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See detailChild labour in small-scale artisanal mining in different African mining towns
Andre, Géraldine ULg

Scientific conference (2012, November 07)

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See detailChild labour, Agency and Family dynamics: The Case of Mining in Katanga (DRC)
Andre, Géraldine ULg; Godin, Marie

in Childhood (in press)

In the last three decades, the development of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector has been increasing in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), bringing more and more urban families into ... [more ▼]

In the last three decades, the development of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector has been increasing in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), bringing more and more urban families into this flourishing business sector, and among them, children. At first glance, one could see children in the mining sector mainly as victims entangled in the flows of raw materials of unbridled capitalism. But this paper aims to look at the often unconceivable, and as a result neglected, social agency of children even when they are involved in stigmatized and prohibited types of child labour. To do so, it relies on the results of a socio-anthropological collective research project on children’s mining activities which was carried out in a small locality called La Ruashi in the city of Lubumbashi (Province of Katanga). The article aims to provide a more comprehensive understanding of what is often normatively only labelled as ‘child labour’ by looking at different spheres of social relations within which children are embedded. Examining the set of social interactions that children have with their families, the broader community and their ‘peers’, several ‘family portraits’ are offered, highlighting a heterogeneity of social interpretations regarding this ‘new’ form of child work. It will be shown that for families from middle-class background, this kind of work is often socially disruptive, at the forefront of inter-generational conflict. As for families from lower classes, social changes induced by children’s mining activities are often better incorporated into the family habitus. Common social changes encountered in all families irrespective of class belonging will also be portrayed, showing the transversal societal impact these ‘new’ forms of child economic activities can provoke at a micro level. [less ▲]

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See detailChildcare and preschool effects
Crahay, Marcel ULg

in Husen, T. (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of Education (1993)

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See detailChildcare centres open to every child and his family : a guarantee to increase quality
Camus, Pascale ULg

Conference (2010, July 13)

Everyone should have the possibility to benefit from an ECEC service where his / her needs are recognized and given individual attention. For the last years, several laws have been issued to facilitate ... [more ▼]

Everyone should have the possibility to benefit from an ECEC service where his / her needs are recognized and given individual attention. For the last years, several laws have been issued to facilitate inclusion of children with special needs in the French Community of Belgium, but laws are not sufficient. The point is to think about constructive conditions necessary to welcome daily every child and family. A group of professionals has gathered to share experiences and define options to share competencies, knowledge and experiences in order to give opportunities to everybody to feel welcome in the service, in regards to his / her competencies, interests, possibilities. A main hypothesis that has been examined: an individual care to a child with special needs can transform positively the whole ECEC service and improve quality conditions for everybody. Indeed quality depends both on pedagogical choices made (what is daily proposed to children and their family ?) and on the beneficiaries of the service (who are the children and the family welcomed ?). In the part of the symposium focused on the French Community of Belgium, the results of worshops (increasing partnership with families, giving a place to each child, building a network …) have been discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailChildhood and Work at the Neoliberal Age: Ethnography of Child Work in Artisanal and Small-scale Mining in the Katanga province (DRC)
Andre, Géraldine ULg; Godin, Marie

Conference (2012, October 26)

This paper aims at analyzing the work activities carried out by children in artisanal and small-scale mining in Katanga, DRC, in the wake of the evolution of representations of work, masculinity, family ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at analyzing the work activities carried out by children in artisanal and small-scale mining in Katanga, DRC, in the wake of the evolution of representations of work, masculinity, family and childhood since the reforms of the Congolese mining sector promoted by the institutions of Bretton Woods. Katanga has been the industrial flagship of the Belgian Congo organized around the mining town of Lubumbashi during the colonial period and also after the independence of the country. The “union minière du Haut-Katanga” created by Belgians and nationalized after with the name of “Gécamines” has had a decisive impact on the structuration of the collective imagination on work, masculinity, family and childhood in this area of the country, which contains an infinite geologic potential and, as such, is strongly connected to global flows of raw materials exploitation. What is the impact of the reforms of the mining sector encouraged by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund according to the ideals of schooling, nuclear family and father as the main breadwinner, the ones that have been promoted by the Gecamines during several decades? More specifically, what are the effects of these measures on socialization processes of youth and what are the consequences of those transformations on intergenerational dynamics? These questions that deal with the evolution of representations of childhood, work and family will be the main focus of our paper, which presents the results of a collective socio-anthropological research about child work in artisanal and small scale-mining in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Katanga province). [less ▲]

