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See detailClostridium difficile in young farm animals and slaughter animals in Belgium
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Vandebroek, Johan et al

in Anaerobe (2012), 18(6), 621-625

Faecal carriage of Clostridium difficile in healthy animals has been reported recently, especially in piglets and calves. However there is limited data about carriage in animals just prior to slaughter in ... [more ▼]

Faecal carriage of Clostridium difficile in healthy animals has been reported recently, especially in piglets and calves. However there is limited data about carriage in animals just prior to slaughter in Europe. The main objective of this study was to determine the presence of C. difficile in pigs and cattle at the slaughterhouse. C. difficile was isolated in 6.9% of the cattle at the slaughterhouse. None of the pig slaughter samples were positive for C. difficile after an enrichment time of 72 h. For complementary data, a short study was conducted in piglets and calves at farms. C. difficile was more prevalent in piglets (78.3%) than in calves (22.2%) on the farms. Regarding the piglet samples, 27.8% of the positive samples were detected without enrichment of stools. The PCR ribotype 078 was predominant in farm animals. Samples isolated from slaughter cattle presented the widest range in PCR-ribotype variety, and the most prevalent PCR ribotype was 118a UCL. The results of this study confirm that C. difficile is present in slaughter animals in Belgium with a large percentage of toxigenic strains also commonly found in humans. [less ▲]

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See detailClostridium difficile: an emerging zoonotic pathogen ?
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Avesani, Véronique et al

Conference (2013, November 21)

Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that remains the main cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in humans after use of antibiotics. C. difficile has also been described in other ... [more ▼]

Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that remains the main cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in humans after use of antibiotics. C. difficile has also been described in other environments outside of hospitals, such as soil, river and seawater samples (Pasquale et al., 2011) and in animals, in which it can also cause enteric disease (Songer and Anderson, 2006). The possibility of transmission of C. difficile pathogenic isolates between animals, environments and humans has been suggested (Janezic et al., 2012). In recent years, the interest in C. difficile in food and in food animals has increased, leading to studying animals as a possible reservoir and a potential risk for food borne infections linked to C. difficile. Studies in various countries have determined differences in the prevalence of C. difficile in animals just before slaughter (Houser et al., 2012; Rodriguez et al., 2012) as well as in retail meat (Houser et al., 2012). In addition, many types, including PCR-ribotype 078, are present in humans, animals and meat (Janezic et al.; Weese et al., 2009). The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of C. difficile at the slaughterhouse and in retail meat. Intestinal and carcass samples were collected from pigs and cattle at a single slaughterhouse. Raw meat (beef and pork) was obtained from the retail trade. C. difficile was isolated in 1% and 9.9% of the pig and cattle intestinal contents and in 7.9% and 7% of cattle and pig carcass samples respectively. From retail meat, C. difficile was recovered from 2.3% of the beef samples and from 4.7% of the pork samples. A total of 21 different PCR-ribotypes were identified with a large percentage of types 078 and 014. This study confirms that animals are carriers of C. difficile at slaughter, and that carcass contamination occurs inside the slaughterhouse. Furthermore the results obtained also reveal the presence of toxigenic C. difficile in retail meat in Belgium with a predominance of isolates correlated with the PCR-ribotypes involved in human C. difficile infections. [less ▲]

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See detailClostridium difficile: méthodes de diagnostic microbiologique.
HUYNEN, Pascale ULg

Conference (2012, November 20)

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See detailClostridium enterotoxemie bij kalveren
Mainil, Jacques ULg

Scientific conference (1999, April)

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See detailClostridium perfringens et pathologies digestives.
Daube, Georges ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1992), 136

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See detailClostridium perfringens hip arthritis in a haemodialysis patient.
Ho, T. T.; Labriola, L.; JOURET, François ULg et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2012), 67(1), 49-50

Haemodialysis patients have acquired immunity disturbances, co-morbidities and a vascular access, factors predisposing them to infection and bacteraemia. Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic bacterium ... [more ▼]

Haemodialysis patients have acquired immunity disturbances, co-morbidities and a vascular access, factors predisposing them to infection and bacteraemia. Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic bacterium potentially causing severe infections, including rarely septic arthritis. We report the first case of Clostridium perfringens septic arthritis in a haemodialysis patient and suggest a haematogenous spread. After rapid joint lavage combined with appropriate anti-microbial therapy, the patient recovered. [less ▲]

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See detailClostridium perfringens urease genes are plasmid-borne.
Dupuy, B.; Daube, Georges ULg; Popoff, M. R. et al

in Infection and Immunity (1997), 65

Although many bacteria are ureolytic, and in some cases urease acts as a virulence factor, the urease phenotype has not been analyzed in the anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens. In this study, ;2 ... [more ▼]

