Browsing
     by title


0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

or enter first few letters:   
OK
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical contribution of PET neurotransmission imaging in neurological disorders
Garraux, Gaëtan ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2005), 105(3), 119-136

Imaging neurotransmission in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) is a rapidly expanding clinical science. The present review summarizes the actual contribution of PET imaging to clinical ... [more ▼]

Imaging neurotransmission in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) is a rapidly expanding clinical science. The present review summarizes the actual contribution of PET imaging to clinical problems in movement and seizure disorders and dementia. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical course and predictive factors for cyclosporin-induced autologous graft-versus-host disease after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Baron, Frédéric ULg; Gothot, André ULg; Salmon, Jean ULg et al

in British Journal of Haematology (2000), 111(3), 745-53

The administration of cyclosporin A (CyA) after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) induces a systemic autoimmune syndrome mimicking graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD). This syndrome ... [more ▼]

The administration of cyclosporin A (CyA) after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) induces a systemic autoimmune syndrome mimicking graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD). This syndrome, termed autologous GVHD has notable anti-tumour activity in animal studies. We intended to induce autologous GVHD with CyA in patients undergoing an autologous HSCT. We prospectively studied 118 patients with miscellaneous malignancies undergoing an autologous HSCT with low-dose CyA to characterize the clinical syndrome, its frequency and clinical course, and to determine the factors affecting its incidence. Patients received CyA from d -1 through to d 28, first starting at 2 mg/kg intravenously and then orally as soon as feasible. The dose was adjusted to achieve pre-dose blood levels around 100 ng/ml. A skin biopsy was performed when a skin rash was observed. Thirty-three percent of the patients developed clinical GVHD: clinical stage 1 in 21 patients, stage 2 in seven patients, and stage 3 in three patients. Although total body irradiation (TBI) or high-dose cyclophosphamide were previously thought to be needed, autologous GVHD occurred in five out of 12 patients (42%) after a preparative regimen with high-dose melphalan alone. Autologous GVHD was significantly more frequent in patients older than 33 years, in patients who had received high doses of granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (CFU-GM) and in those with a diagnosis of myeloid malignancy, compared with those with lymphoid malignancies or solid tumours. A significant negative association was also found with HLA-DR6. In lymphoma patients, GVHD occurred more frequently in advanced disease than in first or second complete remission (CR1-2) patients. All other factors studied were not predictive for GVHD. In conclusion, CyA-induced GVHD is reproducibly and safely induced with doses of CyA adapted to achieve blood levels around 100 ng/ml. In retrospective analysis, there was no survival advantage for patients with GVHD. Phase III trials with this approach are needed to evaluate its anti-tumoral effect. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical data based optimal STI strategies for HIV: a reinforcement learning approach
Ernst, Damien ULg; Stan, Guy-Bart; Gonçalves, Jorge et al

in Proceedings of the 45th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC 2006) (2006)

This paper addresses the problem of computing optimal structured treatment interruption strategies for HIV infected patients. We show that reinforcement learning may be useful to extract such strategies ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the problem of computing optimal structured treatment interruption strategies for HIV infected patients. We show that reinforcement learning may be useful to extract such strategies directly from clinical data, without the need of an accurate mathematical model of HIV infection dynamics. To support our claims, we report simulation results obtained by running a recently proposed batch-mode reinforcement learning algorithm, known as fitted Q iteration, on numerically generated data. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical data based optimal STI strategies for HIV: a reinforcement learning approach
Ernst, Damien ULg; Stan, Guy-Bart; Gonçalves, Jorge et al

in Proceedings of the 15th Annual Machine Learning Conference of Belgium and The Netherlands (Benelearn 2006) (2006)

This paper addresses the problem of computing optimal structured treatment interruption strategies for HIV infected patients. We show that reinforcement learning may be useful to extract such strategies ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the problem of computing optimal structured treatment interruption strategies for HIV infected patients. We show that reinforcement learning may be useful to extract such strategies directly from clinical data, without the need of an accurate mathematical model of HIV infection dynamics. To support our claims, we report simulation results obtained by running a recently proposed batch-mode reinforcement learning algorithm, known as tted Q iteration, on numerically generated data. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (20 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical detection and monitoring of acute pulmonary embolism: proof of concept of a computer-based method.
Revie, James A; Stevenson, David J; Chase, J Geoffrey et al