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See detailLe Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (CASI-R) : Etude de validation.
Stassart, Céline ULg; Depauw, Brigitte; Delvaux, Muriel ULg et al

Poster (2008, November 28)

La sensibilité à l'anxiété est la peur des sensations corporelles liées à l’anxiété, qui proviendrait de croyances que ces sensations ont des conséquences somatiques, psychologiques ou sociales néfastes ... [more ▼]

La sensibilité à l'anxiété est la peur des sensations corporelles liées à l’anxiété, qui proviendrait de croyances que ces sensations ont des conséquences somatiques, psychologiques ou sociales néfastes. Ce concept a été très peu exploré dans le contexte infantile. L’AS étant considérée comme un facteur de risque dans le développement et le maintien des troubles anxieux, ceci montre l’intérêt de s’intéresser davantage à l’outil d’évaluation de l’AS dans le contexte infantile, le Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index revised. L'objectif de cette étude est de d'évaluer les propriétés psychométriques de la version française de la CASI-R auprès d'un échantillon de 60 enfants âgés de 10 à 11 ans. En ce qui concerne les résultats, la confrontation de la CASI-R aux qualités psychométriques nous fournit des premiers éléments en faveur de l’intérêt clinique et de la pertinence théorique de cet outil dans le contexte infantile. En ce sens, la poursuite de son développement paraît constituer une perspective intéressante. [less ▲]

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See detailChildhood cutaneous leiomyosarcoma.
Blaise, Géraldine ULg; Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg et al

in Pediatric Dermatology (2009), 26(4), 477-9

Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma is a soft tissue neoplasm exhibiting an aggressive local behavior and a potential for distant metastases. It is rare during childhood and diagnosis can be challenging both ... [more ▼]

Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma is a soft tissue neoplasm exhibiting an aggressive local behavior and a potential for distant metastases. It is rare during childhood and diagnosis can be challenging both clinically and histologically. Surgical excision with wide lateral and deep margins is the treatment of choice, whereas radiotherapy and chemotherapy are contraindicated. Long-term follow-up is necessary as recurrences are not infrequent. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI): Confirmatory Factor Analyses and Cross-Cultural Clinical Validity in a Sample of 8- to 11-Year-Old Children
Catale, Corinne ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Thorell, Lisa B.

in Journal of Attention Disorders (in press)

The Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI) is a new rating instrument for executive functioning developed by Thorell and Nyberg (2008). Through exploratory factor analyses, this inventory has ... [more ▼]

The Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI) is a new rating instrument for executive functioning developed by Thorell and Nyberg (2008). Through exploratory factor analyses, this inventory has been shown to tap into working memory and inhibition-related behaviors in young children. In this study, we present the psychometric characteristics of the French adaptation of the CHEXI in 8- to 11-year-old children. In addition, we explore the cross-cultural validity of the CHEXI in discriminating between children with ADHD and normally developing children in two culturally different samples (Belgian and Swedish). Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the two-factor solution, referred to as inhibition and working memory, that was identified in the original study with Swedish children. Supplementary analyses indicated that both subscales have good psychometric properties. From a clinical point of view, the CHEXI was found to discriminate, with high sensitivity and specificity, between children with ADHD and normally developing controls in both cultural samples. Cross-cultural clinical implications are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailChildhood Herpes Zoster-Triggered Guttate Psoriasis
FAILLA, Valérie ULg; NIKKELS, Nazli ULg; SABATIELLO, Murielle ULg et al

in Open Dermatology Journal (The) (2012), 6

Psoriasis is commonly triggered or exacerbated by various stress factors, certain drugs, or streptococcal throat infections. Viral infections such as HIV, CMV, chikungunya, or herpes simplex virus are ... [more ▼]

