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See detailCharakterisierung von Vielstoffgemischen
Reiter, A M; Wallek, T; Mair-Zelenka, P et al

in Book of Abstracts zum 8. Minisymposium der Verfahrenstechnik, 54-56 (2012, May 02)

Peer Reviewed
See detailCharcoal production at mound kiln sites affects pedogenesis and soil capacity to stabilize organic carbon
Cornelis, Jean-Thomas ULg; hardy, Brieuc; Delvaux, Bruno et al

Conference (2011)

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See detailCharcoal records reveal past occurrences of perturbations in the forests of the Kisangani region(RDC): vegetation history of the semi-deciduous rainforest
Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Morin-Rivat, Julie ULg et al

Poster (2014, April 28)

Introduction. Past disturbances have modified the structure and the floristic composition of Central African rainforests. These perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they are ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Past disturbances have modified the structure and the floristic composition of Central African rainforests. These perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they are presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. Fire is a prominent forest disturbance, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. The question arises whether quantification, dating and botanical identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past disturbances. Material & methods. We organized pedoanthracological excavations in 6 regrowth sites and 48 sites of primary forests of Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole in the Kisangani (RDC). We performed a detailed sampling in different vegetation types of a semi -deciduous rainforest (Yoko). Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm. The charcoal was quantified whereby pottery fragments were also registered. A selection of charcoal fragments has been dated through AMS 14C measurement. Floristic identifications were conducted using. former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. Results. Charcoal was found in most pit intervals. The anthracomass in the soil of regrowth forests (secondary forests) is much higher than in the primary forest: 27,59 mg/kg for secondary forests et 2,53 mg/kg for primary forests. The specific soil anthracomass of the primary forest of the Yoko reserve is higher (7,7 mg/kg) than in Yangambi (1,9 mg/kg) , Masako (1,7 mg/kg) and Kole (0,8 mg/kg). No systematic differences have been found between soil charcoal content of the different forest type representing different forest histories. Gilbertiodendron dewevrei (De Wild.) J. Leonard forests showed surprisingly a higher concentration of soil charcoal. Discussion. Forest disturbances in the Kisangani region appear to be more recent than those in the Mayombe forest in Western RDC ( 3000-2000 calBP (Hubau, 2013)) and those of the Cameroon forest (2300-1300 calBP) (Morin-Rivat, J et al., 2014). Stratified charcoal conserved in the soil is a useful indicator of past forest disturbances. [less ▲]

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See detailThe charge conjugation quantum number in multiquark systems
Stancu, Floarea ULg

in AIP Conference Proceedings (2008), 1038

We discuss the charge conjugation quantum number for tetraquarks or meson‐meson molecules, seen as possible interpretations of the newly found XYZ charmonium‐like resonances.

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (4 ULg)
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See detailCharge critique et longueur de flambement des éléments à inertie variable et aux conditions d'extrémité élastiques
Latteur, Pierre ULg

in revue scientifique des Instituts supérieurs industriels francophones de Belgique (2001), 15

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See detailLa charge de confesseur princier au XVIIème siècle, une définition controversée
Pirlet, Pierre-François ULg

Conference (2014, June 05)

Si la mission d'un confesseur au début du XVIIème siècle est strictement définie par les textes canoniques du catholicisme comme celle d'un administrateur de sacrement, la définition des tâches revenant ... [more ▼]

Si la mission d'un confesseur au début du XVIIème siècle est strictement définie par les textes canoniques du catholicisme comme celle d'un administrateur de sacrement, la définition des tâches revenant au confesseur du Prince est étonnamment lâche. Du premier, on attendait qu'il jugeât les actes de son pénitent, propose une consolation – sous la forme d'exercices expiatoires – destinés à le réconcilier avec Dieu, et offre une direction spirituelle visant à prévenir les rechutes dans le péché. Mais confesser le Prince contraignait le religieux qui s’y attelait à un exercice bien plus complexe. Il lui revenait de juger et d'apporter une direction de conscience aux deux personnes du roi : l'humaine et l'institutionnelle. En effet, il eût été impossible de distinguer formellement l'âme du souverain de celle du mortel. De même, il échoyait au confesseur de conseiller son pénitent quant à l'aspect moral de ses décisions, que celles-ci n'impliquèrent que sa personne, ou au contraire l'ensemble des territoires et des sujets sous sa conduite. De cette difficulté naquit une controverse quant à l'implication nécessaire et raisonnable du confesseur princier dans les affaires temporelles : la papauté, les rois d'Espagne, les ecclésiastiques de cour madrilènes, les gouverneurs-généraux des Pays-Bas et les supérieurs des ordres religieux dont étaient issus les confesseurs – et particulièrement la Compagnie de Jésus – proposèrent tous une définition différente – et controversée – des prérogatives de ce religieux au cœur du pouvoir. En prenant appui sur la situation des confesseurs de la cour de Bruxelles durant la grande première moitié du XVIIème siècle, nous tâcherons au travers de cette communication de proposer un aperçu global des différentes définitions de la confession princière telles que défendues par les contemporains. Notre exposé proposera en outre un rapide regard sur les deux approches utilisées par les historiens pour reconstituer les différentes définitions de la charge : à la patiente collecte et à l'analyse des traces laissées dans les sources par l'activité au quotidien des confesseurs (approche bottom-up) se confronte une méthode cherchant une définition d'époque des prérogatives de ces religieux faisant autorité (approche top-down). Nous constaterons que ces deux approches, qui ne s'opposent pas, s’accommodent néanmoins difficilement l'une à l'autre, créant ainsi une controverse non plus dans l'objet, mais dans la méthode. [less ▲]

