References of "Veterinary Parasitology"
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See detailLarval development sites of the main Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in northern Europe and distribution of coprophilic species larvae in Belgian pastures
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2014), 205(3-4), 676-686

Some Culicoides species of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological virus vectors worldwide and have indeed been associated with outbreaks of important epizoonoses in recent years, such as ... [more ▼]

Some Culicoides species of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological virus vectors worldwide and have indeed been associated with outbreaks of important epizoonoses in recent years, such as bluetongue and Schmallenberg disease in northern Europe. These diseases, which affect domestic and wild ruminants, have caused considerable economic losses. Knowledge of substrates suitable for Culicoides larval development is important, particularly for the main vector temperate species. This study, realized during two years, aimed to highlight the larval development sites of these biting midge species in the immediate surroundings of ten Belgian cattle farms. Moreover, spatial distribution of the coprophilic Culicoides larvae (C. chiopterus and C. dewulfi) within pastures was studied with increasing distance from farms along linear transects (farm–pasture–woodland). A total of 4347 adult specimens belonging to 13 Culicoides species were obtained by incubation of 2131 soil samples belonging to 102 different substrates; 18 of these substrates were suitable for larval development. The Obsoletus complex (formed by two species) was observed in a wide range of substrates, including silage residues, components of a chicken coop, dung adhering to walls inside stables, leftover feed along the feed bunk, a compost pile of sugar beet residues, soil of a livestock trampling area, and decaying wood, while the following served as substrates for the other specimens: C. chiopterus, mainly cow dung; C. dewulfi, cow dung and molehill soil; C. circumscriptus, algae; C. festivipennis, algae and soil in stagnant water; C. nubeculosus, algae and silt specifically from the edge of a pond; C. punctatus, mainly wet soil between silage reserves; C. salinarius, algae; and C. stigma, algae and wet soil between silage reserves. We also recorded significantly higher densities of coprophilic larvae within pastures in cow dung located near forests, which is likely due to the localization of potential hosts; the presence of these larvae within cow dung is, however, uninfluenced by relative distance from farms. A better knowledge of the microhabitats of Culicoides biting midges and their spatial distribution may allow the development of targeted species-specific vector control strategies, and may help to prevent the creation of new larval development sites. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical composition of silage residues sustaining the larval development of the Culicoides obsoletus/Culicoides scoticus species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Saegerman, Claude ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2013), 191(1-2), 197-201

Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV). Bluetongue is a viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. Since its recent emergence in northern ... [more ▼]

Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV). Bluetongue is a viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. Since its recent emergence in northern Europe, this disease has caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industry. The biotopes, and more particularly the chemical characteristics which are suitable for larval development of the main vector species, are still relatively unknown. This study shows that the larvae of biting midges belonging to the species Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus are able to breed in different types of silage residue (maize, grass, sugar beet pulp and their combinations). The chemical composition of substrates strongly influences the presence of the immature stages of these biting midges. Higher lignin and insoluble fibre contents seem to favour their presence and could play the role of a physical support for semi-aquatic larvae. In contrast, higher concentrations of magnesium and calcium are negatively correlated with the presence of these two species. These data will help to locate and monitor the breeding sites of these species and could contribute to the control of these insects on farms. [less ▲]

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See detailRotenoid content and in vitro acaricidal activity of Tephrosia vogelii leaf extract on the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus
Kalume; Losson, Bertrand ULg; Angenot, Luc ULg et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2012), 190(1-2), 204-209

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See detailAn optimized DNA extraction and multiplex PCR for the detection of Fasciola sp. in lymnaeid snails
Caron, Yannick ULg; Righi, Souad; Lempereur, Laetitia ULg et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2011), 178((1-2)), 93-9

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See detailCanine leishmaniasis in Algeria: true prevalence and diagnostic test characteristics in groups of dogs of different functional type.
Adel, Amel; Saegerman, Claude ULg; Speybroeck, Niko et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2010), 172(3-4), 204-13

A Bayesian approach was used to assess the prevalence of Canine leishmaniasis and evaluate three serological diagnostic tests: indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), direct agglutination test, and ... [more ▼]

