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See detailChemoresistance to Valproate Treatment of Bovine Leukemia Virus-Infected Sheep; Identification of Improved HDAC Inhibitors
Gillet, Nicolas ULg; Vandermeers, Fabian ULg; De Brogniez, Alix ULg et al

in Pathogens (2012), (2012-1), 65-82

We previously proved that a histone deacetylase inhibitor (valproate, VPA) decreases the number of leukemic cells in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected sheep. Here, we characterize the mechanisms ... [more ▼]

We previously proved that a histone deacetylase inhibitor (valproate, VPA) decreases the number of leukemic cells in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected sheep. Here, we characterize the mechanisms initiated upon interruption of treatment. We observed that VPA treatment is followed by a decrease of the B cell counts and proviral loads (copies per blood volume). However, all sheep eventually relapsed after different periods of time and became refractory to further VPA treatment. Sheep remained persistently infected with BLV. B lymphocytes isolated throughout treatment and relapse were responsive to VPA-induced apoptosis in cell culture. B cell proliferation is only marginally affected by VPA ex vivo. Interestingly, in four out of five sheep, ex vivo viral expression was nearly undetectable at the time of relapse. In two sheep, a new tumoral clone arose, most likely revealing a selection process exerted by VPA in vivo. We conclude that the interruption of VPA treatment leads to the resurgence of the leukemia in BLV-infected sheep and hypothesize that resistance to further treatment might be due to the failure of viral expression induction. The development of more potent HDAC inhibitors and/or the combination with other compounds can overcome chemoresistance. These observations in the BLV model may be important for therapies against the related Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1. [less ▲]

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See detailA Chemoselective Ligation For The Synthesis Of Amino Acid Derivatives Of Virginiamycin M-1
Nott, Katherine ULg; Dufour, Samuel; Gossele, Francis et al

in Tetrahedron Letters (2005), 46(43),

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See detailChemotaxis-Promoting and Adhesion Properties of Human Tonsillar Follicular Dendritic Cell Clusters
Bouzahzah, F.; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Simar, Léon ULg et al

in Research in Immunology (1996), 147(3, Mar-Apr), 165-73

Lymph follicles are globular and compact due to aggregation of lymphoid cells on follicular dendritic cells (FDC). To probe the mechanisms underlying this accumulation of cells, we analyse here the role ... [more ▼]

Lymph follicles are globular and compact due to aggregation of lymphoid cells on follicular dendritic cells (FDC). To probe the mechanisms underlying this accumulation of cells, we analyse here the role played by FDCs in attracting and binding cells. FDCs prepared from human tonsils by mild separation techniques appeared in the form of clusters (FDC clusters), where, via cytoplasmic extensions, they enveloped lymphoid cells. Using Boyden's chambers, we demonstrated that these FDC clusters produced one or more chemoattractants capable of inducing chemotaxis of lymphoid cells. Supernatants of FDC cluster cultures also exerted a chemotaxis-promoting effect. FDC clusters induced true chemotaxis, not merely chemokinesis due to cell activation. They secreted a substance or substances that stuck to the substrate (a cellulose filter) and thus induced haptotaxis. B as well as T cells were attracted, but B cells apparently required the presence of T cells to respond fully to the chemoattractant(s). Subtypes of B cells (IgD+ and IgD-) and T cells (CD4+, CD8+, CD57+ AND CD57-) were tested and all were attracted. Since purified lymphoid cells did not induce these phenomena, FDCs were suspected to do so. FDCs have been shown to establish contact with lymphoid cells. Here we have determined that CD4+ T cells adhere in greater number to FDC clusters than do CD8+ T cells. We thus propose that FDCs specifically contribute to construction of lymph follicles by attracting and determining their cell composition. [less ▲]

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See detailChemR23 dampens lung inflammation and enhances anti-viral immunity in a mouse model of acute viral pneumonia
Bondue, Benjamin; Vosters, Olivier; de Nadai, Patricia et al

in PLoS Pathogens (2011), 7(11), 1002358

Viral diseases of the respiratory tract, which include influenza pandemic, children acute bronchiolitis, and viral pneumonia of the elderly, represent major health problems. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells ... [more ▼]