Although many bacteria are ureolytic, and in some cases urease acts as a virulence factor, the urease phenotype has not been analyzed in the anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens. In this study, ;2% of C. perfringens strains, representing the principal biotypes, were found to harbor the urease structural genes, ureABC, and these were localized on large plasmids that often encode, in addition, the lethal « or i toxins or the enterotoxin. This represents the first report of a plasmid-encoded urease in a gram-positive bacterium. The C. perfringens enzyme was highly similar to the ureases of other bacteria and cross-reacted with antibodies raised against the urease purified from Helicobacter pylori. Urease production was inhibited by urea and induced under growth conditions where the availability of nitrogen sources was limiting. To date, this form of regulation has been observed only for chromosomal ureABC genes. [less ▲]

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See detailClostridium spiroforme toxin genes are related to C. perfringens iota toxin genes but have a different genomic localization.
Gilbert, M.; Perelle, S.; Daube, Georges ULg et al

in Systematic & Applied Microbiology (1997), 20

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See detailClosure of "a unified approach to transient stability contingency filtering, ranking, and assessment"
Ernst, Damien ULg; Ruiz-Vega, Daniel; Pavella, Mania ULg et al

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (2002), 17(2), 528-529

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See detailClosure to "Energy Dissipation and Turbulent Production in Weak Hydraulic Jumps" by E. Mignot and R. Cienfuegos
Mignot, E.; Peltier, Yann ULg; Cienfuegos, R.

in Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (2011), 137(8), 862-863

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See detailClosure to “Parapet Wall Effect on Piano Key Weir Efficiency”
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Machiels, Olivier; Pirotton, Michel ULg et al

in Journal of Irrigation & Drainage Engineering (2014)

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See detailClotridial hydrogenases and the biohydrogen production
Calusinska, Magdalena ULg; Hamilton, Christopher ULg; Masset, Julien ULg et al

Poster (2010, July 01)

Among the large variety of microorganisms capable of fermentative hydrogen production, strict anaerobes such as Clostridium spp. are one of the most widely studied. They produce hydrogen by butyric and ... [more ▼]

Among the large variety of microorganisms capable of fermentative hydrogen production, strict anaerobes such as Clostridium spp. are one of the most widely studied. They produce hydrogen by butyric and mixed-acid fermentations at optimal pH values ranging from 4.5 to 5.5. While fermentative conditions such as substrate type, pH, hydraulic and solid retention time, H2 partial pressure and the concentration of acids produced have been extensively studied and optimized, relatively little is known about the different forms of hydrogenases present in clostridia. Building on previous reports [1, 2] and by analyzing sequenced genomes, we found that [FeFe] hydrogenases are not a homogenous group of enzymes, but exist in multiple forms with different modular structures and are especially abundant in Clostridum spp. [3]. However, among the numerous studies performed on fermentative hydrogen production by Clostridium sp., only a few are specifically concerned with hydrogenases. Even there the authors focus on one type of [FeFe] hydrogenase, (CpI-like) without considering the existence of multiple forms of this enzyme within one species. Therefore, we focused our research on the better characterization of different forms of hydrogenases present in the genus Clostridium. Using newly designed degenerate primers, specific for clostridial hydrogenases, we amplified different hydrogenases from our species of interest. Further, by designing specific qPCR assays we have quantitatively targeted different hydrogenases. By analyzing differential gene expression, according to applied growth conditions, we believe to optimize the hydrogen production process in order to achieve better production rates. To conclude, we think that a a precise knowledge of hydrogen metabolism and hydrogenases is essential to optimization of the biohydrogen production process and should therefore be a goal for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailClou de rue chez le cheval
Gabriel, Annick ULg; Verwilghen, Denis ULg; Hontoir, F et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2011), 155

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See detailCloud filling of ocean colour and sea surface temperature remote sensing products over the Southern North Sea by the Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions methodology.
Sirjacobs, Damien ULg; Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg et al

in Journal of Sea Research (2011), 65(1), 114-130

Optical remote sensing data is now being used systematically for marine ecosystem applications, such as the forcing of biological models and the operational detection of harmful algae blooms. However ... [more ▼]

Optical remote sensing data is now being used systematically for marine ecosystem applications, such as the forcing of biological models and the operational detection of harmful algae blooms. However, applications are hampered by the incompleteness of imagery and by some quality problems. The Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions methodology (DINEOF) allows calculation of missing data in geophysical datasets without requiring a priori knowledge about statistics of the full data set and has previously been applied to SST reconstructions. This study demonstrates the reconstruction of complete space-time information for 4 years of surface chlorophyll a (CHL), total suspended matter (TSM) and sea surface temperature (SST) over the Southern North Sea (SNS) and English Channel (EC). Optimal reconstructions were obtained when synthesising the original signal into 8 modes for MERIS CHL and into 18 modes for MERIS TSM. Despite the very high proportion of missing data (70%), the variability of original signals explained by the EOF synthesis reached 93.5 % for CHL and 97.2 % for TSM. For the MODIS TSM dataset, 97.5 % of the original variability of the signal was synthesised into 14 modes. The MODIS SST dataset could be synthesised into 13 modes explaining 98 % of the input signal variability. Validation of the method is achieved for 3 dates below 2 artificial clouds, by comparing reconstructed data with excluded input information. Complete weekly and monthly averaged climatologies, suitable for use with ecosystem models, were derived from regular daily reconstructions. Error maps associated with every reconstruction were produced according to Beckers et al. (2006) [6]. Embedded in this error calculation scheme, a methodology was implemented to produce maps of outliers, allowing identification of unusual or suspicious data points compared to the global dynamics of the dataset. Various algorithms artefacts were associated with high values in the outlier maps (undetected cloud edges, haze areas, contrails, cloud shadows). With the production of outlier maps, the data reconstruction technique becomes also a very efficient tool for quality control of optical remote sensing data and for change detection within large databases. [less ▲]

