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See detailThe challenge of understanding myopathies in horses using permeabilized muscle cells
Votion, Dominique ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Ceusters, Justine ULg et al

in In proceedings 9th Conference on Mitochondrial Physiology (2013, September)

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See detailChallenge testing with Brochothrix thermosphacta on minced pork meat shows interest to couple metagenetics to metabolomics to study food spoilage
Baré, Ghislain ULg; Cauchie, Emilie ULg; Leenders, Justine ULg et al

Poster (2016, July)

The spoilage of perishable foods is mainly caused by bacterial activity. The risk of unwanted bacterial growth is particularly high in the minced pork meat. In this work, the natural microbial ... [more ▼]

The spoilage of perishable foods is mainly caused by bacterial activity. The risk of unwanted bacterial growth is particularly high in the minced pork meat. In this work, the natural microbial contaminants of the minced pork meat were followed by 16S ribosomal DNA deep sequencing (metagenetics) during aging tests at different temperatures. Brochothrix thermosphacta MM008 strain was selected as one of the main contaminants responsible for the spoilage of the meat. Minced pork meat previously sterilized by gamma irradiation was inoculated with B. thermosphacta MM008 for challenge tests measuring growth and then incubated at different temperatures. Minced meat samples were taken and analyzed by H-NMR 1D at time 0 and at final time (from 14 to 19 days, depending on the incubation temperature). Orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that samples, regardless of the incubation temperature, could be splitted into 3 groups according to their spectral profile: 1) samples taken at time 0, 2) samples inoculated with B. thermosphacta and taken at final time, 3) samples uninoculated, taken at final time. From the analysis of the metabolomics data, higher concentrations of glycerol, glucose, taurine, lactate, carnitine, betaine and glycine were identified in the samples of uninoculated minced pork meat and an increased production of creatine, acetate and acetone was found in the samples of minced pork meat inoculated with B. thermosphacta MM008. These observations showed that -omics technologies (metagenetics and metabolomics) could be used conclusively to study microbial spoilage of minced pork meat. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenge with lipopolysaccharides or Freund's adjuvant? What is the best option to trigger acute phase protein production in broilers?
Koppenol, A.; Everaert, Nadia ULg; Buyse, J. et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2015), 99

Broilers were injected at 10 days of age with either Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or with Freund's adjuvants (FA) to investigate its triggering effect on the acute phase reaction (APR ... [more ▼]

Broilers were injected at 10 days of age with either Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or with Freund's adjuvants (FA) to investigate its triggering effect on the acute phase reaction (APR). First the kinetics of certain APP was studied by sampling blood 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h post injection with LPS. Ovotransferrin (OVT) and ?-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentration increased with time post injection (PI) with LPS to reach a plateau at 12 and 24 h PI. Caeruloplasmin (CP) did not increase with time PI. Compared to injection with phosphate buffered saline, OVT concentrations were higher when injecting chicks with LPS at all time points PI. At 24 h PI, LPS injection resulted in higher OVT and AGP concentration compared to injection with FA. It is recommended to use LPS instead of FA to trigger the APR. The best time point to sample blood for APP determination is 24 h PI. � 2015 Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges and controversies in the treatment of prolactinomas
VROONEN, Laurent ULg; Daly, Adrian ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg

in Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism (2014), 9(6), 593-604

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See detailChallenges and opportunities in genome-wide environmental interaction (GWEI) studies.
Aschard, Hugues; Lutz, Sharon; Maus, Bärbel ULg et al

in Human Genetics (2012), 131

The interest in performing gene-environment interaction studies has seen a significant increase with the increase of advanced molecular genetics techniques. Practically, it became possible to investigate ... [more ▼]

