones of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial amygdala are controlled by plasma testosterone levels (decreased after castration and restored by exogenous testosterone). AVP transcription in these nuclei is increased in adulthood by a synergistic action of the androgenic and oestrogenic metabolites of testosterone and, accordingly, androgen and oestrogen receptors are present in both BNST and medial amygdala. We used knockout mice lacking a functional aromatase enzyme (ArKO) to investigate the effects of a chronic depletion of oestrogens on the sexually dimorphic AVP system. Wild-type (WT) and ArKO male mice were perfused 48 h after an i.c.v. colchicine injection and brain sections were then processed for AVP immunocytochemistry. A prominent decrease (but not a complete suppression) of AVP-ir structures was observed in the BNST and medial amygdala of ArKO mice by comparison with the WT. Similarly, AVP-ir fibres were reduced in the lateral septum of ArKO mice and but not in the medial preoptic area, a region where the AVP system is not sexually dimorphic in rats. No change was detected in the supraoptic and suprachiasmatic nuclei. However, a decrease in AVP-ir cell numbers was however, detected in one subregion of the paraventricular nucleus. These data support the hypothesis that the steroid-sensitive sexually dimorphic AVP system of the mouse forebrain is mainly under the control of aromatized metabolites of testosterone. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in the basal membrane in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia
Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Hunt, J.; Lapière, C. M. et al

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (1985), 140(4-5), 208-21

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See detailChanges in the Chemical composition of the atmosphere
Adams, F.; Colin, R. G.; De Muer, D. et al

Report (1997)

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See detailChanges in the Concentrations of Auxins and Polyamines During Rooting of in-Vitro-Propagated Walnut Shoots
Heloir, Marie-Claire; Kevers, Claire ULg; Hausman, Jean-François et al

in Tree Physiology (1996), 16(5), 515-9

Rooting was induced in in-vitro-propagated walnut (Juglans regia L.) shoots by subculturing the shoots on rooting medium containing agar and 3 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 7 days in darkness ... [more ▼]

Rooting was induced in in-vitro-propagated walnut (Juglans regia L.) shoots by subculturing the shoots on rooting medium containing agar and 3 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 7 days in darkness. Changes in the concentrations of endogenous free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-acetylaspartic acid (IAAsp) and free polyamines were determined during culture on root-inducing medium. In extracts of whole shoots, the concentration of free IAA showed a transient peak at 60 h (around 48 h in extracts from basal shoot portions) and then remained at a relatively low concentration for the remainder of the 7-day culture period. The concentration of IAAsp in extracts of whole shoots peaked at about the same time as the concentration of free IAA, whereas the IAAsp concentration in extracts from basal shoot portions peaked earlier, at around 12 h. The concentrations of free polyamines in extracts of whole shoots increased soon after the shoots were transferred to root-inducing medium. The concentrations of IAA and IAAsp remained stable when the rooted shoots were transferred to a vermiculite/gelrite mixture (without auxin) and grown in light. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in the development of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom in the Bay of Calvi (NW Mediterranean) over the last two decades: a response to changing climate?
Goffart, Anne ULg; Hecq, Jean-Henri ULg; Legendre, Louis

in Marine Ecology. Progress Series (2002), 236

The development of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom was investigated in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica, Ligurian Sea, northwestern Mediterranean) in 1979, 1986, 1988, 1997 and 1998. A drastic reduction of ... [more ▼]