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See detailCloud filling of total suspended matter, chlorophyll and sea surface temperature remote sensing products by the Data Interpolation with Empirical Orthogonal Functions methodology, application to the BELCOLOUR-1 database
Sirjacobs, Damien ULg; Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg et al

in ESA Special Publication SP666 (2008, September)

Space-time filling of the gaps in satellite data archives is an important step for the improvement of various marine ecosystem studies. The Data Interpolation with Empirical Orthogonal Functions ... [more ▼]

Space-time filling of the gaps in satellite data archives is an important step for the improvement of various marine ecosystem studies. The Data Interpolation with Empirical Orthogonal Functions methodology (DINEOF) allows calculating missing data in geophysical datasets without requiring a priori knowledge about statistics of the full data set [1]. It was successfully applied to SST reconstructions as in [1] and [2]. Here, the DINEOF reconstruction method is applied to surface chlorophyll a (CHL), total suspended matter (TSM) and sea surface temperature (SST) data over the Southern North Sea and English Channel obtained from the BELCOLOUR archive. 1. Beckers, J.-M. and Rixen, M. (2003). EOF Calculations and Data Filling from Incomplete Oceanographic Datasets. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 20:18391856. 2. Alvera-Azcárate, A., Barth, A., Rixen, M. and Beckers, J.-M. (2005). Reconstruction of incomplete oceanographic data sets using Empirical Orthogonal Functions. Application to the Adriatic Sea surface temperature. Ocean Modelling, 9:325–346. [less ▲]

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See detailCloud-free satellite data for operational applications using DINEOF
Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Sirjacobs, Damien ULg et al

Conference (2010, February 24)

DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions) is an EOF-based technique to reconstruct missing data in satellite data sets, such as gaps created by the presence of clouds. It is parameter ... [more ▼]

DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions) is an EOF-based technique to reconstruct missing data in satellite data sets, such as gaps created by the presence of clouds. It is parameter-free, meaning that no a priori information is needed (such as signal to noise ratio, or correlation length) to calculate the missing data: this information is extracted from the data through the EOF decomposition. In addition, computational time is lower than for other frequently used techniques to reconstruct missing data in satellites, such as optimal interpolation. Multivariate reconstructions can be also done, using extended EOFs. These characteristics make DINEOF very suitable for operational reconstruction of satellite data. Recently added to DINEOF is a technique to filter the temporal covariance matrix which allows to reduce spurious variability in the temporal EOFs, and therefore leads to improved reconstructions. We will present a general description of the technology, with examples of applications to different variables. We will also give an example of a near real time reconstruction of sea surface temperature in the western Mediterranean Sea. Conceived as a demonstration product for DINEOF, it is hosted at http://gher-diva.phys.ulg.ac.be/DINEOF/dineof.html and it is automatically updated daily, presenting the cloud-free sea surface temperature for the last ten days, as well as the original data, outliers and error fields. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Clover Leaf Quasar H1413+117: New Photometric Light Curves
Remy, M.; Gosset, Eric ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg et al

in Kochanek, C. S.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N (Eds.) Astrophysical applications of gravitational lensing: proceedings of the 173rd Symposium of the International Astronomical Union (1996)

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See detailThe cloverleaf quasar H1413+117: a preliminary light curve
Arnould, P.; Remy, M.; Gosset, Eric ULg et al

in Surdej, Jean; Fraipont-Caro, Denise; Gosset, Eric (Eds.) et al The proceedings of the 31st Liège International Astrophysical Colloquium "Gravitational lenses in the Universe" (1993)

The cloverleaf quasar H1413+117 was discovered to be a gravitational lens system in 1988. Since then, it has been photometrically monitored essentially as part of the ESO key-program Gravitational lensing ... [more ▼]

The cloverleaf quasar H1413+117 was discovered to be a gravitational lens system in 1988. Since then, it has been photometrically monitored essentially as part of the ESO key-program Gravitational lensing: we present here a first preliminary lightcurve for its four individual images. [less ▲]

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