Viral diseases of the respiratory tract, which include influenza pandemic, children acute bronchiolitis, and viral pneumonia of the elderly, represent major health problems. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells play an important role in anti-viral immunity, and these cells were recently shown to express ChemR23, the receptor for the chemoattractant protein chemerin, which is expressed by epithelial cells in the lung. Our aim was to determine the role played by the chemerin/ChemR23 system in the physiopathology of viral pneumonia, using the pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) as a model. Wild-type and ChemR23 knock-out mice were infected by PVM and followed for functional and inflammatory parameters. ChemR23(-/-) mice displayed higher mortality/morbidity, alteration of lung function, delayed viral clearance and increased neutrophilic infiltration. We demonstrated in these mice a lower recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and a reduction in type I interferon production. The role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells was further addressed by performing depletion and adoptive transfer experiments as well as by the generation of chimeric mice, demonstrating two opposite effects of the chemerin/ChemR23 system. First, the ChemR23-dependent recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells contributes to adaptive immune responses and viral clearance, but also enhances the inflammatory response. Second, increased morbidity/mortality in ChemR23(-/-) mice is not due to defective plasmacytoid dendritic cells recruitment, but rather to the loss of an anti-inflammatory pathway involving ChemR23 expressed by non-leukocytic cells. The chemerin/ChemR23 system plays important roles in the physiopathology of viral pneumonia, and might therefore be considered as a therapeutic target for anti-viral and anti-inflammatory therapies. [less ▲]

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See detailUne chênaie n'est pas l'autre : analyse des contextes sylvicoles du chêne en forêt wallonne
Claessens, Hugues ULg; Perin, Jérôme ULg; Latte, Nicolas ULg et al

in Forêt Wallonne (2010), 108(sept-oct), 3-18

Le chêne n’est pas une essence facile à conduire vers la production de bois de qualité. Pour beaucoup d’entre eux, leur forme a été conditionnée il y a plus d’un siècle au sein de peuplements bien ... [more ▼]

Le chêne n’est pas une essence facile à conduire vers la production de bois de qualité. Pour beaucoup d’entre eux, leur forme a été conditionnée il y a plus d’un siècle au sein de peuplements bien différents de ce qu’ils sont devenus car originellement adaptés aux conditions socio-économiques qui prévalaient aux XIXe et au début du XXe siècle. Mais dans bien des cas, la sylviculture que l’on mène maintenant est encore sous la contrainte de ce passé. Cet article envisage les contextes « historico-sylvicoles » des chênaies de Wallonie à la lumière de leur état actuel. [less ▲]

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See detailLe chêne en forêt ardennaise, un atout à préserver
Alderweireld, Matthieu ULg; Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Latte, Nicolas ULg et al

in Forêt Wallonne (2010), 109(6), 10-24

Dans la forêt ardennaise, les chênes sont en nette diminution. Plusieurs facteurs sont responsables de cette diminution, voici quelques exemples : régénération plus difficile que le hêtre, abroutissement ... [more ▼]

Dans la forêt ardennaise, les chênes sont en nette diminution. Plusieurs facteurs sont responsables de cette diminution, voici quelques exemples : régénération plus difficile que le hêtre, abroutissement par le gibier, mauvaise réputation de la qualité du chêne ardennais dû aux anciens traitements, conditions de marché du bois défavorable aux essences à grandes révolution. Pourtant, ces dernières années, on prend conscience de leur importance. Les apports du chêne dans la hêtraie ardennaise sont nombreux, notamment dans le contexte du changement climatique : le chêne favorise le développement d’un cortège d’organismes diversifiés, favorise la décomposition de la litière et la fertilité des sols, permet l’exploitation des stations impropres au hêtre, favorise la stabilité des peuplements et permet la production de bois de qualité. Favoriser la régénération du chêne requiert une sylviculture interventionniste, les éléments principaux sont l’apport de lumière et la protection contre le gibier. Même s’il est possible de donner des pistes pour favoriser le chêne, de nombreuses questions se posent encore. Dans le contexte de l’Accord-cadre de recherche et vulgarisation forestières, l’ULg (GxABT) et l’UCL ont mis en place des dispositifs qui devraient bientôt permettre de mettre au point des scénarios sylvicoles. [less ▲]

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See detailCHEOPS: A transit photometry mission for ESA's small mission programme
Broeg, C.; Fortier, A.; Ehrenreich, D. et al

in Saglia, Roberto (Ed.) European Physical Journal Web of Conferences (2013, April 01)

Ground based radial velocity (RV) searches continue to discover exoplanets below Neptune mass down to Earth mass. Furthermore, ground based transit searches now reach milli-mag photometric precision and ... [more ▼]

Ground based radial velocity (RV) searches continue to discover exoplanets below Neptune mass down to Earth mass. Furthermore, ground based transit searches now reach milli-mag photometric precision and can discover Neptune size planets around bright stars. These searches will find exoplanets around bright stars anywhere on the sky, their discoveries representing prime science targets for further study due to the proximity and brightness of their host stars. A mission for transit follow-up measurements of these prime targets is currently lacking. The first ESA S-class mission CHEOPS (CHaracterizing ExoPlanet Satellite) will fill this gap. It will perform ultra-high precision photometric monitoring of selected bright target stars almost anywhere on the sky with sufficient precision to detect Earth sized transits. It will be able to detect transits of RV-planets by photometric monitoring if the geometric configuration results in a transit. For Hot Neptunes discovered from the ground, CHEOPS will be able to improve the transit light curve so that the radius can be determined precisely. Because of the host stars' brightness, high precision RV measurements will be possible for all targets. All planets observed in transit by CHEOPS will be validated and their masses will be known. This will provide valuable data for constraining the mass-radius relation of exoplanets, especially in the Neptune-mass regime. During the planned 3.5 year mission, about 500 targets will be observed. There will be 20% of open time available for the community to develop new science programmes. [less ▲]