The development of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom was investigated in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica, Ligurian Sea, northwestern Mediterranean) in 1979, 1986, 1988, 1997 and 1998. A drastic reduction of phytoplankton biomass was evidenced over the last 2 decades, in relation to long-term changes in climatic and environmental conditions. Between 1979 and 1998, the monthly averaged chlorophyll a concentrations at 1 m decreased by about 80% during February, March and April. Simultaneously, major changes to hydrodynamic conditions include warmer water, overall decrease of salinity at 10 m depth, longer periods of bright sunshine and lower wind stress, The changes in environmental conditions were large enough to affect the vertical stability of the water column during the winter-spring period and to reduce nutrient replenishment of the surface layer prior to the usual period of phytoplankton growth. Until 1986, the main factor driving nutrient replenishment was the winter upward mixing of nutrient-rich deep waters, while the progressive reduction of mixing from 1988 induced nutrient limitation of surface waters in the last decade. The following hypotheses on changes in the development of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom are made: (1) Until 1986, phytoplankton peaks took place in relatively high-nutrient waters and were diatom-dominated. (2) Between 1986 and 1988, decreasing Si availability led to Si limitation which caused a reduction in diatom abundance. This resulted in the disappearance of the diatom-dominated pulses and in lower phytoplankton biomass and was accompanied by a shift toward non-siliceous phytoplankton. (3) In 1988, 1997 and 1998, decreasing nitrate availability led to nitrate limitation, thus explaining the progressive reduction in non-siliceous phytoplankton biomass. Other, associated changes in benthos assemblages and ichthyofauna are documented. The conclusions from the Bay of Calvi are extended to the whole western Corsican coast. This confirms that the Mediterranean reacts rapidly to external perturbations, which are driven by climate change in that particular area. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in the distribution of carabid beetles in Belgium revisited: Have we halted the diversity loss?
Desender, K.; Dekoninck, W.; Dufrêne, Marc ULg et al

in Biological Conservation (2010), 143(6), 1549-1557

Twenty years ago, Desender and Turin (1989) analysed the changes in the composition of carabid beetles in four NW European countries between the periods <1950 and 1950-1985. Recently, a new distribution ... [more ▼]

Twenty years ago, Desender and Turin (1989) analysed the changes in the composition of carabid beetles in four NW European countries between the periods <1950 and 1950-1985. Recently, a new distribution atlas of carabid beetles in Belgium was compiled using data collected during the period 1986-2008. In the light of the Countdown2010 target of halting the loss of biodiversity, we used these new data to test whether or not previously observed trends were altered. Since 1950, 46 species were no longer recorded in Belgium and seven species were added to the Belgian fauna. By relating the changes in distribution area to ecological and life history traits as well as to conservation priorities of the species, we examined which species characteristics were associated with the strongest changes in distribution. Comparing the period before 1950 with the period 1950-1985 showed that species from nutrient-poor dry biotopes and heathlands, threatened, rare and big species declined. Generalists, non-threatened species, species with a pan-European distribution range, species in the centre of their distribution range and common species, on the other hand, increased. From the period 1950-1985 to 1986-2008, mainly macropterous species, both rare and very common species and big species decreased, while generalists, dimorphic species, species with a pan-European distribution range and species that were already common in the second period increased. For the conservation of carabid beetles in a strongly industrialised and highly fragmented NW European landscape, we propose actions on two levels: first, the protection and adequate management of high quality biotopes, especially nutrient-poor grasslands and heathlands, in large core areas for specialist species and second, the creation and/or restoration of a 'matrix' that facilitates the exchange of individuals between core areas for the conservation of both generalist and specialist species. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in the distribution of type IV collagen, laminin, proteoglycan, and fibronectin during mouse tooth development
Thesleff, I.; Barrach, H. J.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Developmental Biology (1981), 81(1), 182-92

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See detailChanges in the Distribution Pattern of Galectin-1 and Galectin-3 in Human Placenta Correlates with the Differentiation Pathways of Trophoblasts
Maquoi, Erik ULg; van den Brule, F. A.; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg et al

in Placenta (1997), 18(5-6, Jul-Aug), 433-9

Human placentation is a complex biological phenomenon that results from precisely regulated interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix. Galectin- 1 and galectin-3 belong to a newly defined ... [more ▼]

Human placentation is a complex biological phenomenon that results from precisely regulated interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix. Galectin- 1 and galectin-3 belong to a newly defined family of galactose-binding lectins that can bind several glycoconjugates such as the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin, and are involved in many biological events including cell adhesion. In this study, the expression of these two galectins in first and third trimester normal human placenta was examined using single and double immunohistochemical staining and specific antibodies for galectins and cytokeratins. Galectin-3 was detected in all trophoblastic lineages including villous cytotrophoblasts and extravillous trophoblasts (trophoblastic cell columns, infiltrating trophoblasts, endovascular trophoblasts and placental bed giant cells). On the contrary, galectin-1 distribution was restricted to endometrium. A reduction of galectin-3 expression was observed from the villous trophoblasts to the trophoblastic cell columns. This pattern correlated with the switch from a proliferative to a migratory phenotype. Galectin-1 and galectin-3 were both detected in maternal decidual cells. Our data demonstrate a specific pattern of galectin-1 and galectin-3 expression in trophoblastic tissue, and suggest these lectins could contribute to cell-cell and cell matrix interactions of trophoblast during placentation. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in the enantiomeric distribution of selected volatile constituents of Mentha pulegium L. powders caused by hot water treatment
Brokl, Michal ULg; Flores, G.; Blanch, G. P. et al

in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2006), 54(23), 8836-8841

The variation, in general, of the composition of the aromatic fraction and, in particular, of the enantiomeric composition of certain chiral volatile compounds of commercial Mentha pulegium L. powders ... [more ▼]