in Annals of Intensive Care (2011), 1(1), 33

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The diagnostic ability of computer-based methods for cardiovascular system (CVS) monitoring offers significant clinical potential. This research tests the clinical applicability of a ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The diagnostic ability of computer-based methods for cardiovascular system (CVS) monitoring offers significant clinical potential. This research tests the clinical applicability of a newly improved computer-based method for the proof of concept case of tracking changes in important hemodynamic indices due to the influence acute pulmonary embolism (APE). METHODS: Hemodynamic measurements from a porcine model of APE were used to validate the method. Of these measurements, only those that are clinically available or inferable were used in to identify pig-specific computer models of the CVS, including the aortic and pulmonary artery pressure, stroke volume, heart rate, global end diastolic volume, and mitral and tricuspid valve closure times. Changes in the computer-derived parameters were analyzed and compared with experimental metrics and clinical indices to assess the clinical applicability of the technique and its ability to track the disease state. RESULTS: The subject-specific computer models accurately captured the increase in pulmonary resistance (Rpul), the main cardiovascular consequence of APE, in all five pigs trials, which related well (R2 = 0.81) with the experimentally derived pulmonary vascular resistance. An increase in right ventricular contractility was identified, as expected, consistent with known reflex responses to APE. Furthermore, the modeled right ventricular expansion index (the ratio of right to left ventricular end diastolic volumes) closely followed the trends seen in the measured data (R2 = 0.92) used for validation, with sharp increases seen in the metric for the two pigs in a near-death state. These results show that the pig-specific models are capable of tracking disease-dependent changes in pulmonary resistance (afterload), right ventricular contractility (inotropy), and ventricular loading (preload) during induced APE. Continuous, accurate estimation of these fundamental metrics of cardiovascular status can help to assist clinicians with diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy-based decisions in an intensive care environment. Furthermore, because the method only uses measurements already available in the ICU, it can be implemented with no added risk to the patient and little extra cost. CONCLUSIONS: This computer-based monitoring method shows potential for real-time, continuous diagnosis and monitoring of acute CVS dysfunction in critically ill patients. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (7 ULg)
See detailClinical diagnosis of rhinosinusal diseases
Clercx, Cécile ULg

in Proceedings of the Fecava Congress, Lille, France, Nov 27th-30th, 2009 (2009, November)

Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical diagnosis of West Nile Fever in equids by classification and regression tree (CART) analysis and comparative study of clinical appearance in three European countries
Porter, Sarah ULg; Leblond, A.; Lecollinet, S. et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2011), 58(3), 197-205

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical differentiation of malignant catarrhal fever, mucosal disease and bluetongue.
Bexiga, R.; Guyot, Hugues ULg; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2007), 161(25), 858-9

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (18 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical efficacy of acarbose in diabetes mellitus: a critical review of controlled trials.
Scheen, André ULg

in Diabètes & Métabolism (1998), 24(4), 311-20

Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, is a new antihyperglycaemic agent which has been proposed as add-on therapy in Type 2 diabetic patients not well-controlled with diet alone, sulphonylurea ... [more ▼]

Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, is a new antihyperglycaemic agent which has been proposed as add-on therapy in Type 2 diabetic patients not well-controlled with diet alone, sulphonylurea, metformin or insulin, and in Type 1 diabetic patients with large meal-related plasma glucose excursions. Numerous controlled studies investigating the clinical effects of acarbose in Type 2 diabetes versus either placebo or, more rarely, versus a reference drug (sulphonylurea or metformin) have been published during the last 10 years. All placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated the superiority of acarbose, at a dose of 150-600 mg/day, in decreasing fasting and postprandial glucose levels as well as HbA1c concentrations (mean decrease of 0.7%), whether acarbose was given as first-line therapy in diet-treated diabetic patients or in combination in individuals already receiving a sulphonylurea, metformin or insulin. Only a few controlled studies have compared the effects of acarbose with those of either sulphonylurea or metformin, yielding controversial results. In Type 1 diabetic patients, a small reduction of HbA1c levels was also reported after addition of acarbose to insulin therapy, which in some cases allowed a slight reduction of daily insulin needs. All these favourable biological effects occurred without exposing the patient to hypoglycaemia or weight gain. A few studies have also reported favourable effects on postprandial lipid profile and some other vascular risk factors. However, it is not clear whether the extra cost of acarbose, when compared to that of older oral antidiabetic agents, is justified since no study has yet demonstrated its potential benefit on the complications and long-term prognosis of diabetic patients. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical efficacy of intrasinusal administration of bifonazole cream through perendoscopically placed catheters alone or in combination with enilconazole irrigation in canine sinonasal aspergillosis.
Billen, Frédéric ULg; Guieu, Liz-Valérie; Bernaerts, Frédérique et al

in Proceedings of the 18th ECVIM-CA Congress (2008, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical en economic implications of non-adherence with osteoporosis medications
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Rabenda, Véronique ULg; Gathon, Henry-Jean ULg et al

in Osteoporosis International (2009, March), 20(S1), 16

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (6 ULg)
See detailClinical evaluation of a nephelometric myoglobin immunoassay
Dati, F.; Lammers, M.; Kapmeyer, W. H. et al

