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See detailCan the Electoral Threshold Explain – some part of – Electoral Volatility in Belgium?
Reuchamps, Min ULg; Onclin, François ULg

Conference (2011, June 10)

Recent election results showed an increased electoral volatility in Belgium. In the mean time, the very stable Belgian electoral system experienced a – quite – important change with the implementation of ... [more ▼]

Recent election results showed an increased electoral volatility in Belgium. In the mean time, the very stable Belgian electoral system experienced a – quite – important change with the implementation of a five per cent electoral threshold in both federal and regional elections. Therefore, can the introduction of this legal threshold explain – some part of – the increased electoral volatility in Belgium? The last five general elections – three federal (2003, 2007 and 2010) and two regional (2004 and 2009) offer a fertile ground for such an investigation. More specifically, in order to provide an answer to this question, we look at the psychological effect, as coined by Duverger and since then much refined. In addition to the existence of a mechanical effect, the electoral system may have a psychological impact on both voters and parties. Indeed, voters and party elites may adapt their behaviour to the implementation of the electoral threshold and this adaptation could explain electoral volatility. To test this hypothesis, we use several formulas in order to measure the psychological impacts of the five per cent threshold on Belgian voters, on the one hand, and on Belgian political parties, on the other hand. Our results show the impact of the legal threshold should be nuanced. While there was in fact an impact – both mechanical and psychological – on parties, it did not prevent the emergence of new political parties – which may explain some part of the electoral volatility. As of the voters, when they are aware of the threshold, they tend not think of the legal electoral threshold in the polling booths, so the main explanations for electoral volatility should be sought elsewhere. [less ▲]

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See detailCan the exploration of left space be induced implicitly in unilateral neglect?
Wansard, Murielle ULg; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Geurten, Marie ULg et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2015), 31

The purpose of the present study was to explore the ability of neglect patients to detect and exploit the predictive value of a cue to respond more quickly and accurately to targets on their ... [more ▼]

The purpose of the present study was to explore the ability of neglect patients to detect and exploit the predictive value of a cue to respond more quickly and accurately to targets on their contralesional side in a Posner spatial cueing task. The majority of the cues (i.e. 80%) were invalid, indicating that the target would appear on the opposite side, although patients were not informed of this bias. Our results demonstrate that some neglect patients were able to extract the cue’s predictability and use it to orient faster toward the left. This cueing effect was present even in patients who were subsequently unable to describe the predictive character of the cues, and thus was not modulated by reportable awareness of the cue-target relation. [less ▲]

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See detailCan the exploration of left space be induced implicitly in unilateral neglect?
Wansard, Murielle ULg; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Vanderaspoilden, Valérie et al

Poster (2015, March)

The purpose of the present study was to explore the ability of neglect patients to detect and exploit the predictive value of a cue to respond more quickly and accurately to targets on their ... [more ▼]

The purpose of the present study was to explore the ability of neglect patients to detect and exploit the predictive value of a cue to respond more quickly and accurately to targets on their contralesional side in a Posner spatial cueing task. The majority of the cues (i.e. 80%) were invalid, indicating that the target would appear on the opposite side, although patients were not informed of this bias. Our results demonstrate that some neglect patients were able to extract the cue’s predictability and use it to orient faster toward the left. This cueing effect was present even in patients who were subsequently unable to describe the predictive character of the cues, and thus was not modulated by reportable awareness of the cue-target relation. [less ▲]

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See detailCan the maximum power principle predict effective conductivities of a confined aquifer? A lab experiment
Westhoff, Martijn ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2015, December 14)

Power can be performed by a system driven by a potential difference. From a given potential difference, the power that can be subtracted is constraint by the Carnot limit, which follows from the first and ... [more ▼]

Power can be performed by a system driven by a potential difference. From a given potential difference, the power that can be subtracted is constraint by the Carnot limit, which follows from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. If the system is such that the flux producing power (with power being the flux times its driving potential difference) also influences the potential difference, a maximum in power can be obtained as a result of the trade-off between the flux and the potential difference. This is referred to as the maximum power principle. It has already been shown that the atmosphere operates close to this maximum power limit when it comes to heat transport from the Equator to the poles, or vertically, from the surface to the atmospheric boundary layer. To reach this state of maximum power, the effective thermal conductivity of the atmosphere is adapted by the creation of convection cells. The aim of this study is to test if the soil’s effective hydraulic conductivity also adapts in such a way that it produces maximum power. However, the soil’s hydraulic conductivity adapts differently; for example by the creation of preferential flow paths. Here, this process is simulated in a lab experiment, which focuses on preferential flow paths created by piping. In the lab, we created a hydrological analogue to the atmospheric model dealing with heat transport between Equator and poles, with the aim to test if the effective hydraulic conductivity of the sand bed can be predicted with the maximum power principle. The experimental setup consists of two freely draining reservoir connected with each other by a confined aquifer. By adding water to only one reservoir, a potential difference will build up until a steady state is reached. The results will indicate whether the maximum power principle does apply for groundwater flow and how it should be applied. Because of the different way of adaptation of flow conductivity, the results differ from that of the atmosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailCan the standardized uptake value characterize primary brain tumors on FDG-PET?
Hustinx, Roland ULg; Smith, R. J.; Benard, F. et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (1999), 26(11), 1501-9