The variation, in general, of the composition of the aromatic fraction and, in particular, of the enantiomeric composition of certain chiral volatile compounds of commercial Mentha pulegium L. powders caused by boiling water was evaluated. A comparison between the volatile profile of the studied herbs demonstrated that most M. pulegium L. samples contained high proportions of Mentha piperita L., even when this information was not specified on the label. Likewise, substantial changes in the volatile fraction of the infusions with respect to the composition of the original plant used in their preparation were found. The enantiomeric composition of some chiral compounds of the dried plant material, particularly limonene, was modified by adding hot water, whereas others were kept invariable. The results shown in this work reflect the need for the control of the composition of commercial powders and brews of M. pulegium L. to ensure their correct application. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges In The Hypophyseal-Gonadal Axis During The Onset Of Puberty In Young Bulls
Renaville, Robert ULg; Devolder, A.; Massart, Serge et al

in Journal of Reproduction and Fertility (1993), 99(2),

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See detailChanges in the isoflavone concentration in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) during ensiling and storage in laboratory-scale silos
Daems, Frédéric ULg; Decruyenaere, Virginie ULg; Agneessens, Richard et al

in Animal Feed Science & Technology (2016)

Isoflavones constitute one of the most common categories of nonsteroidal estrogen-like substances belonging to the broad group of phytoestrogens. The highest concentrations in the plant kingdom are found ... [more ▼]

Isoflavones constitute one of the most common categories of nonsteroidal estrogen-like substances belonging to the broad group of phytoestrogens. The highest concentrations in the plant kingdom are found in the Fabaceae family. They have become a focus of research because of their estrogenic or anti-estrogenic effect and potential impact on human health. In recent years, several studies have focused on the impact of biotic and abiotic factors and farming management on the isoflavone concentration in plants and their impact on the composition of cow’s milk. Nevertheless, knowledge about the effect of the ensiling process on isoflavone concentration remains limited. The objective of this work was to study the evolution of the concentrations of four compounds (daidzein, formononetin, genistein and biochanin A) in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) ensiled at harvest. The impact of the field-drying process was also assessed. The plant material was ensiled in laboratory scale silos using vacuum-packed plastic bags and stored over a 6-month period. The quality of the silages was checked throughout the experiment by determining the pH, lactic acid concentration, volatile fatty acids, crude proteins, cellulose and other chemical characteristics. The isoflavone concentration in fresh plant material was 2050, 1766, 306 and 127 µg/g DM for formononetin, biochanin A, genistein and daidzein, respectively. After 4 days of drying in the field, no significant change in isoflavone concentration was found, except for daidzein, which increased twofold. The laboratory-scale silos experiment, however, showed a decrease in isoflavone concentration during the first 2 weeks, followed by stabilization over the 5 remaining months. The concentrations fell by 26, 39, 66 and 73% for daidzein, genistein, biochanin A and formononetin, respectively. Animals fed with silage would therefore absorb fewer isoflavones than those fed with fresh plant material or hay. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in the moss layer after liming in a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand of Eastern Belgium
Dulière, J.-F.; De Bruyn, R.; Malaisse, François ULg

in Forest Ecology & Management (2000), 136(1-3), 97-105

The impact of dolomite lime (5 t ha -1) on the moss layer was investigated in a Belgian Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forest. Bryophytes reacted rapidly, showing a decrease in frequency, cover ... [more ▼]

The impact of dolomite lime (5 t ha -1) on the moss layer was investigated in a Belgian Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forest. Bryophytes reacted rapidly, showing a decrease in frequency, cover and biomass of acidophilous dominant Dicranaceae species. Some neutrophilous competitive or stress tolerant species were spreading out and some ruderals appeared. The reaction of the dominant species coverage to different liming rates was also considered. Results showed that the negative effect was more pronounced than higher dolomite doses were. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in the PhD Education Policy in Spain: an Institutional Approach
Aliaga Isla, Rocio ULg; Rojas de Franciso, Laura; Lopez, Jordi et al