A Bayesian approach was used to assess the prevalence of Canine leishmaniasis and evaluate three serological diagnostic tests: indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), direct agglutination test, and particle gel immuno-assay (PaGIA) for Canine leishmaniasis (CL) in Algiers. Four hundred and sixty-two dogs were involved in this study and divided in four groups according to their functional type: stray dogs, farm dogs, national guard dogs and pet dogs. The stray dog group showed the highest prevalence of leishmaniasis (11.7%), followed by the national guard dogs (9.7%) and the farm dogs (5.9%). IFAT was shown to be the most sensitive test in all groups. However, IFAT specificity was considerably lowered in the farm dog group: 65.2% versus 94.5% for the stray dogs. A considerable drop in PaGIA specificity was noted in the stray dogs group. The results of the current study demonstrate the variability of test characteristics in different situations and underline the danger of using standard values, without verifying their appropriateness for the specific purposes. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in the bone marrow of asymptomatic horses
Pitel, Pierre-Hugues; Pronost, Stéphane; Scrive, Thibaut et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2010)

Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease, the aetiological agents of which are either Theileria equi or Babesia caballi parasites. Piroplasmosis is commonly encountered in acute or sub-acute clinical ... [more ▼]

Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease, the aetiological agents of which are either Theileria equi or Babesia caballi parasites. Piroplasmosis is commonly encountered in acute or sub-acute clinical forms although clinically recovered horses may remain asymptomatic but infected for several years. The clinical detection of such apparently healthy carrier horses (that serve as a host for subsequent infecting ticks), remains a worldwide challenge for controlling the spread of the disease. The aim of the present paper is to report on the detection of both T. equi and B. caballi by PCR in the bone marrow of naturally infected asymptomatic horses. Among 35 bone marrow samples evaluated for orthopaedic clinical research purposes, three samples from clinically healthy horses were found to be positive for T. equi, one of which was also positive for B. caballi. Even if the precise localisation of these parasites as well as the underlying mechanisms for persistence still remains unknown, one should not exclude bone marrow as a potential reservoir site for T. equi and B. caballi in infected asymptomatic horses. We suggest that, this possible localisation site (the bone marrow) should be considered as a therapeutic target when treating parasitic infection in apparently healthy horses. [less ▲]

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See detailEchinococcus Multilocularis in Belgium: Prevalence in Red Foxes (Vulpes Vulpes) and in Different Species of Potential Intermediate Hosts
Hanosset, R.; Saegerman, Claude ULg; Adant, S. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2008), 151(2-4), 212-7

Echinococcus multilocularis causes a rare but potentially lethal zoonotic infection in humans. This tapeworm is known to be endemic in foxes in several countries of Western and Central Europe. In Western ... [more ▼]

Echinococcus multilocularis causes a rare but potentially lethal zoonotic infection in humans. This tapeworm is known to be endemic in foxes in several countries of Western and Central Europe. In Western Europe, the common vole (Microtus arvalis) and the water vole (Arvicola terrestris) are considered to be the most important intermediate host species of this cestode whereas the red fox is by far the most important final host. The purpose of this study was to provide data on the prevalences in Wallonia (Southern part of Belgium) both in the red fox and in different potential intermediate hosts. A total of 990 red foxes were examined between January 2003 and December 2004 for the presence of E. multilocularis. The average prevalence was 24.55% (22.38-27.87). Out of 1249 rodents or insectivores belonging to the species Apodemus sylvaticus, Arvicola terrestris, Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus arvalis, Microtus agrestris and Sorex araneus, only one M. arvalis (out of 914-0.11% (0.003-0.61) and one C. glareolus (out of 23-4.3% (0.1-21.9) were found to be infected. However, the muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) seems to be a good intermediate host as 11.18% (9.72-12.76) of the animals (n=1718) were found to be infected. A positive correlation was found between the prevalences in foxes and in muskrats in each of the different geological regions. This study indicates that the muskrat is highly sensitive to this zoonotic tapeworm and could perhaps represent a good bioindicator when studying the epidemiology of this parasitic infection in Belgium and in other countries where the muskrat is present. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Neospora caninum in dog organs using real time PCR systems.
Ghalmi, F.; Losson, Bertrand ULg; Daube, Georges ULg et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2008), 155

Neospora caninum is a parasite responsible for paresis in dogs. The dog can harbour enkysted parasites in several organs. The detection of N. caninum was performed using 3 different real time PCR systems ... [more ▼]