The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring the standardized uptake value (SUV) in primary brain tumors on fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring the standardized uptake value (SUV) in primary brain tumors on fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Two groups of patients were studied. Whole-brain glucose cerebral metabolic rates (wCMRs) and SUVs were obtained in 20 normal subjects. Twenty-seven patients with histology-proven malignant primary CNS tumors (high-grade gliomas n=22, primitive neuroectodermal tumors n=3, ependymomas n=2) were also studied. The degree of FDG uptake was assessed by visual inspection and thereafter regions of interest were placed over the lesion, the contralateral cortex and white matter and the whole brain. Average (avg) and maximum (max) pixel values were determined in each site. Based on these measurements, SUV, tumor to cortex (T/C) and tumor to white matter (T/WM) activity ratios were calculated. There was no correlation between wCMRs (4.55+/-0.36 mg min(-1) 100 g(-1)) and wSUVs (5.41+/-0.43) in the normal subjects (r=0.18, P=0.45). In the second group, 17 lesions were described as definitely and seven as probably malignant. However, SUVs in these tumors and in the contralateral cortex were not significantly different. Although the SUVs were generally higher in the tumor than in the contralateral white matter, there was a significant overlap between the values. The range of the SUVs was wide: 2.54-11.8 for the tumors, 2.98-9.96 for the cortex and 1.87-6.76 for the white matter. SUVs in the normal cortex were negatively correlated with blood glucose level at the time of the injection. SUVs in the whole brain and in the cortex were lower in patients previously treated by irradiation, even months after completion of the treatment. No correlation was detectable between any of the SUVs and the age of the patients, tumor type, time post injection, use of dexamethasone, patient weight, dose injected and visual score. With cutoff levels of 1.5 for T max/WM and 0.6 for T max/C, the sensitivity of the activity ratios was 74% and 96% respectively. In conclusion, SUVs do not correlate with CMRs across subjects and appear to be of limited value in characterizing brain tumors. Visual assessment and measurement of the activity ratios currently remain the most reliable methods of analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailCan the syllabus actually impact students' perceptions of a course regarding their personal needs and motivation? (Exploring consistencies between syllabi’s qualities and benefit on students’ attitude toward a course)
Leduc, Laurent ULg

Conference (2009, November)

Faculties at the University of Liège, just like so many of their academic colleagues worldwide, have to write and orally present a syllabus for each of their courses every year. Although very demanding ... [more ▼]