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See detailCharge de la preuve et théorie du contrôle en droit communautaire de la concurrence : pour un changement de perspective
Sibony, Anne-Lise ULg; Barbier de La Serre, Eric

in Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Européen (2007), (2), 205-252

Many authors have pointed to a lack of clarity in the existing case law of EC courts in the field of competition law regarding the allocation of the burden of proof, as well as the determination of the ... [more ▼]

Many authors have pointed to a lack of clarity in the existing case law of EC courts in the field of competition law regarding the allocation of the burden of proof, as well as the determination of the standard of proof. This article attempts to clarify the concepts underlying these questions, bearing in mind that the Court reasons in more than one language. It consists in three sections. The first section is of a theoretical nature. It shows how questions regarding the allocation of the burden of proof and judicial control are conceptualised differently in different legal traditions. It also attempts to clarify the notions of burden of proof, standard of proof and standard of control. With regard to these notions, as is often the case, EC case law appears to be a melting pot of different legal traditions. It is thus shown that notions originating both in the common law and in the civil law tradition are useful to understand EC case law in relation to the issues of proof and control. The second section is more descriptive. It states the current law and illustrates with examples from court cases the usefulness of the various notions defined in the first section. It leads to the conclusion that the common law notions of standard of proof and standard of control are not sufficient to understand the intensity of control applied by Community courts over Commission’s decisions. The third section proposes another description of judicial control, based on the notions of “scenario” (depicting the economic story line adduced by the Commission to account for anticompetitive effect) and “economic normality”, as perceived by judges. [less ▲]

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See detailLe chargé de relations partenariales et ses clients : premières pistes d'analyse
Remy, Céline ULg; Orianne, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2012, July 05)

Depuis quelques années en Belgique, SPE et opérateurs privés de placement sont invités, à la demande des institutions européennes, à collaborer étroitement dans le cadre de « partenariats publics-privés » ... [more ▼]

Depuis quelques années en Belgique, SPE et opérateurs privés de placement sont invités, à la demande des institutions européennes, à collaborer étroitement dans le cadre de « partenariats publics-privés », suivant une logique de gestion mixte du marché de l’emploi. Ainsi, les SPE ont récemment développé une nouvelle ligne de services spécialisés dans la construction et la gestion de partenariats d’insertion et de formation. Au sein de ces nouveaux services, des « chargés de relations partenariales » ont pour mission de sélectionner des projets de collaboration et de suivre les actions réalisées, dans le cadre de ces projets, par les partenaires (privés et associatifs) en charge des demandeurs d’emploi. L’objectif de cette communication est de décrire les différentes manières dont se nouent et se développent ces relations partenariales. Plus précisément, nous nous centrerons sur les formes par lesquelles la confiance s’exprime dans les interactions entre chargés de relations partenariales et opérateurs d’insertion socioprofessionnelle. Nous nous appuierons sur une recherche de terrain menée conjointement dans deux services publics de l’emploi belges. Le matériau empirique se compose principalement d’entretiens semi-directifs de chargés de relations partenariales et d’opérateurs d’insertion, ainsi que de nombreuses observations d’interactions. Ces deux études de cas seront analysées à l’aune d’une sociologie de la confiance et de la sociologie des groupes professionnels. Nous tenterons de mettre en évidence les significations et usages multiples de la confiance comme autant d’éléments qui constituent et régulent les interactions entre le professionnel et son client. [less ▲]

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See detailLe chargé des relations partenariales et ses clients : significations et usages de la confiance
Remy, Céline ULg; Orianne, Jean-François ULg

in Revue Européenne du Droit Social (2013), 20(3), 67-98

For some years now in Belgium, the public employment services and the private operators have been invited at the request of European institutions to work closely within the framework of "public-private ... [more ▼]

For some years now in Belgium, the public employment services and the private operators have been invited at the request of European institutions to work closely within the framework of "public-private partnerships", following a logic of joint management of the labor market. As a result, the public employment services have recently developed a new line of specialized services in building and managing partnership for training and socioprofessional reintegration of job seekers. Within these new services, the "Partnership Managers" are in charge of selecting collaborative projects and following the support and training undertaken by the partners (both profit and non-profit) in charge of job seekers. The objective of this paper is to describe the different ways to forge and develop these partnerships. More specifically, we will focus on the manners in which trust is expressed in the interactions between the individuals in charge of the partnerships, that is to say, the "professionals", and private operators, who are their "clients". [less ▲]