Poster (1990, July)

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical evaluation of a nephelometric myoglobin immunoassay
Dati, F.; Lammers, M.; Kapmeyer, W. H. et al

in Clinical Chemistry (1990), 36

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical evaluation of a single daily dose of phenylpropanolamine in the treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in the bitch
Claeys, Stéphanie ULg; Rustichelli, Federico; Noël, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Canadian Veterinary Journal = Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne (2011), 52

Abstract The objective of this retrospective study was to report the efficacy of a single daily oral dose of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) in the treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI ... [more ▼]

Abstract The objective of this retrospective study was to report the efficacy of a single daily oral dose of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) in the treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) in bitches. Nine bitches diagnosed with USMI were treated with a single daily dose (1.5 mg/kg) of PPA for at least 1 month. Urethral pressure profiles (UPP) were performed in 7 dogs before treatment and repeated in 4 of them after treatment. Treatment with PPA resulted in long-term continence in 8/9 bitches. One dog did not respond to PPA and was treated surgically later. Recheck UPPs showed a significant increase in maximal urethral closure pressure in the 4 bitches after treatment with PPA compared to before treatment. In conclusion, long-term continence can be achieved in bitches affected with USMI after administration of a single daily dose of PPA (1.5 mg/kg). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 92 (37 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical evaluation of cardiac effects of experimental doxycycline overdosing in healthy calves
Brihoum, Mounir ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg et al

in Biomedcentral Veterinary Research (2011), 7

Background Cardiac morphologic and functional changes consistent with cardiomyopathy have been reported in field cases of calves with accidental doxycycline overdosing. The purpose of this study was to ... [more ▼]

Background Cardiac morphologic and functional changes consistent with cardiomyopathy have been reported in field cases of calves with accidental doxycycline overdosing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinically the cardiac effects of an experimentally-induced doxycycline overdosing in healthy calves. Twelve 2 months-old healthy Belgian Blue calves were studied. Six of them (group 1) received the normal dose (5 mg/kg, BID) and the six others (group 2) received five times the normal dose (25 mg/kg, BID) of oral doxycycline for five consecutive days (D1 to D5). Each calf was clinically examined daily. Measurement of serum AST, CK, Iso-CKs and LDH activities and an echocardiographic examination were performed before (D0) and one day after (D6) the last doxycycline administration. An ECG tracing was recorded at D0, D4, and D6. Results In both groups, no clinical, blood, echocardiographic or electrocardiographic changes suggestive of a cardiomyopathy were observed. Only a decreased appetite was observed in the calves of the group 2 between D3 and D6. Conclusions This trial failed to reproduce cardiac changes reported in accidental doxycycline-poisoning in calves, suggesting that high doses of doxycycline may not be the only etiologic factor of the cardiomyopathy reported in the field cases. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (7 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical evaluation of iterative versus analytic reconstruction for parathyroid lesions visualization in primary hyperparathyroidism with 99mTc-MIBI pinhole SPECT.
Ansquer, C.; Mirallié, E.; Oudoux, A. et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (2006), 33(S2), 355

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical evaluation of medicinal products for acceleration of fracture healing in patients with osteoporosis.
Goldhahn, Jörg; Scheele, Wim H.; Mitlak, Bruce H. et al

in BONE (2008), 43(2), 343-7

Pre-clinical studies indicate that pharmacologic agents can augment fracture union. If these pharmacologic approaches could be translated into clinical benefit and offered to patients with osteoporosis or ... [more ▼]

