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See detailColumnar defects acting as passive internal field detectors
Silhanek, Alejandro ULg; Civale, L.; Avila, M. A.

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2002), 65(17),

We have studied the angular dependence of the irreversible magnetization of several YBa2Cu3O7 and 2H-NbSe2 single crystals with columnar defects tilted off the c axis. At high magnetic fields, the ... [more ▼]

We have studied the angular dependence of the irreversible magnetization of several YBa2Cu3O7 and 2H-NbSe2 single crystals with columnar defects tilted off the c axis. At high magnetic fields, the irreversible magnetization M-i(Theta) exhibits a well-known maximum when the applied field is parallel to the tracks. As the field is decreased below Hsimilar to0.02H(c2), the peak shifts away from the tracks' direction toward either the c axis or the ab planes. We demonstrate that this shift results from the misalignment between the external and internal field directions due to the competition between anisotropy and geometry effects. [less ▲]

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See detailComa and consciousness: Paradigms (re)framed by neuroimaging.
Laureys, Steven ULg; Schiff, N.

in NeuroImage (2012)

The past 15years has provided an unprecedented collection of discoveries that bear upon our scientific understanding of recovery of consciousness in the human brain following severe brain damage ... [more ▼]

The past 15years has provided an unprecedented collection of discoveries that bear upon our scientific understanding of recovery of consciousness in the human brain following severe brain damage. Highlighted among these discoveries are unique demonstrations that patients with little or no behavioral evidence of conscious awareness may retain critical cognitive capacities and the first scientific demonstrations that some patients, with severely injured brains and very longstanding conditions of limited behavioral responsiveness, may nonetheless harbor latent capacities for significant recovery. Included among such capacities are particularly human functions of language and higher-level cognition that either spontaneously or through direct interventions may reemerge even at long time intervals or remain unrecognized. Collectively, these observations have reframed scientific inquiry and further led to important new insights into mechanisms underlying consciousness in the human brain. These studies support a model of consciousness as the emergent property of the collective behavior of widespread frontoparietal network connectivity modulated by specific forebrain circuit mechanisms. We here review these advances in measurement and the scientific and broader implications of this rapidly progressing field of research. [less ▲]

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See detailComa and disorders of consciousness
Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg; Demertzi, Athina ULg

in Handbook of Clinical Neurology (2013), Vol 118

Patients in coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, and in minimally conscious states pose medical, scientific, and ethical challenges. As patients with disorders of consciousness are by ... [more ▼]

Patients in coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, and in minimally conscious states pose medical, scientific, and ethical challenges. As patients with disorders of consciousness are by definition unable to communicate, the assessment of pain, quality of life, and end-of-life preferences in these conditions can only be approached by adopting a third-person perspective. Surveys of healthcare workers' attitudes towards pain and end of life in disorders of consciousness shed light on the background of clinical reality, where no standard medical-legal framework is widely accepted. On the other hand, patients with locked-in syndrome, who are severely paralyzed but fully conscious, can inform about subjective quality of life in serious disability and help us to understand better the underlying factors influencing happiness in disease. In the medico-legal arena, such ethical issues may be resolved by previously drafted advance directives and, when absent, by surrogate representation. Lately, functional medical imaging and electrophysiology provide alternative means to communicate with these challenging patients and will potentially mediate to extract responses of medical-ethical content. Eventually, the clinical translation of these advanced technologies in the medical routine is of paramount importance for the promotion of medical management of these challenging patients [less ▲]

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See detailComa and disorders of consciousness: scientific advances and practical considerations for clinicians
Bodart, Olivier ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg; Gosseries, Olivia ULg

in Seminars in Neurology (2013), 33

Recently, neuroscientists and clinicians have seen the rapid evolution of diagnoses in disorders of consciousness. The unresponsive wakefulness syndrome–vegetative state, the minimally conscious state ... [more ▼]

Recently, neuroscientists and clinicians have seen the rapid evolution of diagnoses in disorders of consciousness. The unresponsive wakefulness syndrome–vegetative state, the minimally conscious state plus and minus, and the functional locked-in syndrome have been defined using new neuroimaging techniques. Diffusion tensor imaging, positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroen- cephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation techniques have all promoted important discoveries in the field of disorders of consciousness. This has led to a better understanding of these patients’ condition and to the development of new prognosis, therapeutic, and communication tools. However, low sensitivity and artifacts problems need to be solved to bring these new technologies to the single-patient level; they also need to be studied in larger scale and randomized control trials. In addition, new ethics questions have arisen and need to be investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailComa and head traumatism
Martin, Didier ULg