The interest in performing gene-environment interaction studies has seen a significant increase with the increase of advanced molecular genetics techniques. Practically, it became possible to investigate the role of environmental factors in disease risk and hence to investigate their role as genetic effect modifiers. The understanding that genetics is important in the uptake and metabolism of toxic substances is an example of how genetic profiles can modify important environmental risk factors to disease. Several rationales exist to set up gene-environment interaction studies and the technical challenges related to these studies-when the number of environmental or genetic risk factors is relatively small-has been described before. In the post-genomic era, it is now possible to study thousands of genes and their interaction with the environment. This brings along a whole range of new challenges and opportunities. Despite a continuing effort in developing efficient methods and optimal bioinformatics infrastructures to deal with the available wealth of data, the challenge remains how to best present and analyze genome-wide environmental interaction (GWEI) studies involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. Since GWEIs are performed at the intersection of statistical genetics, bioinformatics and epidemiology, usually similar problems need to be dealt with as for genome-wide association gene-gene interaction studies. However, additional complexities need to be considered which are typical for large-scale epidemiological studies, but are also related to "joining" two heterogeneous types of data in explaining complex disease trait variation or for prediction purposes. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges for Biomarker Discovery in Body Fluids Using SELDI-TOF-MS
De Bock, Muriel ULg; De Seny, Dominique ULg; Meuwis, Marie-Alice ULg et al

in Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology (2009)

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See detailChallenges for imaging and therapy of musculoskeletal tumours
COOK, GARY; HUSTINX, Roland ULg

in Clinical and Translational Imaging (2015)

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See detailChallenges for Scale-Up of Batch Phase Separation
Pfennig, Andreas ULg; Becker, Karsten; Bach, S. et al

Conference (2015, September 10)

Bi-phasic phase separations in batch processes often are operations which influence cycle times and production capacity. A realistic assessment of phase separation time for technical scale is important ... [more ▼]

Bi-phasic phase separations in batch processes often are operations which influence cycle times and production capacity. A realistic assessment of phase separation time for technical scale is important with respect to defining vessel sizes, process step-time planning and an optimized adaption to further process steps. This requires a rating of batch mixing & phase-separation at an early step of chemical-process development in laboratory and a robust scale-up to the technical scale. Currently available methods for design and optimization of such batch phaseseparations show gaps in knowledge and in transfer from laboratory to technical scale. Up to now it is not possible to trustfully predict mean drop diameter or dropsize distribution for technical relevant bi-phasic systems in technical scale based on laboratory tests. These are one of the key inputs to describe phase separation behavior, i.e. sedimentation and coalescence. The prediction of drop-size distribution after scale-up is important, since a remaining turbidity is significantly influenced by these. In addition systems with higher viscosity show wider drop-size distributions and tendency of turbidity will increase. The specific industrial demand for a safe and validated scale-up method will be discussed. Aspects are an integral general scale-up method for batch mixing and phase separation, starting with standardized characterization of mixing and phaseseparation behavior in lab and development of a scale-up method in order to evaluate relevant aspects as equipment and mixing device, energy input, mixing time, phase separation time, height of dispersion etc. For modelling the performance of a batch settling accounting for polydisperse dropsize spectra, the model of Henschke has been chosen as starting point, which accounts for different average drop sizes. The Henschke model has been extended as to include the sedimentation of drops with polydisperse drop-size distribution according to the ReDrop approach (representative drops) by modelling an ensemble of individual drops as they sediment and reach the close-packed layer. In principle coalescence of the sedimenting droplets could be accounted for in this approach, but this has been neglected in this first step. The Henschke model already accounts for the time- and height-dependent average drop sizes in the close-packed layer. This has been extended as to allow taking the different drop sizes into account of those drops that are arriving at the close-packed layer over time. The coalescence in the close-packed layer is described with the approach used already by Henschke, which has been validated in principle by Kopriwa. The results show that the polydispersity can well be described by this approach (see Fig. 1). Especially – as is to be expected – the major phase separation occurs relatively quickly leaving behind fine droplets in the continuous phase. Since this remaining turbidity has a relatively low holdup, the sedimentation of the fine dispersion occurs essentially with the sedimentation velocity of droplets in infinitely extended medium. As a consequence the remaining turbidity as function of settling time can be estimated with relatively good accuracy from the fraction of the fine droplets in the original dispersion and their individual sedimentation velocity. It can also be seen that the close-packed layer disappears after a certain settling time and after that the rate of the arriving droplets is smaller than the time for their coalescence. The open questions remaining will finally be addressed, namely the prediction of the drop-size distribution after the mixing step, the detailed drop behavior within the close packed layer as well as the influence of large-scale fluid dynamics within the settler. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges for Scale-Up of Batch Separations
Pfennig, Andreas ULg; Becker, Karsten; Bach, S. et al