Pre-clinical studies indicate that pharmacologic agents can augment fracture union. If these pharmacologic approaches could be translated into clinical benefit and offered to patients with osteoporosis or patients with other risks for impaired fracture union (e.g. in subjects with large defects or open fractures with high complication rate), they could provide an important adjunct to the treatment of fractures. However, widely accepted guidelines are important to encourage the conduct of studies to evaluate bioactive substances, drugs, and new agents that may promote fracture union and subsequent return to normal function. A consensus process was initiated to provide recommendations for the clinical evaluation of potential therapies to augment fracture repair in patients with meta- and diaphyseal fractures. Based on the characteristics of fracture healing and fixation, the following study objectives of a clinical study may be appropriate: a) acceleration of fracture union, b) acceleration of return to normal function and c) reduction of fracture healing complications. The intended goal(s) should determine subsequent study methodology. While an acceleration of return to normal function or a reduction of fracture healing complications in and of themselves may be sufficient primary study endpoints for a phase 3 pivotal study, acceleration of fracture union alone is not. Radiographic evaluation may either occur at multiple time points during the healing process with the aim of measuring the time taken to reach a defined status (e.g. cortical bridging of three cortices or disappearance of fracture lines), or could be obtained at a single pre-determined timepoint, were patients are expected to reach a common clinical milestone (i.e. pain free full weight-bearing in weight-bearing fracture cases). Validated Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO's) measures will need to support the return to normal function co-primary endpoints. If reduction of complication rate (e.g. non-union) is the primary objective, the anticipated complications must be defined in the study protocol, along with their possible associations with the specified fracture type and fixation device. The study design should be randomized, parallel, double-blind, and placebo-controlled, and all fracture subjects should receive a standardized method of fracture fixation, defined as Standard of Care. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical evaluation of processing techniques for attenuation correction with 137Cs in whole-body PET imaging.
Benard, F.; Smith, R. J.; Hustinx, Roland ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (1999), 40(8), 1257-63

Transmission scanning can be successfully performed with a 137Cs single-photon emitting point source for three-dimensional PET imaging. However, the attenuation coefficients provided by this method are ... [more ▼]

Transmission scanning can be successfully performed with a 137Cs single-photon emitting point source for three-dimensional PET imaging. However, the attenuation coefficients provided by this method are underestimated because of the energy difference between 662- and 511-keV photons, as well as scatter and emission contamination when the transmission data are acquired after injection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, from a clinical perspective, the relative benefits of various processing schemes to resolve these issues. METHODS: Thirty-eight whole-body PET studies acquired with postinjection singles transmission scans were analyzed. The transmission images were processed and applied to the emission data for attenuation correction. Three processing techniques were compared: simple segmentation (SEG) of the transmission scan, emission contamination subtraction with scaling (ECS) of the resulting data to 511-keV attenuation coefficient values and a hybrid technique performing partial segmentation of some tissue densities on the ECS scan (THR). The corrected emission scans were blindly assessed for image noise, the presence of edge artifacts at the lung-soft-tissue interface and for overall diagnostic confidence using a semiquantitative scoring system. The count densities and the SDs in uniform structures were compared among the various techniques. The observations for each method were compared using a paired t test. RESULTS: The SEG technique produced images that were visually less noisy than the ECS method (P < 0.0001) and the THR technique, but at the expense of increased edge artifacts at the boundaries between the lungs and surrounding tissues. The THR technique failed to eliminate these artifacts compared with the ECS technique (P < 0.0001) but preserved the activity gradients in the hilar areas. The count densities (and thus, the standardized uptake values) were similar among the three techniques, but the SEG method tended to underestimate the activity in the lung fields and in chest tumors (slope = 0.79 and 0.94, respectively). CONCLUSION: For many clinical applications, SEG data remain an efficient method for processing 137Cs transmission scans. The ECS method produced noisier images than the other two techniques but did not introduce artifacts at the lung boundaries. The THR technique, more versatile in complex anatomic areas, allowed good preservation of density gradients in the lungs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical evaluation of whole-body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the detection of liver metastases.
Hustinx, Roland ULg; Paulus, Patrick; Jacquet, Nicolas et al

in Annals of Oncology (1998), 9(4), 397-401

BACKGROUND: Assessment of metastatic involvement of the liver remains a diagnostic challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential role of FDG PET in the detection of liver metastases ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Assessment of metastatic involvement of the liver remains a diagnostic challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential role of FDG PET in the detection of liver metastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-four patients with malignancy and possible liver involvement were included. Liver metastases were present in 31 cases, demonstrated by histopathological analysis in 15 cases and by follow-up in 16 cases. The negative cases were confirmed by pathology in four cases, peroperative ultrasonography in 12 cases, and follow-up in 17 cases. Whole-body FDG PET was compared to CT (n = 53) and US (n = 43). RESULTS: PET demonstrated a 97% sensitivity, an 88% specificity and a 92% accuracy, compared to 93%, 75% and 85%, respectively, for CT (P = NS). Concordant results were obtained in 44 of 64 patients (69%: 19 TP. 25 TN). PET provided new and accurate information in 15 of 64 patients (23.4%). PET demonstrated liver metastases in 11 patients in whom conventional methods yielded negative (two cases) or doubtful (nine cases) results. Four patients free of liver involvement were correctly staged with PET, while CT/US were equivocal. PET was erroneous in five of 64 cases (7.8%, four FP, one FN). CONCLUSIONS: FDG PET allows an accurate screening of liver involvement in patients with malignancy. Combined with CT, it provides additional diagnostic information that could directly affect the management of these patients. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (13 ULg)