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See detailChromatographic, Spectrometric and NMR Characterization of a New Set of Glucuronic Acid Esters Synthesized by Lipase
Moreau, Benoît; Lognay, Georges ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2007), 11(1), 9-17

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See detailChromatographie en phase gazeuse des triglycérides d'une graisse butyrique
Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg; Deroanne, Claude ULg; Séverin, Michel

in Revue Française des Corps Gras (1979), 4

En testant notamment différentes phases stationnaires résistantes aux très hautes températures et plusieurs supports nous avons pu améliorer la séparation chromatographique des triglycérides, en fonction ... [more ▼]

En testant notamment différentes phases stationnaires résistantes aux très hautes températures et plusieurs supports nous avons pu améliorer la séparation chromatographique des triglycérides, en fonction de leur nombre total de carbone, en vue d'augmenter la précision des analyses. Les résultats de ces analyses sont indispensables pour déterminer convenablement la structure des triglycérides suivant une nouvelle méthode que nous avons proposée en 1977. [less ▲]

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See detailChromatography in the detection and characterisation of illegal pharmaceutical preparations
Deconinck, Eric; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; Courselle, Patricia et al

in Journal of Chromatographic Science (2013), 51(8), 791-806

Counterfeit and illegal pharmaceutical products are an increasing worldwide problem and constitute a major challenge for analytical laboratories to detect and characterize them. Spectroscopic techniques ... [more ▼]

Counterfeit and illegal pharmaceutical products are an increasing worldwide problem and constitute a major challenge for analytical laboratories to detect and characterize them. Spectroscopic techniques as infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were always the first methods of choice to detect counterfeits and illegal preparations, but due to the evolution in the products seized and the necessity of risk assessment, chromatographic methods are becoming more important in this domain. This review intends to give a general overview of the techniques described in literature to characterize counterfeit and illegal pharmaceutical preparations, focussing on the role of chromatographic techniques, with different detection tools. [less ▲]

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See detailChromera velia, Endosymbioses and the Rhodoplex Hypothesis - Plastid Evolution in Cryptophytes, Alveolates, Stramenopiles and Haptophytes (CASH Lineages)
Petersen, Jörn; Ludewig, Ann-Kathrin; Michael, Victoria et al

in Genome Biology and Evolution (2014)

The discovery of Chromera velia, a free-living photosynthetic relative of apicomplexan pathogens, has provided an unexpected opportunity to study the algal ancestry of malaria parasites. In this work we ... [more ▼]

The discovery of Chromera velia, a free-living photosynthetic relative of apicomplexan pathogens, has provided an unexpected opportunity to study the algal ancestry of malaria parasites. In this work we compared the molecular footprints of a eukaryote-to-eukaryote endosymbiosis in C. velia to their equivalents in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates (PCD) to re- evaluate recent claims in favor of a common ancestry of their plastids. To this end, we established the draft genome and a set of full-length cDNA sequences from C. velia via next- generation sequencing. We documented the presence of a single coxI gene in the mitochondrial genome, which thus represents the genetically most reduced aerobic organelle identified so far, but focused our analyses on five “lucky genes” of the Calvin cycle. These were selected because of their known support for a common origin of complex plastids from cryptophytes, alveolates (represented by PCDs), stramenopiles and haptophytes (CASH) via a single secondary endosymbiosis with a red alga. As expected, our broadly sampled phylogenies of the nuclear- encoded Calvin cycle markers support a rhodophycean origin for the complex plastid of Chromera. However, they also suggest an independent origin of apicomplexan and dinophycean (PCD) plastids via two eukaryote-to-eukaryote endosymbioses. Although at odds with the current view of a common photosynthetic ancestry for alveolates, this conclusion is nonetheless in line with the deviant plastome architecture in dinoflagellates and the morphological paradox of four versus three plastid membranes in the respective lineages. Further support for independent endosymbioses is provided by analysis of five additional markers, four of them involved in the plastid protein import machinery. Finally, we introduce the “rhodoplex hypothesis” as a convenient way to designate evolutionary scenarios where CASH plastids are ultimately the product of a single secondary endosymbiosis with a red alga, but were subsequently horizontally spread via higher-order eukaryote-to-eukaryote endosymbioses. [less ▲]