Conference (2010, December 11)

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See detailComa and related disorders
Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULg; Habbal, Dina; Laureys, Steven ULg et al

in Swiss Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry (2012), 163(8), 265-272

Disorders of consciousness represent a major challenge in clinical practice. The last decade of neuroscience research brought new insights about brain function and neural correlates of these pathological ... [more ▼]

Disorders of consciousness represent a major challenge in clinical practice. The last decade of neuroscience research brought new insights about brain function and neural correlates of these pathological states of consciousness. Although behavioural evaluation still remains the gold standard, conscious behaviours are too often missed, leading to unwanted grey zones between conscious and unconscious patients. In order to increase the chances of detecting the signs of consciousness, scientists now focus on the development and validation of neuroimaging and electrophysiological paradigms in noncommunicative patients. Recent insights in this field also raise new questions of medical ethics. Indeed, for conscious patients, legal questions will occur about treatment plans, rehabilitation and communication strategies while for the unconscious patients, end-of-life decisions will take place after the patients’ condition is stated as “permanent” or “irreversible”. [less ▲]

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See detailComa et état végétatif
Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg

Conference (2011)

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See detailComa et états apparentés
Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg

Scientific conference (2010)

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See detailLe coma hypoglycemique, un phenomene paroxystique redoute chez le patient diabetique de type 1.
Radermecker, Régis ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(5), 265-9

The hypoglycaemic coma is a severe complication for type 1 diabetic patients. Rarely fatal it may be associated with various paroxysmal accidents, potentially harmful, especially during driving ... [more ▼]

The hypoglycaemic coma is a severe complication for type 1 diabetic patients. Rarely fatal it may be associated with various paroxysmal accidents, potentially harmful, especially during driving. Hypoglycaemia certainly alters the quality of life because it markedly increases the anxiety of both the patient and his/her family. It is considered as a major limiting factor in the glycaemic management of type 1 diabetic patients. Being the consequence of numerous causal factors, hypoglycaemic coma is not always easy to prevent and may occur as a paroxysmal phenomenon, sometimes without obvious contributing circumstances. After having defined the various hypoglycaemic thresholds, we will analyse the pathophysiology of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and of its hormonal counterregulation, and we will describe the hypoglycaemia unawareness phenomenon. These elements should help to better understand why a hypoglycaemic coma may suddenly occur in a diabetic patient. Some advices will also be given to reduce the risk of such a paroxysmal complication in patients with type 1 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailLe coma psychogène
DEBABECHE, Cécile ULg; PIETTE, Catherine ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg et al

in Acta Psychiatrica Belgica (2011), 111(3), 20-25

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See detailComa, consciousness and the brain
Noirhomme, Quentin ULg

Conference (2009)

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See detailComa, Persistent Vegetative States, and Diminished Consciousness
Demertzi, Athina ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg

in Encyclopedia of Consciousness (2009), 1

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See detailLe combat laïque contre l'extrême droite
Jacquemain, Marc ULg

in Pensée et les Hommes (La) (2008), 68

The paper defends that the campaign of secularist movement against resurgence of right-wing extremism, although animated by very good intentions, is fragile on two points : it gives too much emphasis on ... [more ▼]

The paper defends that the campaign of secularist movement against resurgence of right-wing extremism, although animated by very good intentions, is fragile on two points : it gives too much emphasis on the denunciation of a historical past that is no longer reclaimed by the far right itself and too little on the learning processes necessary to foster democracy; and on the other hand, this struggle may appear partial and one sided because the fight against right-wing extremism is not a monopoly of the secularist movement. [less ▲]

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See detailLe ‘combat pour l’intégration’ des églises congolaises (RDC) d’obédience pentecôtiste
Demart, Sarah ULg

in Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales (2008), 24(3), 147-165

This article proposes to analyse the discourses on “integration” developed during the last few years within various “ethnics” churches (France-Belgium). Of Pentecostal and Evangelical obedience, these ... [more ▼]