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See detailChercher ensemble
de Landsheere, Gilbert ULg

in ATEE Journal: a Journal for Teacher Education in Europe (1977), septembre

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See detailChercher sans compter
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Speech/Talk (2013)

En réalisant heureusement le décloisonnement géographique et économique de la littérature scientifique tout en renforçant techniquement l'évaluation prioritairement statistique et donc réductrice de la ... [more ▼]

En réalisant heureusement le décloisonnement géographique et économique de la littérature scientifique tout en renforçant techniquement l'évaluation prioritairement statistique et donc réductrice de la recherche, le répertoire institutionnel d'auto-archivage ouvert expose le chercheur débutant à une tension qui risque, à terme, de nuire à certains aspects pourtant essentiels de sa recherche. (Discours prononcé à l'occasion de la cérémonie de rentrée académique 2013 de l'Université de Liège par un représentant du personnel scientifique) [less ▲]

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See detailLe chercheur comme entrepreneur de l’innovation inter-organisationnelle
Xhauflair, Virginie ULg; Pichault, François ULg

in SociologieS (2011)

Our study about the institutionalization process of social regulation practices emerging at the inter-organizational level led us to develop an action-research methodology of entrepreneurial nature. This ... [more ▼]

Our study about the institutionalization process of social regulation practices emerging at the inter-organizational level led us to develop an action-research methodology of entrepreneurial nature. This methodological choice gave rise to original and rich data, but simultaneously challenged our ability to analyze these data as well as our entrepreneurial role in a reflexive way. The central question of this paper is then twofold: on the one hand, can the researcher be an “entrepreneur”, and go beyond the simple production of knowledge? On the other hand, can the researcher with an entrepreneurial position produce scientific knowledge? We will answer these two questions thanks to two case studies, which will allow us to highlight various facets of acting as a “researcher-entrepreneur”. [less ▲]

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See detailChercheurs, libérez l'accès: vous serez plus lus et mieux cités
Rentier, Bernard ULg

Scientific conference (2014, October 13)

Availability of an article on the Internet without any barrier increases by a 20-fold factor its downloading songs as compared to those in restricted access requiring a reprint request. An article is ... [more ▼]

Availability of an article on the Internet without any barrier increases by a 20-fold factor its downloading songs as compared to those in restricted access requiring a reprint request. An article is being cited twice as much if immediately accessible. It is a fact. Hence it is crucial, if one wants to be read (why else would one one publish ?) to deposit one's manuscripts immediately after acceptance (i.e. before publication) and to make them freely accessible as soon as permitted. | L'accessibilité d'un article sur l'Internet sans aucune entrave technique augmente d'environ 20 fois ses téléchargements par rapport à l'accès restreint nécessitant une demande de tiré-à-part. Un article est cité environ 2 fois plus s'il est directement accessible. C'est une réalité. Il est donc crucial, si l'on veut être lu (sinon, pourquoi publie-t'on?) de déposer ses manuscrits immédiatement après acceptation (donc avant la publication) et de les rendre librement accessibles dès le moment où on y est autorisé. [less ▲]

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See detailChercheurs, vos papiers! Les dépôts institutionnels obligatoires
Rentier, Bernard ULg

in Hermès (2010), (57), 107-108

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See detailChest wall motion during epidural anesthesia in dogs.
Warner, David O; Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Ritman, Erik L et al

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1991), 70(2), 539-47

To determine the relative contribution of rib cage and abdominal muscles to expiratory muscle activity during quiet breathing, we used lumbar epidural anesthesia in six pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized ... [more ▼]

To determine the relative contribution of rib cage and abdominal muscles to expiratory muscle activity during quiet breathing, we used lumbar epidural anesthesia in six pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized dogs lying supine to paralyze the abdominal muscles while leaving rib cage muscle motor function substantially intact. A high-speed X-ray scanner (Dynamic Spatial Reconstructor) provided three-dimensional images of the thorax. The contribution of expiratory muscle activity to tidal breathing was assessed by a comparison of chest wall configuration during relaxed apnea with that at end expiration. We found that expiratory muscle activity was responsible for approximately half of the changes in thoracic volume during inspiration. Paralysis of the abdominal muscles had little effect on the pattern of breathing, including the contribution of expiratory muscle activity to tidal breathing, in most dogs. We conclude that, although there is consistent phasic expiratory electrical activity in both the rib cage and the abdominal muscles of pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs lying supine, the muscles of the rib cage are mechanically the most important expiratory muscles during quiet breathing. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cheval de trait ardennais convient-il pour l'attelage sportif
Crigel, MH; Art, Tatiana ULg; Votion, Dominique ULg et al