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See detailCHROMOGENIC DEPSIPEPTIDE SUBSTRATES FOR BETA-LACTAMASES AND PENICILLIN-SENSITIVE DD-PEPTIDASES
Adam, M.; Damblon, Christian ULg; PLAITIN, B. et al

in Biochemical Journal (1990), 270(2), 525-529

Various ester and thioester derivatives of hippuric acid have been prepared which were substrates of both beta-lactamases and DD-peptidases. The thioesters were more rapidly hydrolysed by nearly all the ... [more ▼]

Various ester and thioester derivatives of hippuric acid have been prepared which were substrates of both beta-lactamases and DD-peptidases. The thioesters were more rapidly hydrolysed by nearly all the enzymes. Surprisingly, the enzymes acted rather efficiently on substrates which did not contain any chiral centre. [less ▲]

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See detailChromomycose autochtone chez une patiente immunodéprimée.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Dethier, F.; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatologie Actualité (2003), 74

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See detailChromophoric dissolved organic matter in experimental mesocosms maintained under different pCO(2) levels
Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Delille, Bruno ULg; Frankignoulle, Michel et al

in Marine Ecology. Progress Series (2004), 272

Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) represents the optically active fraction of the bulk dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool. Recent evidence pointed towards a microbial source of CDOM in the ... [more ▼]

Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) represents the optically active fraction of the bulk dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool. Recent evidence pointed towards a microbial source of CDOM in the aquatic environment and led to the proposal that phytoplankton is not a direct source of CDOM, but that heterotrophic bacteria, through reprocessing of DOM of algal origin, are an important source of CDOM. In a recent experiment designed at looking at the effects of elevated pCO(2) on blooms of the coccolithophorid alga Emiliania huxleyi, we found that despite the 3 different pCO(2) levels tested (190, 414 and 714 ppm), no differences were observed in accumulation of CDOM over the 20 d of incubation. Unlike previous mesocosm experiments where. relationships between CDOM accumulation and bacterial abundance have been observed, none was observed here. These results provide some new insights into the apparent lack of effect of pCO(2) on CDOM accumulation in surface waters, and question the previously proposed mechanisms and rates of CDOM production in natural phytoplankton blooms. [less ▲]

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See detailChromosomal localization of the callipyge gene in sheep (Ovis aries) using bovine DNA markers
Cockett, N. E.; Jackson, S. P.; Shay, T. D. et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (1994), 91

A mutation causing muscular hypertrophy, with associated leanness and improved feed efficiency, has been recently identified in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Preliminary results indicate that an autosomal ... [more ▼]

A mutation causing muscular hypertrophy, with associated leanness and improved feed efficiency, has been recently identified in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Preliminary results indicate that an autosomal dominant gene may be responsible for this economically advantageous trait. We have exploited the conservation in sequence and chromosomal location of DNA markers across Bovidae to map the corresponding callipyge locus to ovine chromosome 18 using a battery of bovine chromosome 21 markers. Chromosomal localization of the ovine callipyge locus is the first step toward positional cloning of the corresponding gene. [less ▲]

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See detailChromosomal location of fifteen unique mouse KRAB-containing zinc finger loci
Marine, J. C.; Gilbert, D. J.; Bellefroid, Eric J. et al

in Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society (1996), 7(6), 413-6

The mammalian genome contains hundreds if not thousands of zinc finger protein (Zfp) genes. While the function of most of these genes remains to be determined, it is clear that a few of them play ... [more ▼]

The mammalian genome contains hundreds if not thousands of zinc finger protein (Zfp) genes. While the function of most of these genes remains to be determined, it is clear that a few of them play important roles in gene regulation and development. In studies described here, we have used an interspecific mouse backcross mapping panel to determine the chromosomal location of 15 KRAB-containing zinc finger loci. These loci map to nine different mouse autosomes and the X Chromosome (Chr). Two Chrs, 7 and 9, contain cosegregating pairs of KRAB-containing Zfp genes, indicating that the KRAB-containing Zfp genes have evolved through processes involving regional as well as genome-wide duplication events. [less ▲]

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See detailChromosomal patterns of gene expression from microarray data: methodology, validation and clinical relevance in gliomas.
Turkheimer, Federico E; Roncaroli, Federico; Hennuy, Benoît ULg et al

in BMC Bioinformatics (2006), 7

BACKGROUND: Expression microarrays represent a powerful technique for the simultaneous investigation of thousands of genes. The evidence that genes are not randomly distributed in the genome and that ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Expression microarrays represent a powerful technique for the simultaneous investigation of thousands of genes. The evidence that genes are not randomly distributed in the genome and that their coordinated expression depends on their position on chromosomes has highlighted the need for mathematical approaches to exploit this dependency for the analysis of expression data-sets. RESULTS: We have devised a novel mathematical technique (CHROMOWAVE) based on the Haar wavelet transform and applied it to a dataset obtained with the Affymetrix HG-U133_Plus_2 array in 27 gliomas. CHROMOWAVE generated multi-chromosomal pattern featuring low expression in chromosomes 1p, 4, 9q, 13, 18, and 19q. This pattern was not only statistically robust but also clinically relevant as it was predictive of favourable outcome. This finding was replicated on a data-set independently acquired by another laboratory. FISH analysis indicated that monosomy 1p and 19q was a frequent feature of tumours displaying the CHROMOWAVE pattern but that allelic loss on chromosomes 4, 9q, 13 and 18 was much less common. CONCLUSION: The ability to detect expression changes of spatially related genes and to map their position on chromosomes makes CHROMOWAVE a valuable screening method for the identification and display of regional gene expression changes of clinical relevance. In this study, FISH data showed that monosomy was frequently associated with diffuse low gene expression on chromosome 1p and 19q but not on chromosomes 4, 9q, 13 and 18. Comparative genomic hybridisation, allelic polymorphism analysis and methylation studies are in progress in order to identify the various mechanisms involved in this multi-chromosomal expression pattern. [less ▲]

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See detailChromosomal profiles of gene expression in Huntington's disease.
Anderson, Alexander N; Roncaroli, Federico; Hodges, Angela et al

in Brain : A Journal of Neurology (2008), 131(Pt 2), 381-8

Recent studies suggested that Huntington's disease is due to aberrant interactions between mutant huntingtin protein, transcription factors and transcriptional co-activators resulting in widespread ... [more ▼]

Recent studies suggested that Huntington's disease is due to aberrant interactions between mutant huntingtin protein, transcription factors and transcriptional co-activators resulting in widespread transcriptional dysregulation. Mutant huntingtin also interacts with histone acetyltransferases, consequently interfering with the acetylation and deacetylation states of histones. Because histone modifications and chromatin structure coordinate the expression of gene clusters, we have applied a novel mathematical approach, Chromowave, to analyse microarray datasets of brain tissue and whole blood to understand how genomic regions are altered by the effects of mutated huntingtin on chromatin structure. Results show that, in samples of caudate and whole blood from Huntington's disease patients, transcription is indeed deregulated in large genomic regions in coordinated fashion, that transcription in these regions is associated with disease progression and that altered chromosomal clusters in the two tissues are remarkably similar. These findings support the notion of a common genome-wide mechanism of disruption of RNA transcription in the brain and periphery of Huntington's disease patients. [less ▲]

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See detailChromosome 12q24.3 controls sensitization to cat allergen in patients with asthma from Siberia, Russia
Gusareva, Elena ULg; Bragina, Elena; Buinova, Svetlana et al

in Immunol Letters (2009), 125(1), 1-6

In Russian population of Siberia asthma is usually concomitant with high sensitization to indoor allergens (cat, dog and house dust mites), overproduction of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and airway ... [more ▼]

In Russian population of Siberia asthma is usually concomitant with high sensitization to indoor allergens (cat, dog and house dust mites), overproduction of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and airway hyperreactivity. Definition of genes that predispose to development of various sub-components of the asthma phenotype is important for understanding of etiology of this disease. To map genes predisposing to asthma,we tested 21 microsatellite markers from candidate chromosomal regions in 136 Russian nuclear families with asthma from Siberia.We performed non-parametric analysis for linkage with asthma, total IgE, specific IgE to cat, dog, and dust mites, and spirometric indices (FEV1 (%) – percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC (%) – percentage of predicted forced vital capacity, and FEV1/FVC (%) – Tiffenau index). The most significant linkagewas to the candidate region on chromosome 12. Locus controlling cat-specific IgE, which is the most abundant in asthma patients fromSiberian population, mapped within the interval between 136 and 140 cM on chromosome 12q24.3, with the suggestive linkage at the marker D12S1611 (LOD= 2.23, P = 0.0007). Total IgE was also linked to this region (D12S1611 – LOD= 1.12, P = 0.012). FEV1 (%) exceeded LOD> 1 threshold for significance with the same locus 12q24.3, but with the peak at a more proximal region at 111.87cM (D12S338 – LOD= 1.21, P = 0.009). Some evidence of linkage (LOD> 1.0) was also detected for asthma at 6p21.31 (D6S291) and total IgE at 13q14.2 (D13S165). These data indicate that the locus 12q24.3 is the most promising candidate for identification of asthma genes in Russian population of Siberia. [less ▲]