Faculties at the University of Liège, just like so many of their academic colleagues worldwide, have to write and orally present a syllabus for each of their courses every year. Although very demanding, this effort is clearly described by many authors as an important opportunity to make a decisive first impression and to favourably affect students’ attitude and perceptions toward a given course regarding their personal needs and motivation notably. Even if the hypothesis seem plausible and inspiring for practice at first sight, the likelihood of a given syllabus to actually impact those perfection in the right way still has to be experienced. So, for a syllabus whose qualities / characteristics seem to make it likely or not to impact positively or negatively learners’ perceptions of courses linked to their motivation and individual needs, will consistent effects be observed on the ones who have read / heard it? Among the students’ perceptions that an effective syllabus would be likely to positively impact according to the literature, some appear to correspond to the three determining factors of the motivational dynamics’ model from Roland Viau [1997]: the perception of controllability [Bain, 2004; Lang, 2006; Hudd, 2003], the perception of activities value [Wasley, 2008, Hammons & Shock, 1994; Johnson, 2006] and the perception of competency [Slattery & Carlson, 2005; Madson, Melchert, Whipp, 2004]. Other theoretical benefits of the syllabus on students’ attitude refer to the “consideration of what students need in order to be successful learners” [Hess & Whittington, 2003] or the support of “developmental needs of the students” [Haugen, 1998]. Here, items used to check learners’ perceptions and to observe if “the syllabus addresses the question of whether the class will meet student needs” [Birdsall, 1989] have been closely related to the levels of Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Chart. In 2008, within its mandatory program of pedagogical training for new faculties, the IFRES (Institute for Training and Research in Higher Education) has created a thematic seminar offering guidelines to promote syllabi aiming notably to motivate students and meet developmental needs. At the beginning of the following academic year, ten syllabi and introduction speeches - meant to Freshmen or Sophomores and designed by ten faculties who followed the seminar - were collected and recorded in order to be analyzed. Their likelihood to impact the targeted students’ perceptions was then rated according to criteria rigorously derived from literature. During the second class of the ten teachers, questionnaires were submitted to their 1300 First/Second-Year students in order to investigate the possible corollary impact of those transmitted pieces of information on their concerned perceptions. In order to measure hypothetical gains due to syllabi, couples of symmetrical pre and post items were included. Data collected from the students concerning their post perceptions and their answers about their reading / hearing or not of their respective syllabi /oral speeches are currently crossed. Chi squares are calculated to identify significant relationships between them, as well as correlations indexes. Afterwards, synoptic tables are produced to observe consistencies between ratings of teachers’ performances and students’ levels of declared perceptions. At this stage, it appears that variables regarding motivation are clearly independent for about 2/3 of the studied relations. Nevertheless, considering the cases where the X²test indicate links between the data, concrete consistencies can be observed between the ratings obtained from the content analysis of syllabi or speeches and the observed percentages of students declaring good perceptions. Besides, the comparison of the percentages of students declaring good perceptions before and after having received syllabi and speeches clearly indicate frequent consistencies with the syllabi’s ratings on the same variables. Looking at the impressive number of universities everywhere asking or urging their teachers to produce syllabi for each of their courses, it seems obvious that this task has become a classic in any faculty’s pedagogical practice. This generalization also seems to indicate a consensus on the fact that this effort make sense and can be useful, particularly for students. This research aims to objectify this usefulness in order to guide and promote professors’ reflection on effective syllabus - for instance in the context of a regulated training seminar -, especially since it is also considered to benefit as planning tool for faculties [Littlefield, 1999; Matejka & Kurke, 1994 ; Sinor & Kaplan], or as permanent record for promotions or program consistency [Parkes & Harris, 2002; Leibow, 2003 ; Seldin, 1998]. [less ▲]

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See detailCan the “connectomic way” provide a link between molecular neurobiology and phenomenological psychopathology? The case of schizophrenia
Iasevoli, F; Laroi, Frank ULg; Buonaguro, E et al

in Journal of Psychopathology (2015), 21

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See detail“Can this cool new glycaemia metric tell me if my critical care patients are going to live or die?
Thomas, Felicity Louise ULg; Signal, M.K.; Shaw, G.M. et al

Poster (2013)

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See detailCan tooth differentiation help to understand species coexistence? The case of wood mice in China
Ledevin, R.; Quéré, J.-P.; Michaux, Johan ULg et al

in Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research (2012), 50(4), 315-327

Five wood mice Apodemus species occur across China, in allopatry but also in sympatry up to cases of syntopy. They all share a similar external appearance, similar habitats of grasslands and forests and a ... [more ▼]

Five wood mice Apodemus species occur across China, in allopatry but also in sympatry up to cases of syntopy. They all share a similar external appearance, similar habitats of grasslands and forests and a generalist feeding behaviour. This overall similarity raises questions about the mechanisms insuring competition avoidance and allowing the coexistence of the species. In this context, a morphometric analysis of two characters related to feeding (mandible and molar) addressed the following issues: (1) Were the species actually different in size and/or shape of these characters, supporting their role in resource partitioning? (2) Did this pattern of phenotypic divergence match the neutral genetic differentiation, suggesting that differentiation might have occurred in a former phase of allopatry as a result of stochastic processes? (3) Did the species provide evidence of character displacement when occurring in sympatry, supporting an ongoing role of competition in the interspecific divergence? Results evidenced first that different traits, here mandibles and molars, provided discrepant pictures of the evolution of the Apodemus group in China. Mandible shape appeared as prone to vary in response to local conditions, blurring any phylogenetic or ecological pattern, whereas molar shape evolution appeared to be primarily driven by the degree of genetic differentiation. Molar size and shape segregated the different species in the morphospace, suggesting that these features may be involved in a resource partitioning between Apodemus species. The morphological segregation of the species, likely achieved by processes of differentiation in isolation promoted by the complex landscape of China, could contribute to competition avoidance and hence explain why no evidence was found of character displacement. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. [less ▲]