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See detailCharge distribution in 3'-deoxythymidine-fullerene: Mass spectrometry, laser excitation, and computational studies
Greisch, Jean-François ULg; Weinkauf, R.; De Pauw, Edwin ULg et al

in Israel Journal of Chemistry (2007), 47(1), 25-35

Electrospray ionization of the donor-spacer-acceptor model system 3'-imino[60]fulleryl-3'-deoxythymidine molecule (FdT) produces deprotonated negatively charged species (dFdT). In this paper, we ... [more ▼]

Electrospray ionization of the donor-spacer-acceptor model system 3'-imino[60]fulleryl-3'-deoxythymidine molecule (FdT) produces deprotonated negatively charged species (dFdT). In this paper, we investigate where the negative charge is localized and whether its location can be manipulated. The fragmentation of dFdT is studied experimentally by mass spectrometry using both collisional and photoactivation. Besides fragmentation, photoexcitation of anions stored in an ion trap leads to electron photodetachment. The competition between the two channels is studied as a function of the excitation wavelength. Starting from the neutral parents, two families of dFdT molecules are computationally identified. Deprotonation takes place on the 3'-deoxythymidine (dT) subunit, either on the thymine at N3 or on the deoxyribose residue at O5'. Deprotonation in N3 leads to negatively charged molecules with an extended geometry and the excess charge largely localized on the dT. The O5'-deprotonation leads to lower-energy folded conformers stabilized by an additional bond (C-O or C-H) with the nearby C-60-N acceptor part, and the negative charge is mostly localized on the fullerene. The calculated electron detachment energies are higher for the extended N3dFdT conformers than for the O5'dFdT ones. Multiphoton photodetachment experiments at 1064 nm indicate the negative charge to be on the C-60 unit. No indication for a photoinduced charge transfer was found. In MS beside the C-60 anion a C60NH, - fragment is observed, which implies a double intramolecular H transfer. The computed energy of the corresponding dFdT, stabilized by two H-C-60 bonds, is intermediate between N3 and O5' deprotonated molecules. [less ▲]

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See detailCharge et modalité : apport ou transfert dans une structure patrimoniale
Dehalleux, Virginie ULg

in Leleu, Yves-Henri; Verbeke, Alain; Taymans, Jean-François (Eds.) et al Manuel de planification patrimoniale (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (14 ULg)
See detailCharge et modalité : interdiction de partager (maintien en indivision)
Dehalleux, Virginie ULg

in Leleu, Yves-Henri; Verbeke, Alain; Taymans, Jean-François (Eds.) et al Manuel de planification patrimoniale (2010)

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (8 ULg)
See detailCharge et modalité : rente périodique au profit d'un tiers
Dehalleux, Virginie ULg

in Leleu, Yves-Henri; Verbeke, Alain; Taymans, Jean-François (Eds.) et al Manuel de Planification patrimoniale (2010)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (7 ULg)
See detailCharge et modalité : rente périodique au profit d'un tiers - indexation/plafond
Dehalleux, Virginie ULg

in Leleu, Yves-Henri; Verbeke, Alain; Taymans, Jean-François (Eds.) et al Manuel de planification patrimoniale (2010)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg)
See detailCharge et modalité : soins, logement et entretien d'un tiers
Dehalleux, Virginie ULg

in Leleu, Yves-Henri; Verbeke, Alain; Taymans, Jean-François (Eds.) et al Manuel de planification patrimoniale (2010)

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See detailCharge exchange in tandem mass spectrometry: dissociative single electron capture by doubly-charged toluene cations
Fati, D.; Leyh, Bernard ULg

in European Journal of Mass Spectrometry (Chichester, England) (2003), 9(4), 223-235

Single electron capture by doubly-charged toluene cations upon collision with various target gases has been investigated by sector tandem mass spectrometry. Both non-dissociative and dissociative charge ... [more ▼]

Single electron capture by doubly-charged toluene cations upon collision with various target gases has been investigated by sector tandem mass spectrometry. Both non-dissociative and dissociative charge transfer reactions leading to C(7)H(7)(+) + H and to C(5)H(5)(+) + [C(2),H(3)] are detected. Seven atomic or molecular target gases have been used with ionisation energies ranging from 8.8 eV to 14 eV. The branching ratios between the different non-dissociative and dissociative exit channels have been determined as well as the translational energy release on the dissociation products. The experimental data are compared to the predictions of a two-state semi-classical theoretical model that takes into account the non-adiabatic transition responsible for the charge transfer reaction. A wide reaction window shows up but the internal energies of the C(7)H(8)(+) cations produced by single electron capture are observed to be larger than expected. We assign this effect partly to the influence of the large density of vibrational states and to the multichannel nature of the process. Excited states of the dication are also most probably involved in the charge exchange reaction. [less ▲]

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