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See detailComparison of Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation and and Traditional Hydrodistillation Methods for the Rosmarinus eriocalyx essential oils from Eastern Morocco
Fadel, O.; Ghazi, K.; Mouni, L. et al

in Journal of materials and environmental science (2011), 2(2),

Volatile compounds of Rosmarinus eriocalyx samples were extracted by steam-hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAH). GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of the oils revealed the ... [more ▼]

Volatile compounds of Rosmarinus eriocalyx samples were extracted by steam-hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAH). GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of the oils revealed the presence of 22 and 26 compounds in the essential oils obtained through HD and MAH, respectively. The total yield of the volatile fractions obtained through HD and MAH was 1.21% and 1.47%, respectively. The two oils contained the same dominant components: camphor (35.92% HD; 35.33% MAH), camphene (19.74%; 17.07%), a-pinene (14.53%; 12.87%), and 1,8-cineol (6.52%; 6.73%). Higher amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes such as borneol, 1,8-cineol, isobornyl acetate, a-terpeneol, caryophyllene oxide (13.59%) were present in the oil of MAH in comparison with HD (12.36%). However, HD oil contained more monoterpene hydrocarbons such as tricyclene, a-pinene, camphene, o-cymene and limonene (39.04%) than MAH extracted oil (34.45%). [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of mineral intake between children from endemic and non-endemic areas for Kashin-Beck disease in Tibet Autonomous Region: Pilote study
DERMIENCE, Michael ULg; Maesen, Philippe ULg; Mathieu, Françoise et al

Poster (2012, June 01)

Background The Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic and chronic osteochondropathy affecting between 0.74 million and 2.5 million people in the Tibet Autonomous Region and in several provinces of the ... [more ▼]

Background The Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic and chronic osteochondropathy affecting between 0.74 million and 2.5 million people in the Tibet Autonomous Region and in several provinces of the People’s Republic of China. The etiology remains unclear, although a multifactorial hypothesis has been proposed (selenium/iodine deficiency; high concentration of organic matters in drinking water; and mycotoxin poisoning by fungi infecting cereals). The rural population is almost exclusively affected. Objectives The first objective of this study was to assess and to compare the mineral daily intake between Tibetan preschool children living in endemic areas for the Kashin-Beck disease and those living in non-endemic areas. A second objective was the comparison of children daily intakes with Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). The third objective was to estimate a sample size for a cross-sectional survey aiming to highlight significant differences in mineral intakes between the two groups of preschool children. Materials and Methods Ten Tibetan preschool children were enrolled per group (endemic/non-endemic) for this pilot study. Children had to be weaned and those living in endemic area must have a KBD sibling. The nutrition survey consisted in an interactive simplified 24-hour recall questionnaire. Two 24-hour recalls were recorded for the endemic group, in February 2010 (EAw) and in May 2010 (EAs), while one day has been recorded for the non-endemic group in July 2011 (NEA). At the same time, samples of the main staple foods were collected for chemical analysis. The daily intakes of Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn were calculated based on the 24-hour recall records, the chemical analyses, and data from food composition tables (FCTs). Results and discussion We are aware of limitations in the methodological approach of this pilot-study. The number of children, although weak, was empirically decided for the sake of feasibility and because no prior information was available. The interactive 24-hour recalls between the two groups are spaced in time. Nevertheless, the diet of rural Tibetans is far from diversified, and the variability among seasons and years is probably low. Daily intakes in Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn were calculated for children of each group. Parametric test were applied for comparison of mean daily intakes between groups. A significant difference was highlighted for Cu (p-value<0.01) and Fe (p-value<0.05), no other significant difference was detected. When comparing individual daily intakes and Chinese DRIs, the most striking results concern Ca and Mn. The great majority of children showed severe deficiency in calcium and enormous excess in manganese. A power (1-β) of 80% is commonly accepted when estimating a sample size for a cross-sectional survey. In this case, the maximum sample size is too high and not feasible in practice (several hundred children per group). Oppositely, the power was calculated per mineral, based on 100 children per group. The power is higher than 90% for Mg, Fe, and Cu. For the others minerals, the power is well below 80%. Nevertheless, general deficiencies and excesses have been observed in the two groups for part of these minerals. We believe that it is a statement in itself and trying to highlight small differences between groups in such extremes is not relevant. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94 micrometer region
Schmid, B; Thome, K.J.; Demoulin, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1996), 101

Four atmospheric transmittance models, LOWTRAN 7, MODTRAN 3, FASCOD3P, and the Thomason model, are investigated to quantify the relationship between water vapor transmittance as function of water vapor ... [more ▼]