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See detailCan tropical basil be integrated in vegetable crop pest management?
Yarou, Boni Barthélémy ULg; Verheggen, François ULg; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg et al

Poster (2016, May 17)

To address human and environmental health issues related to the use of synthetic pesticides, it is important to explore other ecological pest management approaches. Within this context, a study was ... [more ▼]

To address human and environmental health issues related to the use of synthetic pesticides, it is important to explore other ecological pest management approaches. Within this context, a study was conducted to evaluate the toxic and repellent effect of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) on Myzus persicae S. (Aphididae). The toxicity of O. gratissimum essential oil (EO) was evaluated on M. persicae comparing 3 concentrations (0.001%; 0.01% and 0.1%) to a control (15% sucrose). Mortality rate and fecundity were assessed for each concentration. The observations were made daily, for 4 days, on 12 replicates per treatment. To test the repellent effect of O. gratissimum plants, 2 treatments were compared: a group of 8 Amaranthus cruentus L. (Amaranthaceae) plants with 1 plant of O. gratissimum in the middle and a group of 9 A. cruentus plants (control). The distribution of aphids was analyzed 12 days after the middle plant infestation (20 aphids per plant) for each treatment (6 replicates per treatment). O. gratissimum EO was found toxic from a concentration of 0.01%, with a mortality rate of 34% versus 12% for the control ; The fecundity felt from 30 larvae after 4 days (control) to 15 larvae for the 3 doses of the EO. The analysis with the generalized linear mixed model with Poisson error distribution followed by Turkey test (5 %) showed that EO is significantly more toxic than the control, both for mortality and fecundity (p <0.001). In association test, the population of M. persicae (15 aphids per plant) was significantly (p<0,001) lower when A. cruentus plants was associated with O. gratissimum plant than with the control (22 aphids per plant). Furthermore, the population increases gradually as one moves away from the infestation point in association test whereas it decreases in the control. With regards to these results, it appears that O. gratissimum has biocide effects on M. persicae. This plant may be used in an integrated pest management strategy in the production of vegetable to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides and avoid chemicals residues. [less ▲]

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See detailCan turbulence statistics reflect the meso-habitat choice of juvenile salmonids
Enders, Eva; Ovidio, Michaël ULg; Hallot, Eric ULg et al

in Proceedings of the combined conference on Hydro-Informatics and Ecohydraulics, Concepcion, Chile, January 2009. (2009)

Variables commonly used to describe the physical habitat of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. parr are average velocity, water depth, and substrate. A variety of micro- and meso-habitat models have been ... [more ▼]

Variables commonly used to describe the physical habitat of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. parr are average velocity, water depth, and substrate. A variety of micro- and meso-habitat models have been developed using these variables to assess habitat quality. However, Atlantic salmon parr live in highly turbulent streams and rivers, in which intense fluctuations of water velocity occur. Laboratory experiments have shown that turbulence affects the behavior and energetics of fish. Nevertheless, habitat use in relation to the strong temporal variability of velocity in natural environments has rarely been studied. In this study, Atlantic salmon parr habitat was examined in relation to turbulence in the Patapédia River, Québec, Canada. We analyzed meso-habitat use in relation to several dynamic hydraulic variables. Our results revealed that in a natural turbulent condition, parr displayed high individual variability in habitat use in relation to turbulence. Such heterogeneous use of habitat suggests that individuals are not constrained to a single habitat type but that they have a tendency to use areas with lower turbulence. [less ▲]

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See detailCan we detect adaptive radiations in marine fishes?
Santini, Francesco; Carnevale, Giorgio; Marrama, Giuseppe et al

Conference (2016, January)

The concept of adaptive radiation, according to which a biological lineage undergoes elevated rates of species diversification while at the same time experiencing divergence along ecological axis, is ... [more ▼]

The concept of adaptive radiation, according to which a biological lineage undergoes elevated rates of species diversification while at the same time experiencing divergence along ecological axis, is often invoked in evolutionary studies to explain the astonishing diversity of groups such as the cichlids of the African rift lakes, silverswords plants and honeycreeper birds in Hawaii, and anole lizards in the Neotropics. Recent surveys of the scientific literature, however, revealed that most studies of adaptive radiation do not recover the expected signal of early burst of lineage diversification, and in several animal groups rates of cladogenesis and phenotypic evolution may often be unlinked, thus creating complex patterns in the tempo of lineage and trait diversification. Furthermore, in spite of the dramatic increase in number of studies of the tempo and mode of evolution in marine fishes during the past decade, very little evidence has been uncovered to support the idea that adaptive radiations played a role in generating their staggering diversity, and even when a signal of radiation is recovered this virtually never conforms to the “traditional” early burst scenario. Using examples from our research on diverse groups of marine teleost fishes such as jacks and allies (Carangoidei), pufferfish and allies (Tetraodontiformes) and snappers (Lutjanidae), we will discuss why it is so difficult to recover a signal of adaptive radiation in general, and early burst in particular, and offer some suggestions on how to test for these patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailCan we identify patients to be treated in osteoarthritis?
Arden, NK; Richette, P; Cooper, C et al