Psoriasis is commonly triggered or exacerbated by various stress factors, certain drugs, or streptococcal throat infections. Viral infections such as HIV, CMV, chikungunya, or herpes simplex virus are very uncommon triggers for psoriasis. Cases of varicella-triggered psoriasis are exceptional. A 7-year-old boy with a previous history of guttate psoriasis presented with generalized acute guttate psoriasis shortly after an extensive herpes zoster infection affecting the first and second left lumbar dermatomes. INF-alpha and granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor influence peripheral monocytes to transform into INF-dendritic cells (DC's), similar to those involved in psoriasis. These INF-DC's express toll-like receptors 7 and 8, which are responsive to viral single stranded RNA. Hence, viral infections and interferon (INF)-alpha may play a role in triggering psoriasis. [less ▲]

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See detailChildren and parents: The anxiety sensitivity, what links?
Stassart, Céline ULg; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg

Poster (2011, May 27)

Objectives. Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is the fear of anxiety-related sensations. This work examines the relationships between childhood learning experiences and the development of AS, in a non-clinical ... [more ▼]

Objectives. Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is the fear of anxiety-related sensations. This work examines the relationships between childhood learning experiences and the development of AS, in a non-clinical sample of children. Methods. Seventy normal children aged 9 to 12 years were interviewed about their learning experiences with anxiety-related and cold-related somatic symptoms. Three learning status were examined: -reinforcement, verbal transmission and observational (mother and father) learning- using the Questionnaire d'Expérience d'Apprentissage (QEA). AS levels were assessed using the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI). Results. Correlations between QEA and CASI (r between 0.31 and 0.60, p<0.01) are significant, except for the reinforcement of somatic symptoms in learning by observation of the father. For boys, all learning experiences correlate with CASI scores (r between 0.33 and 0.62, p<0.001), except the reinforcement in learning by observation of the father. For girls, two correlations are observed: for verbal transmission learning following anxiety (r = 0.57) and cold (r = 0.55) symptoms (p=0.001). The level of AS correlate with learning by observation of the father only for boys (r=0.38, p<0.05). Conclusions. These results could suggest that learning experiences seem to play a significant role in the development of AS and suggest also a gender transmission: between different status of learning for boys and girls and between the observation of the mother and the father. Learning by observation of the father will only be linked to boy's AS. These findings bring to question the specific impact of a father's fears in the development of children's AS. [less ▲]

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See detailChildren of lesbian parents: Research on family triadic interactions
Miscioscia, Marina ULg; Scarciotta, Lidia; D'Amore, Salvatore ULg et al

in Infant Mental Health Journal (2012, June), 33(3 Abstract Supplement), 26

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See detailChildren of teenage mothers : delayed psychomotor and language development
Noirhomme-Renard, Florence ULg; Tancredi, Annalisa; Gosset, Christiane ULg

Conference (2011, September)

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See detailChildren undergoing cardiac surgery for complex cardiac defects show imbalance between pro- and anti-thrombotic activity.
Heying, Ruth; van Oeveren, Wim; Wilhelm, Stefanie et al