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See detailChromosome 22 Mosaic Monosomy (46,Xy/45,Xy,-22)
Verloes, Alain ULg; Herens, Christian ULg; Lambotte, C. et al

in Annales de Génétique (1987), 30(3), 178-9

A slightly dysmorphic and mentally defective child with mosaic monosomy 22 is reported. Chromosome 22 is absent in 10.5% of lymphocytes and 8.3% of fibroblasts. This is the second case report of that kind.

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See detailChromosome aberrations and equine fertility.
Durkin, Keith ULg; Raudsepp, T; Chowdhary, B.P.

in Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Texas Genetics Society (2005, April)

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See detailChromosome Integration Domain for Bovine Leukemia Provirus in Tumors
Kettmann, Richard ULg; Deschamps, J.; Couez, D. et al

in Journal of Virology (1983), 47(1), 146-150

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See detailChromosome localization changes in the Trypanosoma cruzi nucleus.
Elias, M Carolina Q B; Faria, Marcella; Mortara, Renato A et al

in Eukaryotic Cell (2002), 1(6), 944-53

Chromosome localization in the interphase nuclei of eukaryotes depends on gene replication and transcription. Little is known about chromosome localization in protozoan parasites such as trypanosomes ... [more ▼]

Chromosome localization in the interphase nuclei of eukaryotes depends on gene replication and transcription. Little is known about chromosome localization in protozoan parasites such as trypanosomes, which have unique mechanisms for the control of gene expression, with most genes being posttranscriptionally regulated. In the present study, we examined where the chromosomes are replicated in Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease. The replication sites, identified by the incorporation of 5-bromodeoxyuridine, are located at the nuclear periphery in proliferating epimastigote forms in the early S phase of the cell cycle. When the S phase ends and cells progress through the cell cycle, 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling is observed in the nuclear interior, suggesting that chromosomes move. We next monitored chromosome locations in different stages of the cell cycle by using a satellite DNA sequence as a probe in a fluorescence in situ hybridization assay. We found two distinct labeling patterns according to the cell cycle stage. The first one is seen in the G(1) phase, in hydroxyurea-arrested epimastigotes or in trypomastigotes, which are differentiated nondividing forms. In all of these forms the satellite DNA is found in dots randomly dispersed in the nucleus. The other pattern is found in cells from the S phase to the G(2) phase. In these cells, the satellite DNA is found preferentially at the nuclear periphery. The labeling at the nuclear periphery disappears only after mitosis. Also, DNA detected with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is found distributed throughout the nuclear space in the G(1) phase but concentrated at the nuclear periphery in the S phase to the G(2) phase. These results strongly suggest that T. cruzi chromosomes move and, after entering the S phase, become constrained at the nuclear periphery, where replication occurs. [less ▲]

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See detailChromosome-encoded beta-lactamases of Citrobacter diversus. Interaction with beta-iodopenicillanate and labelling of the active site.
Amicosante, G; Oratore, A; Joris, Bernard ULg et al

in Biochemical Journal (1988), 254(3), 891-3

Both forms of the chromosome-encoded beta-lactamase of Citrobacter diversus react with beta-iodopenicillanate at a rate characteristic of class A beta-lactamases. The active site of form I was labelled ... [more ▼]

Both forms of the chromosome-encoded beta-lactamase of Citrobacter diversus react with beta-iodopenicillanate at a rate characteristic of class A beta-lactamases. The active site of form I was labelled with the same reagent. The sequence of the peptide obtained after trypsin hydrolysis is identical with that of a peptide obtained in a similar manner from the chromosome-encoded beta-lactamase of Klebsiella pneumoniae. [less ▲]

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See detailChronic annular lesions of the cheeks
LOTHER, Anne Sophia; ARRESE ESTRADA, Jorge ULg; NIKKELS, Arjen ULg

in International Journal of Dermatology (2013), (52), 649-650

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See detailChronic annular lesions of the cheeks
LOTHER, Anne-Sophia; ARRESE ESTRADA, Jorge ULg; NIKKELS, Arjen ULg

in International Journal of Dermatology (2012)

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