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (1996), 28

The Ardennais draught horse (DH) is more and more used for harnessing competitions. The aim of this study was to improve our knowledge of its cardiorespiratory peculiarities, both at rest and during ... [more ▼]

The Ardennais draught horse (DH) is more and more used for harnessing competitions. The aim of this study was to improve our knowledge of its cardiorespiratory peculiarities, both at rest and during exercise. At rest, arterial blood gas analysis, venous blood analysis, a test of mechanics of breathing and an endoscopy of the upper airways were performed. Experiments during exercise were performed on a treadmill. The intensity of the standardised test was sufficient to overshoot the OBLA threshold. The test was of increasing intensity and lasted 22 min. The cardiorespiratory parameters were measured during the last 5 min. Expired volume minute (VE), VT and f were measured. Respiratory O2 and CO2 fraction were measured with a mass spectrometer. Oxygen uptake (VOA, CO2 output (VCO2) and VE/VO2 were calculated. Heart rate (HR) was continuously measured.The results were compared to data recorded in standarbred horses (SH) during a treadmill exercise test leading to a similar lactaci¬demia (LA) and peak HR.The DH have a significantly lower V02 than the SH while running at an exercise intensity inducing the same HR and LA modifications. The lower aerobic capacity of DH was at least partly correlated with their higher cost of breathing and lower blood gas transport capacity.Moreover, other measurements have been performed infield conditions, during 4 draft competitions, i.e. speed, maniability, power and endurance. Venous blood analyses before and after the competition, heart rate and body temperature measurements were performed. The results of this second set of measurements confirm the results obtained in the laboratory and allow assessing that these kinds of competition do not induce dramatic physiological modifications and therefore respect the welfare and limits of these horses. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cheval en Mésopotamie, des origines à l’époque néo-assyrienne
Van der Stede, Véronique ULg

in Cattelain, Pierre; Bozet, Nathalie (Eds.) Sur la piste du cheval. De la préhistoire à l’antiquité (2007)

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See detailLes chevaux ailés ont-ils des ailes ? Et qu'en est-il de Pégase ? Statut épistémologique des énoncés de fiction, statut ontologique des objets de fiction
Leclercq, Bruno ULg

Scientific conference (2013, November 13)

Le traitement réservé par la logique frégéo-russellienne aux énoncés de fiction est notoirement insatisfaisant; il impose notamment de considérer que "Tous les chevaux ailés ont des ailes" est vrai, mais ... [more ▼]

Le traitement réservé par la logique frégéo-russellienne aux énoncés de fiction est notoirement insatisfaisant; il impose notamment de considérer que "Tous les chevaux ailés ont des ailes" est vrai, mais que "Pégase a des ailes" est faux. Parmi les modèles d'analyse alternatifs qui ont été proposés au XXème siècle, le cadre des logiques meinongiennes semble, dans un premier temps, plus prometteur. Il pêche cependant par un parti-pris descriptiviste qui le rend, pour sa part, moins apte à traiter des énoncés portant sur les objets réels. Nous tâcherons de présenter les options théoriques générales sous-jacentes aux deux types de logiques (dont nous montrerons aussi plusieurs variations) ainsi que les caractérisations des notions d'objet et de vérité qui en résultent [less ▲]

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See detailChevaux … fiscaux
Richelle, Isabelle ULg

in Autenne, Jacques (Ed.) Promenades sous les portiques de la fiscalité (2009)

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See detailCheveux et risques environnementaux.
Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Skin (2005), 8

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See detailCheveux et risques environnementaux.
Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Pharma-Sphère (2004), 92

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See detailCheville et pied douloureux de l'enfant sportif
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2009), 26(1), 12-17

We realized an exhaustive review of literature concerning traumatic and micro-traumatic lesions of the ankle and foot in sporting children. These pathologies are on the increase due to considering the ... [more ▼]

We realized an exhaustive review of literature concerning traumatic and micro-traumatic lesions of the ankle and foot in sporting children. These pathologies are on the increase due to considering the development of sports activities. They are often considered as benign whereas they require an adequate diagnosis followed by adequate treatment. We thus described the 4 groups of pathologies of the ankle and foot in sporting children: osteodystrophies (disease of Sever, Köhler-Mouchet, Renander, Freiberg, Panner and Iselin), talar diseases (osteochondritis dissecans and osteochondral fractures), sprained ankles (benign, medium and serious) and supernumerary ossifications. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 264 (37 ULg)