in Critical Care (2006), 10(6), 165

INTRODUCTION: Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with the activation of inflammatory mediators that possess prothrombotic activity and could cause postoperative haemostatic ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with the activation of inflammatory mediators that possess prothrombotic activity and could cause postoperative haemostatic disorders. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of cardiac surgery on prothrombotic activity in children undergoing cardiac surgery for complex cardiac defects. METHODS: Eighteen children (ages 3 to 163 months) undergoing univentricular palliation with total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) (n = 10) or a biventricular repair (n = 8) for complex cardiac defects were studied. Prothrombotic activity was evaluated by measuring plasma levels of prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), thromboxane B2 (TxB2), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Anti-thrombotic activity was evaluated by measuring levels of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) before, during, and after cardiac surgery. RESULTS: In all patients, cardiac surgery was associated with a significant but transient increase of F1+2, TxB2, TFPI, and MCP-1. Maximal values of F1+2, TxB2, and MCP-1 were found at the end of CPB. In contrast, maximal levels of TFPI were observed at the beginning of CPB. Concentrations of F1+2 at the end of CPB correlated negatively with the minimal oesophageal temperature during CPB. Markers of prothrombotic activity returned to preoperative values from the first postoperative day on. Early postoperative TFPI levels were significantly lower and TxB2 levels significantly higher in patients with TCPC than in those with biventricular repair. Thromboembolic events were not observed. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that children with complex cardiac defects undergoing cardiac surgery show profound but transient imbalance between pro- and anti-thrombotic activity, which could lead to thromboembolic complications. These alterations are more important after TCPC than after biventricular repair but seem to be determined mainly by low antithrombin III. [less ▲]

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See detailChildren with specific language impairment are impaired on implicit higher-order sequence learning, but not on implicit spatial context learning.
Gabriel, Audrey ULg; Schmitz, Xavier; Maillart, Christelle ULg et al

Poster (2009, June 05)

In a recent review of the SLI literature it has been suggested that low language and grammatical abilities would be directly associated with poor learning abilities of nonverbal sequences (Ullman ... [more ▼]

In a recent review of the SLI literature it has been suggested that low language and grammatical abilities would be directly associated with poor learning abilities of nonverbal sequences (Ullman & Pierpont, 2005; Tomblin et al., 2007). Therefore, one could hypothesize that a general purpose sequential pattern tracker could determine some aspects of language and grammar learning. In the present study, 15 children with SLI and 15 matched control children were compared on two implicit learning tasks: an alternating serial response time task in which sequential dependencies exist across non-adjacent elements, and a spatial context learning task in which the global configuration of a display cues the location of a searched target (Chun & Jiang, 1998). We predict that children with SLI will show impaired sequence learning and normal spatial context learning. By confirming the presence of a specific deficit in sequential learning processes, the present study should contribute to better understand the language abilities, and in particular the grammatical difficulties, of individuals with specific language impairment. [less ▲]

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See detailChildren's interpretation of referential ambiguities and pragmatic inference
Brédart, Serge ULg

in Journal of Child Language (1984), 11(3), 665-672

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See detailChildren’s Knowledge About Memory: Adaptation and French Validation of a Scale to Assess it.
Geurten, Marie ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in INS Abstract Book (2013)

The present study aimed at adapting and testing a French version of Kreutzer et al.’s metamemory interview (1975) in a group of 128 children aged of 4, 6, 9, and 12. Following Fritz et al. (2010 ... [more ▼]

The present study aimed at adapting and testing a French version of Kreutzer et al.’s metamemory interview (1975) in a group of 128 children aged of 4, 6, 9, and 12. Following Fritz et al. (2010), adjustments have been made to reduce language skill contamination as well as to increase the developmental appropriateness and sensibility of the scale. Results show the emergence of two sub-scales (“strategy knowledge” and “general memory knowledge”) on the factor analysis and reveal an excellent interrater reliability as well as a good internal consistency for the global scale and two sub-scales (respectively, Cronbach α = .79; .81 and .71). As expected with regard to the literature, a significant correlation has appeared between the metamemory scale and short-term memory capacities (convergent validity). Similarly, the metamemory score has shown its ability to predict children memory performance (predictive validity). Finally, the lack of correlation between most of the scale’s items and vocabulary measurement (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) and the very good ability of the scale to distinguish between age groups demonstrate that the adaptations made to improve the Kreutzer et al.’s scale in terms of language’s contamination and developmental sensibility have reached their goal. Regarding its psychometric properties, these results suggest that this interview can be considered as a useful and reliable tool for developmental research. Furthermore, they confirm the importance of metamemory knowledge in memory performance. Future studies will have to be carried out to show the utility of this scale in a clinical population. [less ▲]

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