Four atmospheric transmittance models, LOWTRAN 7, MODTRAN 3, FASCOD3P, and the Thomason model, are investigated to quantify the relationship between water vapor transmittance as function of water vapor amount, Tw (U), for an instrument specific band pass in the 0.94-um region. In a second step an empirical Tw (U) function is established using long term measurements with our high-precision Sun photometer (SPM) in Bern, Switzerland along with 1300 simultaneous and collocated water vapor retrievals performed with a dual-channel microwave radiometer (MWR). In order to avoid a possible bias in the empirical Tw(U) function, the MWR data set is prescreened by comparing retrievals coincident with radiosonde ascents. Over a 2 1/2-year period of common observations, radiosondes and PM agreed to within 0.19 cm (13%) of columnar water vapor (CWV) using the empirical Tw (U) relationship. Completely independent comparisons with an additional MWR and two Fourier transform spectrometers yielded agreement within 13% and 9%, respectively. Comparing empirical and modeled results, we found that with respect to the experimental data, LOWTRAN 7, MODTRAN 3, and FASCOD3P reported higher water vapor transmittances over almost the entire range of realistic absorber amounts. By relating these differences to differences in retrieved CWV for the case of two standard atmospheres, we found that using Tw (U) predicted by LOWTRAN 7, MODTRAN 3, and FASCOD3P leads to an overestimate of CWV by about 18-30%, 7-20%, and 2-18%, respectively. The Thomason model yields good agreement with respect to the experimental data up to medium absorber amounts, whereas at slant path amounts larger than 10 cm, errors up to 60% in retrieved CWV occurred. We also show in this work that a misinterpretation of the LOWTRAN 7 water vapor output counterbalances incorrectly predicted Tw, leading to results that agree well with experimental ones [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of monoamine concentrations in the brains of adult male and female Japanese quail.
Ottinger, M. A.; Schumacher, M.; Clarke, R. N. et al

in Poultry Science (1986), 65(7), 1413-20

A fluorometric assay measuring brain tissue concentrations of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin has been validated for Japanese quail. Accuracy, precision, specificity, and parallelism were ... [more ▼]

A fluorometric assay measuring brain tissue concentrations of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin has been validated for Japanese quail. Accuracy, precision, specificity, and parallelism were determined. The sensitivity of the assays was 6 ng/tube, which allowed individual assay of 1 to 2 mg hypothalamic tissue. In Experiment 1, relatively large areas of brain from adult, reproductively active males and females were found to differ significantly in norepinephrine content in optic lobes and for dopamine in right telencephalon. A microdissection technique was used in Experiment 2 to sample small portions of hypothalamic tissue. Sex differences were observed for norepinephrine in the sections containing the lobus paraolfactorius and the preoptic, anterior, and medial hypothalamus. Differences in monoamine content were most apparent when smaller areas dissected by microdissection were analyzed. These results give evidence for sex differences in the monoamine content in specific areas of the brain. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P-450 isozyme concentrations in human liver microsomes.
Beaune, P H; Kremers, P G; Kaminsky, L S et al

in Drug Metabolism and Disposition : The Biological Fate of Chemicals (1986), 14(4), 437-42

Concentrations of three human liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 isozymes and 20 different monooxygenase activities were determined in human liver microsomal preparations. The results of correlation ... [more ▼]

Concentrations of three human liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 isozymes and 20 different monooxygenase activities were determined in human liver microsomal preparations. The results of correlation analysis suggest that: there are important variations in the amounts of the three cytochrome P-450 isozymes measured, particularly P-450(8) and P-450(9); aldrin epoxidase, d-benzphetamine N-demethylase, and S-warfarin 4-hydroxylase activities are linked to cytochrome P-450(5); aryl hydrocarbon (benzo(a)pyrene) hydroxylase and 4-nitroanisole-O-demethylase activities are linked to P-450(8); hydroxylations at the 4'-, 6-, 7-, and 8-positions of R-warfarin are closely linked to each other but are not correlated with other measured monooxygenase activities or P-450 isozyme levels; and P-450(9) is not related to any of the catalytic activities tested. Thus, certain monooxygenase activities can be attributed to specific cytochrome P-450 isozymes. This approach should be useful in suggesting the roles of different cytochromes P-450 in drug metabolism in man which can be further examined using in vitro and in vivo methods. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of MRI images obtained at 7T in a dog to macroscopic and histopathological examination
Van Thielen, B.; Visser, F.; Denolin, V. et al

Poster (2010, July 20)

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See detailComparison of muscle energetics during voluntary and electrically induced contractions in humans
Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Duteil, S.; Wary, C. et al

in Rainoldi, A.; Minetto, M. A.; Merletti, R. (Eds.) Biomedical engineering in exercise and sports (2006)

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See detailA comparison of Nash equilibria analysis and agent-based modelling for power markets
Krause, Thilo; Beck, Elena Vdovina; Cherkaoui, Rachid et al

in International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems (2006), 28(9), 599-607

In this paper we compare Nash equilibria analysis and agent-based modelling for assessing the market dynamics of network-constrained pool markets. Power suppliers submit their bids to the market place in ... [more ▼]

In this paper we compare Nash equilibria analysis and agent-based modelling for assessing the market dynamics of network-constrained pool markets. Power suppliers submit their bids to the market place in order to maximize their payoffs, where we apply reinforcement learning as a behavioral agent model. The market clearing mechanism is based on the locational marginal pricing scheme. Simulations are carried out on a benchmark power system. We show how the evolution of the agent-based approach relates to the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium or multiple equilibria in the system. Additionally, the parameter sensitivity of the results is discussed. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison of Nash equilibria analysis and agent-based modelling for power markets
Krause, Thilo; Andersson, Goran; Ernst, Damien ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 15th Power System Computation Conference (PSCC 2005) (2005)

In this paper we compare Nash equilibria analysis and agent-based modelling for assessing the market dynamics of network-constrained pool markets. Power suppliers submit their bids to the market place in ... [more ▼]

In this paper we compare Nash equilibria analysis and agent-based modelling for assessing the market dynamics of network-constrained pool markets. Power suppliers submit their bids to the market place in order to maximize their payoffs, where we apply reinforcement learning as a behavioral agent model. The market clearing mechanism is based on the locational marginal pricing scheme. Simulations are carried out on a benchmark power system.We show how the evolution of the agent-based approach relates to the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium or multiple equilibria in the system. Additionally, the parameter sensitivity of the results is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of native and inherited immunoglobulins in rabbits immunized against bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1 (boPAG-1).
Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Banga-Mboko, H.; El Amiri, B. et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2000), 440

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See detailComparison of necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from farm animals and humans
Mainil, Jacques ULg; Jacquemin, E.; Pohl, P. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (1999), 70

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See detailComparison of Neuromuscular Block of Atracurium and Rocuronium in Adults
Hans, Pol ULg; Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Franzen, A. et al

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (1996), 47(2), 53-8

We studied the time-course of action of atracurium 0.5 mg kg-1 and rocuronium 0.6 mg kg-1 in 24 healthy adult patients. Anesthesia was induced with thiopentone and sufentanil, and maintained with 50 ... [more ▼]

We studied the time-course of action of atracurium 0.5 mg kg-1 and rocuronium 0.6 mg kg-1 in 24 healthy adult patients. Anesthesia was induced with thiopentone and sufentanil, and maintained with 50% nitrous oxide and 1% enflurane in oxygen. Neuromuscular transmission was monitored by stimulating the ulnar nerve at the wrist and measuring the acceleration of the thumb using the TOF-Guard accelerograph monitor. Supramaximal stimuli of 0.2 ms duration were applied in a single twitch stimulation mode at 1 Hz frequency until completion of block, and in train-of four (TOF) sequence at 2 Hz every 15 sec thereafter. Onset time was longer with atracurium (mean +/- SD:90 +/- 18 sec) than with rocuronium (49 +/- 6 sec). Clinical duration of action (Tl25) was longer with atracurium (52.3 +/- 7.2 min) than with rocuronium (40.0 +/- 6.4 min). Recovery index (Tl25-Tl75) and time for TOF ratio to recover to 0.75 were 17.8 +/- 4.2 and 73.9 +/- 8.8 min with atracurium, and 13.8 +/- 4.1 and 70.4 +/- 14.1 min with rocuronium. The differences between both groups were statistically significant except the difference in the time for TOF to return to 0.75. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of noise, hot and cold contrast of eight tomographic camera models.
Seret, Alain ULg; Nguyen, Thibaut

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (2006), 33(S2), 282

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See detailComparison of non-linear growth models to describe the growth curve in West African Dwarf Sheep
Gbangboche, A. B.; Gleke-Kakai, R.; Albuquerque, L. G. et al

in Animal (2008), 2(7), 1003-1012

The objectives of this study were to compare the goodness of fit of four non-linear growth models, i.e. Brody, Gompertz, Logistic and Von Bertalanffy, in West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep. A total of 5274 ... [more ▼]

The objectives of this study were to compare the goodness of fit of four non-linear growth models, i.e. Brody, Gompertz, Logistic and Von Bertalanffy, in West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep. A total of 5274 monthly weight records from birth up to 180 days of age from 889 lambs, collected during 2001 to 2004 in Betecoucou breeding farm in Benin were used. In the preliminary analysis, the General Linear Model Procedure of the Statistical Analysis Systems Institute was applied to the dataset to identify the significant effects of the sex of lamb (male and female), type of birth (single and twin), season of birth (rainy season and dry season), parity of dam (1, 2 and 3) and year of birth (2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004) on the observed birth weight and monthly weight up to 6 months of age. The models parameters (A, B and k), coefficient of determination (R2), mean square error (MSE) were calculated using language of technical computing package Matlab􏰀 R , 2006. The mean values of A, B and k were substituted into each model to calculate the corresponding Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC). Among the four growth functions, the Brody model has been selected for its accuracy of fit according to the higher R2, lower MSE and AIC. Finally, the parameters A, B and k were adjusted in Matlab􏰀 R , 2006 for the sex of lamb, year of birth, season of birth, birth type and the parity of ewe, providing a specific slope of the Brody growth curve. The results of this study suggest that Brody model can be useful for WAD sheep breeding in Betecoucou farm conditions through growth monitoring. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of O2 IR and NO UV night airglow variations on Mars and Venus
Brecht; Bougher, S. W.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2009, May)

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