in Chemie Ingenieur Technik (2015), 87(8), 1051

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See detailChallenges for the development of bone forming agents in Europe: introduction
Kanis, JA; Rizzoli, R; Cooper, C et al

in Osteoporosis International (2014), 25(2), 66-67

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See detailChallenges for the Development of Bone-Forming Agents in Europe.
Kanis, John A.; Rizzoli, Rene; Cooper, Cyrus et al

in Calcified tissue international (2014), 94

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See detailChallenges for the restoration of dry calcareous grasslands in quarries: does nature need help?
Pitz, Carline ULg; Piqueray, Julien; Harzé, Mélanie ULg et al

Conference (2015, August 26)

In order to maximize the biodiversity potential of dry calcareous grasslands in former quarries two options are available to managers: (i) allow species to spontaneously recolonize the site, (ii ... [more ▼]

In order to maximize the biodiversity potential of dry calcareous grasslands in former quarries two options are available to managers: (i) allow species to spontaneously recolonize the site, (ii) implement technical support for ecosystem restoration. This study aimed at characterizing the spontaneous communities established in dry area of unexploited quarries and at comparing communities encountered to the succession panel of dry grasslands. To evaluate the ecological succession in quarries, three successional stages where defined: (i) less than three years; (ii) three to 20 years; and (iii) more than 20 years after exploitation. For each successional stage, six parcels were selected and 20 1m2 plots were randomly marked in each parcel. All selected parcels presented dry grasslands abiotic conditions: filtering and stony soils and south orientation. During the 2014 vegetation period, percentage cover of higher plant species was recorded in each plot. Explaining environmental variables including coordinates, altitude, slope (degrees), soil depth, exposure, maximum vegetation height, bare ground cover, moss cover, and shrub cover (%) were measured. Our main results showed that, over decades of time, the ecological succession in dry area of unexploited quarries does not approach a typical formation of dry calcareous grassland. Most recolonizations tended to form meadows communities, except for three sites belonging to a specific landscape context. Potential implications for future quarries restoration will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges in identifying the beneficiaries of the poverty reduction strategy in Northern Mountains of Vietnam: the case of Xuan Phong and Tu Ly communes, Hoa Binh Province
Mai, Lan Phuong ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in International Journal of Research In Social Sciences (2013), 3(3), 38-51

In many developing countries, poverty alleviation programs have been implemented since the 1980’s and 1990’s, and will be continued into the next decades. The emerging question is why “poverty issues” ... [more ▼]

In many developing countries, poverty alleviation programs have been implemented since the 1980’s and 1990’s, and will be continued into the next decades. The emerging question is why “poverty issues” still exist for such a long time and do challenge not only the Vietnamese government but also many countries all over the world. One may ask if poverty reduction strategies, applied in Vietnam and other countries, are suited to the real poverty situation, and if they are sustainable. This paper is based on a research to investigate the nature of government’s interventions as a “poverty reduction strategy”, at Tu Ly and Xuan Phong communes in Hoa Binh province. Vietnam’s official poverty identification method and participatory poverty assessment of people are applied. This study does claim that the currently “inappropriate definition of poverty” is one of keys problems at the roots of the lack of obvious success of the ongoing strategy. [less ▲]

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