in Osteoporosis International (2015), 26(S1), 61-62

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See detailCan we identify patients with high risk of osteoarthritis progression who will respond to treatment ? A focus on epidemiology and phenotype of osteoarthritis
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Cooper, C; Arden, N et al

in Drugs & Aging (2015), 32(3), 179-187

Osteoarthritis is a syndrome affecting a variety of patient profiles. A European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis and the European Union Geriatric Medicine ... [more ▼]

Osteoarthritis is a syndrome affecting a variety of patient profiles. A European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis and the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society working meeting explored the possibility of identifying different patient profiles in osteoarthritis. The risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis include systemic factors (e.g., age, sex, obesity, genetics, race, and bone density) and local biomechanical factors (e.g., obesity, sport, joint injury, and muscle weakness); most also predict disease progression, particularly joint injury, malalignment, and synovitis/effusion. The characterization of patient profiles should help to better orientate research, facilitate trial design, and define which patients are the most likely to benefit from treatment. There are a number of profile candidates. Generalized, polyarticular osteoarthritis and local, monoarticular osteoarthritis appear to be two different profiles; the former is a feature of osteoarthritis comorbid with inflammation or the metabolic syndrome, while the latter is more typical of post-trauma osteoarthritis, especially in cases with severe malalignment. Other biomechanical factors may also define profiles, such as joint malalignment, loss of meniscal function, and ligament injury. Early- and late-stage osteoarthritis appear as separate profiles, notably in terms of treatment response. Finally, there is evidence that there are two separate profiles related to lesions in the subchondral bone, which may determine benefit from bone-active treatments. Decisions on appropriate therapy should be made considering clinical presentation, underlying pathophysiology, and stage of disease. Identification of patient profiles may lead to more personalized healthcare, with more targeted treatment for osteoarthritis. [less ▲]

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See detailCan we identify patients with high risk of osteoarthritis progression who will respond to treatment? A focus on biomarkers ans frailty
Arden, Nigel; Richette, Pascal; Cooper, Cyrus et al

in Drugs & Aging (2015), 32

Osteoarthritis (OA), a disease affecting different patient phenotypes, appears as an optimal candidate for personalized healthcare. The aim of the discussions of the European Society for Clinical and ... [more ▼]

Osteoarthritis (OA), a disease affecting different patient phenotypes, appears as an optimal candidate for personalized healthcare. The aim of the discussions of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) working group was to explore the value of markers of different sources in defining different phenotypes of patients with OA. The ESCEO organized a series of meetings to explore the possibility of identifying patients who would most benefit from treatment for OA, on the basis of recent data and expert opinion. In the first meeting, patient phenotypes were identified according to the number of affected joints, biomechanical factors, and the presence of lesions in the subchondral bone. In the second meeting, summarized in the present article, the working group explored other markers involved in OA. Profiles of patients may be defined according to their level of pain, functional limitation, and presence of coexistent chronic conditions including frailty status. A considerable amount of data suggests that magnetic resonance imaging may also assist in delineating different phenotypes of patients with OA. Among multiple biochemical biomarkers identified, none is sufficiently validated and recognized to identify patients who should be treated. Considerable efforts are also being made to identify genetic and epigenetic factors involved in OA, but results are still limited. The many potential biomarkers that could be used as potential stratifiers are promising, but more research is needed to characterize and qualify the existing biomarkers and to identify new candidates. [less ▲]

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See detailCan we interpret linear kernel machine learning models using anatomically labelled regions?
Schrouff, Jessica ULg; Monteiro, Joao; Joao Rosa, Maria et al

Poster (2014, June)

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See detailCan we measure LOGO's effects on user's problem solving behaviors ? (part 1)
Denis, Brigitte ULg

in Journal of the B L U G (British LOGO User Group) (1989), Spring

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See detailCan we measure LOGO's effects on user's problem solving behaviors ? (part 2)
Denis, Brigitte ULg

in Journal of the B L U G (British LOGO User Group) (1989), Autumn

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg)