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See detailCombined detailed and quasi steady-state time simulations for large-disturbance analysis
Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg; Grenier, Marie-Eve; Lefebvre, Daniel

(2005, August)

This paper deals with the simulation of long-term power system responses to large disturbances in the presence of discrete events. A method combining detailed and quasi steady-state time simulations is ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the simulation of long-term power system responses to large disturbances in the presence of discrete events. A method combining detailed and quasi steady-state time simulations is presented, the former being used for accuracy and the latter for ef ciency reasons. Detailed time simulation is used to analyze the short-term period following a large disturbance and identify the discrete controls triggered. Next, quasi steady-state simulation is used to simulate the same time interval with the discrete controls imposed as external events, before letting the system evolve as usual in the long term. This simple method has been successfully tested on the Hydro-Québec system. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined diagnostic value of biochemical markers in acute pancreatitis.
Viel, J F; Foucault, P; Bureau, F et al

in Clinica Chimica Acta (1990), 189(2), 191-8

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See detailCombined distortional and overall flexural-torsional buckling of cold-formed stainless steel sections: Design
Rossi, Barbara ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Rasmussen, Kim J.R.

in Journal of Structural Engineering (2010), 136(4), 361-369

This paper provides a critical summary of the European standards and design methods available for calculating the strength of cold-formed stainless steel compression members. The standards considered (so ... [more ▼]

This paper provides a critical summary of the European standards and design methods available for calculating the strength of cold-formed stainless steel compression members. The standards considered (so far mainly applied to columns failing by flexural buckling) are applied to the case of lipped channel section columns failing by combined distortional and overall flexural-torsional buckling. As observed during the tests presented in a companion paper, distortional buckling is found to have a considerable effect on the cross-section resistance and is prone to interact with the global flexural-torsional mode. It is investigated how the different formulations account for the two buckling modes and their interaction and how accurate strength predictions they provide. A new Direct Strength Method taking into account these failure modes is then presented and compared to the tests results. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined distortional and overall flexural-torsional buckling of cold-formed stainless steel sections: Experimental investigations
Rossi, Barbara ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Rasmussen, Kim J.R.

in Journal of Structural Engineering (2010), 136(4), 354-360

This paper presents a series of 48 full-scale tests on press-braked stainless steel lipped channel section columns subjected to concentric compression. The tests were carried out between fixed ends in the ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a series of 48 full-scale tests on press-braked stainless steel lipped channel section columns subjected to concentric compression. The tests were carried out between fixed ends in the Structures Laboratory of the University of Liège and the test specimens were designed such that distortional buckling developed in the section prior to overall flexural-torsional buckling. The stainless steel alloy was 1.4003 chromium weldable steel, popularly known as 3Cr12. Three different geometries were tested using the same experimental set-up. A critical summary of the standards and methods for calculating the carrying capacity of cold-formed stainless steel compression members is presented in a companion paper by the same authors. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined Effect of Web 2086 (Paf Antagonist) and Ketoprofen (Nsaid) on Paf-Induced Ex Vivo Platelet Aggregation in Bovine
Bastos da Silva, Miriam; Herion, Francine ULg; Raskinet, Renée ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1997), 44(2), 65-71

The effect of the specific PAF-antagonist WEB 2086, a thieno-triazolo-diazepine, and ketoprofen, a NSAID, was investigated on PAF-induced bovine platelet aggregation measured ex vivo in platelet-rich ... [more ▼]

The effect of the specific PAF-antagonist WEB 2086, a thieno-triazolo-diazepine, and ketoprofen, a NSAID, was investigated on PAF-induced bovine platelet aggregation measured ex vivo in platelet-rich plasma (PRP). WEB 2086 was infused intravenously over 1 min followed immediately by ketoprofen administration over 1 s (both drugs = 3 mg/kg), in a group of six healthy male Friesian calves. Depending on the PAF concentration, a reversible (10(-8)-10(-9) mol/l) and irreversible (10(-5)-10(-7) mol/l) platelet aggregation was observed. The reversible aggregation was completely blocked by pretreatment of the animal with WEB 2086 and ketoprofen. The inhibitory effects observed during the irreversible aggregation were 47.22%, 54.00% and 88.00% at 10(-5), 10(-6) and 10(-7) mol/l PAF, respectively. Moreover, the aggregation obtained in these condition became reversible. Maximal inhibitory effect of WEB 2086 and ketoprofen on PAF-induced platelet aggregation in calves was observed within 30 min after administration of both drugs. This inhibition persisted even after 24 h and was significantly different from control with P < 0.05. The combined effect of both drugs exceeded the sum of the individual effects (synergism). It was concluded that WEB 2086 and ketoprofen very effectively blocked PAF-induced bovine platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma. The study also suggested a synergism between both substances. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined effects of climate warming and plant diversity loss on above- and below-ground grassland productivity
De Boeck, H. J.; Lemmens, CMHM; Gielen, B. et al

in Environmental and Experimental Botany (2007), 60(1), 95-104

Projections of global change predict both increases of the surface temperature and decreases of biodiversity, but studies on the combined impact of both on terrestrial ecosystems are lacking. We assessed ... [more ▼]

Projections of global change predict both increases of the surface temperature and decreases of biodiversity, but studies on the combined impact of both on terrestrial ecosystems are lacking. We assessed the impact of these two global changes on above- and below-ground productivity of grassland communities. Experimental ecosystems containing one, three or nine grassland species were grown in 12 sunlit, climate-controlled chambers in Wilrijk, Belgium. Half of these chambers were exposed to ambient air temperatures, while the other half were warmed by 3 degrees C. Equal amounts of water were added to heated and unheated communities, so that any increases in evapotranspiration due to warmer conditions would result in a drier soil. Warming led to a decreased productivity of both above-ground plant parts (-18%) and roots (-23%), which coincided with a significantly lower soil water content. Complementarity in resource use and/or facilitation slightly enhanced above-ground productivity in multi-species communities, regardless of the induced warming. Interactive effects between temperature treatment and species richness level were found below-ground, however, where warming nullified the positive effect of richness on root productivity. Future warmer conditions could further increase losses of productivity associated with declining species numbers. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined effects of climate, resource availability, and plant traits on biomass produced in a Mediterranean rangeland
Chollet, Simon; Rambal, Serge; Fayolle, Adeline ULg et al

in Ecology (2014), 95(3), 737-748

Biomass production in grasslands, a key component of food provision for domestic herbivores, is known to depend on climate, resource availability, and on the functional characteristics of communities ... [more ▼]

Biomass production in grasslands, a key component of food provision for domestic herbivores, is known to depend on climate, resource availability, and on the functional characteristics of communities. However, the combined effects of these different factors remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to unravel the causes of variations in the standing biomass of plant communities using a long-term experiment conducted in a Mediterranean rangeland of Southern France. Two management regimes, sheep grazing and grazing associated with mineral fertilization, were applied to different areas of the study site over the past 25 years. Abiotic (temperature, available water, nutrients) and biotic (components of the functional structure communities) factors were considered to explain interannual and spatial variations in standing biomass in these rangelands. Standing biomass was highly predictable, with the best model explaining ;80% of variations in the amount of biomass produced, but the variation explained by abiotic and biotic factors was dependent on the season and on the management regime. Abiotic factors were found to have comparable effects in both management regimes: The amount of biomass produced in the spring was limited by cold temperatures, while it was limited by water availability and high temperatures in the summer. In the fertilized community, the progressive change in the functional structure of the communities had significant effects on the amount of biomass produced: the dominance of few productive species which were functionally close led to higher peak standing biomass in spring. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined Effects of Experimental Heavy-Metal Contamination (Cu, Zn, and CH3Hg) and Starvation on Quail's Body Condition: Parallelism with a Wild Common Guillemot (Uria aalge) Population Found Stranded at the Belgian Coast
Debacker, Virginie ULg; Rutten, Astrid; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

in Biological Trace Element Research (2001), 82(1-3, Summer), 87-107

Combined effects of heavy-metal contamination (Cu, Zn, and CH3Hg) and starvation were tested on common quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and used as a model for comparison with a wild common guillemot ... [more ▼]

Combined effects of heavy-metal contamination (Cu, Zn, and CH3Hg) and starvation were tested on common quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and used as a model for comparison with a wild common guillemot (Uria aalge) population found stranded at the Belgian coast. Appropriate heavy-metal levels were given to the quails to obtain concentrations similar to those found in the seabirds's tissues. The contaminated animals were then starved for 4 d to simulate the evident malnutrition symptoms observed at the guillemot's level. In such conditions, food intake and total-body weight are shown to decrease in contaminated individuals with simultaneous significant hepatic and renal increase of the heavy-metal concentrations. Like guillemots, higher heavy-metal levels were observed in those contam- inated quails that had also developed a cachectic status characterized by a general atrophy of their pectoral muscle and complete absence of subcutaneous and/or abdominal fat depots. Although likely the result of a general protein catabolism during starvation, it is suggested that these higher metal levels could as well enhance a general muscle wasting process (cachectic status). [less ▲]

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See detailCombined effects of silymarin and methylsulfonylmethane in the management of rosacea: clinical and instrumental evaluation.
Berardesca, Enzo; Cameli, Norma; Cavallotti, Claudia et al

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2008), 7(1), 8-14

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate a topical treatment based on silymarin/methylsulfonilmethane (S-MSM) to improve erythematous-telangiectactic rosacea. METHODS: Forty-six patients affected by stage I ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate a topical treatment based on silymarin/methylsulfonilmethane (S-MSM) to improve erythematous-telangiectactic rosacea. METHODS: Forty-six patients affected by stage I-III rosacea entered this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were treated for 1 month. Clinical and instrumental evaluations were done at baseline, after 10 and 20 days, and at the end of the study. Itching, stinging, erythema, and papules were investigated clinically as well as hydration and erythema instrumentally with capacitance and color measurements. RESULTS: A statistically significant improvement was observed in many clinical and instrumental parameters investigated (P < 0.001). In particular, improvement of skin redness, papules, itching, hydration, and skin color occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of silymarin and S-MSM can be useful in managing symptoms and condition of rosacea skin, especially in the rosacea subtype 1 erythemato-telangiectatic phase. The action can be considered multicentric and multiphase because of the direct modulating action on cytokines and angiokines normally involved and up-regulated in the case of such skin condition. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined enzymatic hydrolysis and HPAEC method for simultaneous analysis of galacturonic acid and neutral sugars of pectin.
Garna, H.; Mabon, N.; Wathelet, Bernard ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2003), 68(2 Pt A), 297-300

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See detailCombined enzymatic synthesis of nucleotide (deoxy) sugars from sucrose and nucleoside monophosphates
Zervosen, Astrid ULg; Stein, Andreas; Adrian, Holger et al

in Tetrahedron (1996), 52(7), 2395-2404

Abstract: The synthesis of NDP-glucose 3a-d (N= A, C, U, dU) with sucrose synthase B was combined with the enzymatic synthesis of nucleoside diphosphates 2a-d from their corresponding nucleoside ... [more ▼]

Abstract: The synthesis of NDP-glucose 3a-d (N= A, C, U, dU) with sucrose synthase B was combined with the enzymatic synthesis of nucleoside diphosphates 2a-d from their corresponding nucleoside monophosphates la-d by different kinases A. Further combination with recombinant dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase D enabled us to synthesize dUDP-6-deoxy-alpha-D-xylo-4-hexulose 5 from ld on a preparative scale. By using the repetitive batch technique the enzymatic syntheses of nucleotide (deoxy) sugars 3a-d, 5 could be realized on a 0.1 - 0.5 g scale. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined experimental and computational approaches to study the action of blockers of small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels
Dilly, Sébastien ULg; Lamy, Cédric; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg et al

in Acta Physiologica Scandinavica (2010), 199(supplement 678), -10

Small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) are widely expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and underlie medium duration afterhyperpolarizations in many types of neurons ... [more ▼]

Small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) are widely expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and underlie medium duration afterhyperpolarizations in many types of neurons. Three subtypes of SK channels, SK1, SK2 and SK3, have been identified so far in different parts of the brain. Blocking SK channels might be beneficial in the treatment of several CNS disorders such as depression, Parkinson’s disease and cognitive disorders. Until now, the precise site of interaction between these channels and their blockers has not yet been elucidated. In this context, molecular modeling is a theoretical approach that can quickly provide ideas on the binding mode of SK blockers. We first performed homology modeling of the S5-H5-S6 portion of the channels on the basis of the crystal structure of the KcsA potassium channel (Zhou et al. Nature. 2001, 414, 43-48). The binding sites of N-methyl-laudanosine (NML) (Scuvée-Moreau et al. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2002, 302, 1176-83), a non-selective and non-peptidic ligand, and apamin (Blatz et al. Nature. 1986, 323, 718-20), an octadecapeptide with a preference for the SK2 subtype, were subsequently explored by docking analysis. Different amino-acids were suggested to interact with the two blockers. The docking of NML revealed a binding site in the turret region, far from the pore. The docking of apamin identified a very large binding site that includes a portion of the site of NML. In order to confirm the predicted binding sites, site-directed mutagenesis was used. The first mutant channels tested in electrophysiological experiments by the patch clamp technique validated some of the theoretical data. Using this strategy, we hope to get a better understanding of the mechanism of action of SK blockers and eventually find strategies to obtain subtype-selective blockers. [less ▲]

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See detailA Combined for Element-Free Galerkin Method/Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Formulation for Dynamic Crack Propagation
Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg; BELYTSCHKO, T.

in Durban, D.; Pearson, J. R. A. (Eds.) Proceedings of the "IUTAM Symposium on Non-Linear Singularities in Deformation and Flow (1998, March)

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See detailCombined functional neuroimaging (fMRI and MEG) for the guidance of epidural motor cortex stimulation in chronic refractory neuropathic pain: a pilot study.
Bourguignon, M.; De Tiège, X.; Baleriaux, D. et al

Conference (2009, March)

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See detailCombined hemodynamic effects of low dose of Dopamine and Dobutamine in patients with acute infarction and cardiac failure
EL ALLAF, D; D'Orio, Vincenzo ULg; cremers, s et al

in Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie (1984), 92

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See detailA combined hydrochemical, isotopic and multivariate statistics approach for pollutant source identification in a regional aquifer
Gesels, Julie ULg; Joniau, Claire; Knöller, Kay et al

Conference (2013, April 23)

In an urban and industrial context, a detailed hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater has been performed in an alluvial aquifer, with the aim of determining the origin of the inorganic ... [more ▼]

In an urban and industrial context, a detailed hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater has been performed in an alluvial aquifer, with the aim of determining the origin of the inorganic contaminations and the main processes involved that contribute to a poor groundwater quality. [less ▲]

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See detailThe combined immunodetection of AP-2alpha and YY1 transcription factors is associated with ERBB2 gene overexpression in primary breast tumors.
Allouche, Abdelkader; Nolens, Gregory ULg; Tancredi, Annalisa ULg et al

in Breast Cancer Research [=BCR] (2008), 10(1), 9

INTRODUCTION: Overexpression of the ERBB2 oncogene is observed in about 20% of human breast tumors and is the consequence of increased transcription rates frequently associated with gene amplification ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Overexpression of the ERBB2 oncogene is observed in about 20% of human breast tumors and is the consequence of increased transcription rates frequently associated with gene amplification. Several studies have shown a link between activator protein 2 (AP-2) transcription factors and ERBB2 gene expression in breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, the Yin Yang 1 (YY1) transcription factor has been shown to stimulate AP-2 transcriptional activity on the ERBB2 promoter in vitro. In this report, we examined the relationships between ERBB2, AP-2alpha, and YY1 both in breast cancer tissue specimens and in a mammary cancer cell line. METHODS: ERBB2, AP-2alpha, and YY1 protein levels were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in a panel of 55 primary breast tumors. ERBB2 gene amplification status was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Correlations were evaluated by a chi2 test at a p value of less than 0.05. The functional role of AP-2alpha and YY1 on ERBB2 gene expression was analyzed by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection in the BT-474 mammary cancer cell line followed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant correlation between ERBB2 and AP-2alpha levels in the tumors (p < 0.01). Moreover, associations were found between ERBB2 protein level and the combined high expression of AP-2alpha and YY1 (p < 0.02) as well as between the expression of AP-2alpha and YY1 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the levels of both AP-2alpha and YY1 proteins were inversely correlated to ERBB2 gene amplification status in the tumors (p < 0.01). Transfection of siRNAs targeting AP-2alpha and AP-2gamma mRNAs in the BT-474 breast cancer cell line repressed the expression of the endogenous ERBB2 gene at both the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the additional transfection of an siRNA directed against the YY1 transcript further reduced the ERBB2 protein level, suggesting that AP-2 and YY1 transcription factors cooperate to stimulate the transcription of the ERBB2 gene. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the role of both AP-2alpha and YY1 transcription factors in ERBB2 oncogene overexpression in breast tumors. Our results also suggest that high ERBB2 expression may result either from gene amplification or from increased transcription factor levels. [less ▲]