This article proposes to analyse the discourses on “integration” developed during the last few years within various “ethnics” churches (France-Belgium). Of Pentecostal and Evangelical obedience, these churches, stemming from Congolese’s migrations (DRC), can be estimated to several hundreds and even up to a few thousands in Europe. Some constant can be observed in this new branch of Protestantism despite its fragmented and plural movement, particularly the right to think oneself beyond the logics of reduction to otherness. The integrationist discourse produced constitutes a real break with the ideas carried by the autochthon order of both hierarchies and centralities. [less ▲]

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See detailCombating Child Labour in Burkina Faso: Are the public policies dealing with the impossible?
Wouango, Joséphine ULg

Conference (2011, April 07)

These last years, the objective of abolishing child labour in Burkina Faso (a West African country) has tried to create a national unanimity regarding the commitment of collective actors (decision-makers ... [more ▼]

These last years, the objective of abolishing child labour in Burkina Faso (a West African country) has tried to create a national unanimity regarding the commitment of collective actors (decision-makers, civil society, employers, labor unions and media). It started by integrating the National Program of child welfare and the schedule of the Ministry of Employment, Ministry of Social Action, and the Ministry of Education. Burkina Faso joined the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) in 1999, created a department of fight against child labour in 2006 and raised the minimum age for admission to employment from 14 to 16 years. This paper supports a critical view of global actions to fight child labour and discusses the complexities of this issue in Burkina Faso. Using an analysis of the State’s National Plan of Action on the elimination of child Labour and two local cases studies on projects that are aimed at removing children from their work, it shows how the local context of working children and their parents are ignored in order to comply with international policy agenda and to cater to donor demands. [less ▲]

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See detailCombating the dual burden: therapeutic targeting of common pathways in obesity and type 2 diabetes
SCHEEN, André ULg; Van Gaal, Luc

in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology (2014)

The increasing prevalence of obesity is contributing substantially to the ongoing epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Abdominal adiposity, a feature of ectopic fat syndrome, is associated with silent ... [more ▼]

The increasing prevalence of obesity is contributing substantially to the ongoing epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Abdominal adiposity, a feature of ectopic fat syndrome, is associated with silent inflammation, abnormal hormone secretion, and various metabolic disturbances that contribute to insulin resistance and insulin secretory defects, resulting in type 2 diabetes, and induce a toxic pattern that leads to cardiovascular disease, liver pathologies, and cancer. Despite the importance of weight control strategies in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, long-term results from lifestyle or drug interventions are generally disappointing. Furthermore, most of the classic glucose-lowering drugs have a side-effect of weight gain, which renders the management of most overweight or obese people with type 2 diabetes even more challenging. Many anti-obesity pharmacological drugs targeting central control of appetite were withdrawn from the market because of safety concerns. The gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor orlistat was the only anti-obesity drug available until the recent US, but not European, launch of phentermine–controlled-release topiramate and lorcaserin. Improved knowledge about bodyweight regulation opens new prospects for the potential use of peptides derived from the gut or the adipose tissue. Combination therapy will probably be necessary to avoid compensatory mechanisms and potentiate initial weight loss while avoiding weight regain. New glucose-lowering treatments, especially glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, offer advantages over traditional antidiabetic drugs by promoting weight loss while improving glucose control. In this Review, we explore the overlapping pathophysiology and also how various treatments can, alone or in combination, combat the dual burden of obesity and type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailCombien de litres de kérosène dans notre assiette?
Ozer, Pierre ULg; Perrin, Dominique ULg

Article for general public (2008)

L’aviation commerciale émet près de 5% des émissions mondiales de CO2 dues aux activités humaines. Sa part ne fait qu’augmenter et le développement de la mobilité internationale des biens et des personnes ... [more ▼]

L’aviation commerciale émet près de 5% des émissions mondiales de CO2 dues aux activités humaines. Sa part ne fait qu’augmenter et le développement de la mobilité internationale des biens et des personnes laisse présager une prolongation des tendances historiques de croissance du transport aérien. Avec comme conséquence, une assiette de plus en plus lourde en CO2 lorsque nos aliments proviennent de contrées lointaines par voie aérienne (kérosène). [less ▲]

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See detailCombinaison d'informations génomiques, phénotypiques et généalogiques
Vandenplas, Jérémie ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2013)

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