Conference (2014)

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See detailChanges in the renal and maternal utero-placental arteries in pregnancies complicated by hypertension
Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Hustin, J.; Lambotte, R. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1983), 38(12), 519-36

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See detailChanges in the room-temperature emission spectrum of chlorophyll during fast and slow phases of the Kautsky effect in intact leaves
Franck, Fabrice ULg; Dewez, D.; Popovic, R.

in Photochemistry & Photobiology (2005), 81(2, Mar-Apr), 431-436

Changes in the room-temperature emission spectrum of chlorophyll (Chl) were analyzed using fast diode-array recordings during the Kautsky effect in mature and in greening barley leaves. In mature leaves ... [more ▼]

Changes in the room-temperature emission spectrum of chlorophyll (Chl) were analyzed using fast diode-array recordings during the Kautsky effect in mature and in greening barley leaves. In mature leaves, the comparison of F-O (basal level of fluorescence yield at transient O) and F-M (maximum level of fluorescence yield at transient M) spectra showed that the relative amplitude of total variable fluorescence was maximal for the 684 nm Photosystem II (PSII) band and minimal for the 725 nm Photosystem I band. During the increase from F-O to F-M, a progressive redshift of the spectrum of variable fluorescence occurred. This shift reflected the different fluorescence rise kinetics of different layers of chloroplasts inside the leaf. This was verified by simulating the effect of screening on the emission spectrum of isolated chloroplasts and by experiments on greening leaves with low Chl content. In addition, experiments performed at different greening stages showed that the presence of uncoupled Chl at early-greening stages and light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) at later stages have detectable but minor effects on the shape of room-temperature emission spectra. When strong actinic light was applied to mature green leaves, the slow fluorescence yield, which declined from F-M to FT (steady-state level of fluorescence yield at transient T), was accompanied by a slight redshift of the 684 nm PSII band because of nonphotochemical quenching of short-wavelength-emitting Chl ascribed to LHCII. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in the structure and the composition of microtubules within supporting cells of the organ of hearing during development.
Renauld, Justine ULg; Freeman, Stephen ULg; Thelen, Nicolas ULg et al

Poster (2016)

The auditory organ is a highly specialized structure composed by specific cellular types. The sensory cells are characterized by stereocilia at their apex and are necessary for the sound perception. These ... [more ▼]

The auditory organ is a highly specialized structure composed by specific cellular types. The sensory cells are characterized by stereocilia at their apex and are necessary for the sound perception. These cells are supported by supporting cells which contain up to 3000 microtubules and are formed by 15protofilaments (15pf) instead of the canonical 13, a unique fact among vertebrates. It was shown that a β-tubulin isoform can specify the microtubule architecture, such as the expression of the Moth β2 in the Drosophila testes imposed the 16pf structure on the corresponding subset of Drosophila microtubules, which normally contain 13pf. To determine the role of these tubulins in the auditory organ and their possible involvement in the formation of the unusual 15pf microtubules of supporting cells, we studied the spatiotemporal localization of five -tubulin isotypes (β1 to 5) as well as acetyl-α-tubulin within the hearing organ during development in rodents. By using confocal microscopy, we showed that with the exception of the β3-tubulin isoform that was specific to nerve fibres, all the different β-tubulin isoforms and acetyl-α-tubulin were mainly present in the supporting cells. Contrary to β1-4-tubulins, we also found that the β5-tubulin isoform appeared only at a key stage of the postnatal development. By using transmission electron microscopy, we examined the fine structure of microtubules at an early and a late postnatal stage. Our TEM study indicated that these cells are composed by 13pf microtubules at P2, but by 15pf microtubules at P25. We revealed further that this developmental stage coincide with the formation of two separate bundles of microtubules from a unique one in these supporting cells. In conclusion, the architecture and composition of microtubules present in the supporting cells change during development of the organ of Corti. Further experiments are now required to determine if these changes are related to the appearance of β5-tubulin. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in the structure and the symptoms of the osteoarthritis knee and prediction of future knee replacement over an 8-year follow-up period
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Cooper, Cyrus; Pavelka, Karel et al

in Osteoporosis International (2013, April), 24(Suppl.1), 209

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