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See detailThe combined impact of changing terrestrial organic carbon reservoirs and fractionation effects induced by changing carbonate ion concentrations on the glacial-interglacial marine C-13 record
Munhoven, Guy ULg; François, Louis ULg; Ouberdous, Mohamed ULg

Conference (2005, April 27)

On the basis of the marine and atmospheric glacial-interglacial C-13 isotopic records, it has been calculated that the land biospheric carbon stock must have increased by 270–720 GtC from the Last Glacial ... [more ▼]

On the basis of the marine and atmospheric glacial-interglacial C-13 isotopic records, it has been calculated that the land biospheric carbon stock must have increased by 270–720 GtC from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the present. Estimates derived from vegetation mapping based on palynological or sedimentological data generally indicate a larger increase of the biospheric stock in the range of 700–1350 GtC and above. Although there is some overlap between the two ranges, they substantially disagree. Further complications arise when carbonate-ion dependent fractionation effects in the marine C-13 record are considered. A detailed budget of the C-13 isotope in the land biosphere at the LGM, as well as in the other reservoirs of the global carbon cycle is therefore required. Here, we analyse the response of the atmosphere–ocean–surface sediment system under the influence of variable release and uptake fluxes of C by the terrestrial biosphere. Glacial-interglacial variations of the carbon stocks and isotopic budgets of the land biosphere were derived from simulation experiments carried out with the global biosphere model CARAIB (CARbon Assimilation In the Biosphere) under boundary conditions typical for the Last Glacial Maximum and for mid-Holocene times. CARAIB uses a mechanistic description of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. It thus provides information on the C-13 signature of carbon fluxes involved. Using the eleven-box model MBM of the ocean-atmosphere system, we then investigate the effect of these biospheric changes on the oceanic carbon cycle and the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. MBM has a complete representation of the transfer processes of carbon and alkalinity from the land to the ocean, and between the ocean and the surface sediment, including parameterisations for processes in the shelf area. MBM also considers C-13 signatures of the carbon fluxes and stocks represented. On the basis of empirical relationships for the incorporation of C-13 isotopes in foraminiferal shells as a function of carbonate ion concentration, synthetic carbon isotopic records are generated from the calculated seawater C-13 isotopic evolution, helping to better constrain estimates of the land biosphere carbon stock changes derived from the marine C-13 record. These simulations also test various scenarios for the alkalinity input to the system from weathering, which, through their effect on carbonate ion concentration, may also impinge to a non negligible extent on C-13 variations recorded in deep-sea sediments. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined implicit-explicit algorithms for non-linear structural dynamics
Noels, Ludovic ULg; Stainier, Laurent ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg et al

in Revue Européenne des Éléments Finis (2002), 11(5), 565-591

To solve fast dynamic problems, an explicit method is the most adapted. But for slower dynamics, an implicit method is more stable. The industrial problems are governed by high frequency (impact ... [more ▼]

To solve fast dynamic problems, an explicit method is the most adapted. But for slower dynamics, an implicit method is more stable. The industrial problems are governed by high frequency (impact, ...) during short time intervals and slower dynamics (spring-back, ...) during other time intervals. The optimal solution is then to have both implicit algorithm and explicit methods readily available in the same code and to be able to switch automatically from one to another. Criteria that decide when to shift from a method to another have been developed here. Implicit balanced restarting conditions that annihilate numerical oscillations resulting for an explicit calculation are also proposed. [less ▲]

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