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See detailCharacterization of concrete surface roughness and its relation to adhesion in repair systems
Garbacz, A.; Courard, Luc ULg; Kostana, K.

in Materials Characterization (2006), 56(4-mai Sp. Iss. SI), 281-289

The aim of this work to analyse the relationships between parameters of concrete surface geometry determined with various methods as well as their relations to adhesion in repair systems. Several types of ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work to analyse the relationships between parameters of concrete surface geometry determined with various methods as well as their relations to adhesion in repair systems. Several types of concrete preparation techniques were selected to obtain different levels of surface roughness of concrete substrates. Four measurement techniques, corresponding to different levels of observation, have been used to characterize the surface geometry: laser profilometry, mechanical profilometry, a microscopic method and a "sand" (macroscopic) method. The correlations between parameters describing surface geometry are determined. The relationships between bond strength and selected parameters of surface geometry are also discussed. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of copper grain growth limitations inside narrow wires depending of overburden thickness
Dubreuil, Olivier ULg; Cordeau, Maryline; Mourier, Thierry et al

in Microelectronic Engineering (2008, October), 85(10), 1988-1991

With the downscaling of feature dimensions, copper interconnects exhibit properties differing from bulk or film material. Resistivity increases and limits electrical performances, and reliability of ... [more ▼]

With the downscaling of feature dimensions, copper interconnects exhibit properties differing from bulk or film material. Resistivity increases and limits electrical performances, and reliability of interconnects becomes a more important challenge for each new technological node. In this study, we present an approach of copper grain growth control inside narrow wires by adding a step between the copper electro-chemical deposition (ECD) and the chemical–mechanical polishing (CMP). This step corresponds to a partial CMP step (pre-CMP) and is applied after ECD and before anneal in order to modify the copper previous termoverburdennext term thickness. Depending on the targeted thickness, copper grain growth occurs during anneal with different efficiencies. Crystallization and grain growth behavior inside wires is investigated with focused ions beam (FIB). We present here our methodology for sample preparation and characterization. Results are focused on electrical variations and on morphological aspects of copper crystallization and grain growth inside lines observed with various overburden thicknesses. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of CuInTe2 thin films prepared by flash evaporation
Boustani, M.; El Assali, K.; Bekkay, T. et al

in Semiconductor Science & Technology (1997), 12

Thin films of CuInTe2 were grown by flash evaporation. The influence of the substrate temperature Ts during film deposition on the properties of the thin films was examined. CuInTe2 films were ... [more ▼]

Thin films of CuInTe2 were grown by flash evaporation. The influence of the substrate temperature Ts during film deposition on the properties of the thin films was examined. CuInTe2 films were structurally characterized by the grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) technique. Investigation by this technique demonstrates that the surface of thin films of CuInTe2 prepared by flash vaporation at Ts > 100 °C exhibits the chalcopyrite structure with additional binary compounds in the surface. However, in the volume the films exhibit the chalcopyrite structure only; no foreign phases were observed. X-ray reflectometry was utilized to evaluate the critical reflection angle bc of CuInTe2 (bCuInTe2 c 0.32°) which permitted us to calculate the density of the films to be 6 g cm−3. The evaporated films were p type and the films deposited at Ts = 100 °C had a resistivity in the range 0.3–2 cm. From optical measurements we have determined the optical energy gap Eg 0.94 eV and the effective reduced mass m*r 0.07me . [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor (CNF)-producing Escherichia coli isolated from cattle in Argentina
Mercado, E.C.; Rodriguez, Sabrina ULg; Elizondo, A.M. et al

Poster (2004, October 24)

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See detailCharacterization of dietary fiber fermentation in the pig intestines using an in vitro method.
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2009)

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (13 ULg)
See detailCharacterization of dried banana chips quality by X-ray µ-CT
Léonard, Angélique ULg; Nimmol, Chatchai; Blacher, Silvia ULg et al

Conference (2007, April)

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See detailCharacterization of dried banana porous structure by X-ray microtomography coupled with image analysis
Léonard, Angélique ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Devahastin, Sakamon

in Chen, Guohua (Ed.) The proceedings of the 5th Asia-Pacific Drying Conference, Hong Kong, 13 – 15 August 2007, Vol. 1 (2007)

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See detailCharacterization of dry and wet sawdust porous beds
Parmentier, Nicolas; Plougonven, Erwan ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

in Powder Technology (2014), 264

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See detailCharacterization of Duplex steel Uranus 76N during deformation and heat treatment
Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg; Moureaux, P.; Carton, Marc ULg et al

in Physica Status Solidi A. Applications and Materials Science (2006), 203(15), 3651-3664

Duplex Uranus 76N is characterized by metallography, thermal and mechanical analysis. The investigation shows that the microstructure of such a Duplex strongly depends on the cooling conditions ... [more ▼]

Duplex Uranus 76N is characterized by metallography, thermal and mechanical analysis. The investigation shows that the microstructure of such a Duplex strongly depends on the cooling conditions determining the quantity of austenite formed in the ferrite matrix. Numerical simulations of 76N behavior during the rolling process and service life require the knowledge of the recrystallization state during rolling steps at high temperature, thermal parameters such as dilatation, density, specific heat, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and mechanical constitutive laws. These material parameters are determined and presented in this study. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of embryos derived from calf oocytes: kinetics of cleavage, cell allocation to inner cell mass, and trophectoderm and lipid metabolism.
Majerus, V.; Lequarré, Anne-Sophie ULg; Ferguson, E. M. et al

in Molecular Reproduction and Development (2000), 57(4), 346-52

Embryos derived from calf oocytes were compared with adult cow oocyte-derived embryos (1) by studying the kinetics of embryo development using time-lapse cinematography (2) by evaluating the ratio between ... [more ▼]

Embryos derived from calf oocytes were compared with adult cow oocyte-derived embryos (1) by studying the kinetics of embryo development using time-lapse cinematography (2) by evaluating the ratio between inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells in blastocysts (3) by measuring the triglyceride content of the blastocysts. The rate of calf oocyte-derived embryos reaching the blastocyst stage was reduced (26 vs. 46% for adult derived embryos). Calf oocyte-derived embryos preferably arrested their development before the 9-cell stage. Those that developed into blastocysts had cleaved earlier to reach the 2-cell or 3-cell stages than embryos that arrested before the 9-cell stage. The 9-cell stage tended to appear later in calf oocyte-derived embryo that reached the blastocyst stage than in adult-derived embryos. This difference became significant at the morula stage. Accordingly, the fourth cell cycle duration was longer for calf oocyte-derived embryos. Day 8 blastocysts from both sources had similar total cell numbers (calf: 89 +/- 20; cow: 100 +/- 30) and cell distribution between TE and ICM. The triglyceride content of day 7 blastocysts was similar for both sources (64 +/- 15 vs. 65 +/- 6 ng/embryo, respectively). In conclusion, calf oocyte-derived embryos are characterized by a higher rate of developmental arrest before the 9-cell stage and by a longer lag phase preceding the major onset of embryonic genome expression. These changes might be related to insufficient "capacitation" of the calf oocyte during follicular growth. Despite these differences, modifications in the quality of the resulting blastocysts were not detected. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of fatty acids camel meat in Algeria
Sahraoui, Naima; Dotreppe, Olivier; Errahmani, M. B. et al

in Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique (2014), 49(15), 231-234

The fatty acids of camel meat were characterized by 54.6% of saturated fatty acids (SFA), 35.0% of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MFA) and 10.4% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The polyunsaturated ... [more ▼]

The fatty acids of camel meat were characterized by 54.6% of saturated fatty acids (SFA), 35.0% of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MFA) and 10.4% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The polyunsaturated/saturated ratio was found equal to 0.25, that of ω6/ω3 equal to 4.1. The comparison by age showed no significant effect on the contents of FA, SFA, MFA, PUFA, ω6 and ω3 (P > 0.05). The comparison by gender and race has revealed highly significant effectsalmost on all studied parameters. Thus, the contents of the FA, SFA, MFA, PUFA, ω6 and ω3 werefound significantly higher in the Sahrawi males (P < 0.05). The females, Sahrawi as well as Tergui, have exhibited PUFA/SFA and ω6/ω3 ratios significantly higher than males (P < 0.05), but alsorelatively low levels of lipids and ω6/ω3 ratios deemed favorable. These results suggest betteroverall nutritional characteristics, essentially in females, and the importance of promoting thismeat for products of particular nutritional characters. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of fine aggregates in concrete by different experimental approaches
He, Huan; Courard, Luc ULg; Pirard, Eric ULg et al

in Proceedings 13 Int. Congress for Stereology (2011, October)

Being its major component, aggregate can occupy up to three-quarter of the volume of concrete. The structure of aggregate formed in hardened state impacts largely on mechanical and durability properties ... [more ▼]

Being its major component, aggregate can occupy up to three-quarter of the volume of concrete. The structure of aggregate formed in hardened state impacts largely on mechanical and durability properties of concrete. On another hand, physical characteristics of aggregate are primarily assumed to be relevant to granular behavior of aggregate. Therefore, characterization of aggregate is of high relevance to concrete studies. In this study, different types of fine aggregate used in concrete, namely river sand and crushed limestone, are selected for morphological characterization. Traditional sieve analysis and laser diffraction method are employed for separation and size analysis of specimens. Different types of fine aggregate samples with comparable size ranges are then analyzed by two advanced dry (static) and wet (dynamic) image analysers. These new analysers are especially suitable for characterization of fine particles, which is difficult by traditional image analysis equipments. Size and shape characteristics of different fine aggregates will be revealed by different experimental methods. The results on different parameters for shape characterization will be compared and discussed [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of fine aggregates in concrete by different experimental approaches
He, Huan ULg; Courard, Luc ULg; Pirard, Eric ULg et al

in Proceedings 13 Int. Congress for Stereology (2011, October)

Being its major component, aggregate can occupy up to three-quarter of the volume of concrete. The structure of aggregate formed in hardened state impacts largely on mechanical and durability properties ... [more ▼]

Being its major component, aggregate can occupy up to three-quarter of the volume of concrete. The structure of aggregate formed in hardened state impacts largely on mechanical and durability properties of concrete. On another hand, physical characteristics of aggregate are primarily assumed to be relevant to granular behavior of aggregate. Therefore, characterization of aggregate is of high relevance to concrete studies. In this study, different types of fine aggregate used in concrete, namely river sand and crushed limestone, are selected for morphological characterization. Traditional sieve analysis and laser diffraction method are employed for separation and size analysis of specimens. Different types of fine aggregate samples with comparable size ranges are then analyzed by two advanced dry (static) and wet (dynamic) image analysers. These new analysers are especially suitable for characterization of fine particles, which is difficult by traditional image analysis equipments. Size and shape characteristics of different fine aggregates will be revealed by different experimental methods. The results on different parameters for shape characterization will be compared and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization Of Functional Residues In The Interfacial Recognition Domain Of Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase (Lcat)
Peelman, F.; Vanloo, B.; Perez-Mendez, O. et al

in Protein Engineering (1999), 12(1), 71-8

Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is an interfacial enzyme active on both high-density (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Threading alignments of LCAT with lipases suggest that residues ... [more ▼]

Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is an interfacial enzyme active on both high-density (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Threading alignments of LCAT with lipases suggest that residues 50-74 form an interfacial recognition site and this hypothesis was tested by site-directed mutagenesis. The (delta56-68) deletion mutant had no activity on any substrate. Substitution of W61 with F, Y, L or G suggested that an aromatic residue is required for full enzymatic activity. The activity of the W61F and W61Y mutants was retained on HDL but decreased on LDL, possibly owing to impaired accessibility to the LDL lipid substrate. The decreased activity of the single R52A and K53A mutants on HDL and LDL and the severer effect of the double mutation suggested that these conserved residues contribute to the folding of the LCAT lid. The membrane-destabilizing properties of the LCAT 56-68 helical segment were demonstrated using the corresponding synthetic peptide. An M65N-N66M substitution decreased both the fusogenic properties of the peptide and the activity of the mutant enzyme on all substrates. These results suggest that the putative interfacial recognition domain of LCAT plays an important role in regulating the interaction of the enzyme with its organized lipoprotein substrates. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of gas transport in low-permeability media: two-phase flow analysis of an in-situ experiment
Gerard, Pierre; Radu, Jean-Pol ULg; de la Vaissière, Rémi et al

in POROMECHANICS V: Proceedings of the Fifth Biot Conference on Poromechanics (2013)

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See detailCharacterization of gels via solvent desorption measurements
Gommes, Cédric ULg; Noville, Francis ULg; Pirard, Jean-Paul ULg

in Adsorption (2007), 13(5-6), 533-540

The present paper shows how a standard volumetric adsorption device can be used to measure solvent desorption isotherms on gels. As gels are very soft materials, they shrink significantly during the ... [more ▼]

The present paper shows how a standard volumetric adsorption device can be used to measure solvent desorption isotherms on gels. As gels are very soft materials, they shrink significantly during the measurement, and the data have to be analyzed in terms of the mechanical properties of the gel's skeleton. Methanol desorption isotherms are measured on a series of silica gels, and the results are compared with independent characterizations, notably beam bending. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (9 ULg)