Neospora caninum is a parasite responsible for paresis in dogs. The dog can harbour enkysted parasites in several organs. The detection of N. caninum was performed using 3 different real time PCR systems all amplifying the NC5 DNA region. One system was based on Sybr1green, one on PlexorTM technology and the last on Taqman1 probe. Comparison of the three methods indicated that the detection limit was 1 equivalent genome on pure DNA but that this detection limit increased in the presence of foreign DNA using the Sybrgreen and Plexor systems. Therefore, the Taqman system was chosen to detect N. caninum in liver and spleen of naturally infected dogs. The overall prevalence was 32.2%. Comparison between PCR results and serological results using IFAT showed that among the 28 PCR positive dogs only 9 were seropositive and that 8 seropositive dogs were PCR negative. Therefore serology can underestimate the real carriage in dogs. However, PCR methods must be improved in terms of sensitivity and inhibition problems. [less ▲]

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See detailFasciola hepatica: an assessment on the vectorial capacity of Radix labiata and R. balthica commonly found in Belgium.
Caron, Yannick ULg; LASRI, Saadia ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg

in Veterinary Parasitology (2007), 149(1-2), 95-103

A previous study conducted in Belgium revealed that genetic material of Fasciola sp. was present in snail species belonging to the genus Radix. Here, these snails were collected and identified by DNA ... [more ▼]

A previous study conducted in Belgium revealed that genetic material of Fasciola sp. was present in snail species belonging to the genus Radix. Here, these snails were collected and identified by DNA-based techniques as Radix labiata and Radix balthica. These two species and Galba truncatula (the major intermediate host in Europe) were experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. The resulting metacercariae were fed to rats and the infection was monitored using several techniques. Microscopy revealed the presence of larval stages in 78.3, 45, and 6.25% of G. truncatula, R. labiata, and R. balthica snails, respectively. These results were confirmed by a PCR that amplifies a Fasciola sp. specific sequence. Furthermore, this PCR was found to be more sensitive than microscopic examination. R. labiata shed fewer metacercariae than G. truncatula but these were as infective to rats as those shed by G. truncatula. This study demonstrates that R. labiata may act as an incidental intermediate host for F hepatica in Belgium. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro entomopathogenic activity of Beauveria bassiana against Psoroptes spp. (Acari : Psoroptidae)
Lekimme, Mireille ULg; Mignon, Bernard ULg; Tombeux, S. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2006), 139(1-3), 196-202

An indigenous strain (IHEM 18747) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Deuteromycetes) was evaluated for its in vitro entomopathogenic activity against the parasitic mite Psoroptes ovis Hering ... [more ▼]

An indigenous strain (IHEM 18747) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Deuteromycetes) was evaluated for its in vitro entomopathogenic activity against the parasitic mite Psoroptes ovis Hering (Acari: Psoroptidae) from rabbits. The following aspects were evaluated: (1) effects of conidial concentration on the viability of adult females; (2) influence of the infection on the fertility, and on the hatchability of eggs; (3) and transmission of infection between mites, and from contaminated surface. Adult females immersed into increasing concentrations of conidia (10(4)-10(9) conidia ml(-1)) showed a dose-related susceptibility. At the highest concentration of conidia, LT50 was 1.6 days while LT50 of the controls reached 5.8 days. The fungus was able to sporulate on the body surface and 100% of the mites were covered with mycelium after immersion in solutions containing 10(7)-10(9) conidia ml(-1). One hundred percent of healthy mites exposed to infected cadavers or surfaces acquired the infection (LT50 reached 1.9 and 1.73 days, respectively, versus 6.1 and 5.1 days in controls, respectively). Egg laying was not reduced by the fungal infection but both the hatchability of the eggs and the life span of the emerging larvae were significantly reduced. Eggs directly infected with the fungus did not show reduced hatchability but the life span of the larvae was shortened. It is concluded that B. bassiana has a high entomopathogenic activity against Psoroptes spp. The in vivo use of this biocontrol agent against Psoroptes spp. in rabbit, sheep and cattle deserves further attention. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Echinococcus multilocularis in wild boars in France using PCR techniques against larval form
Boucher, J. M.; Hanosset, R.; Augot, D. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2005), 129(3-4), 259-266

Recently, new data have been collected on the distribution and ecology of Echinococcus multilocularis in European countries. Different ungulates species such as pig, goat, sheep, cattle and horse are ... [more ▼]

Recently, new data have been collected on the distribution and ecology of Echinococcus multilocularis in European countries. Different ungulates species such as pig, goat, sheep, cattle and horse are known to host incomplete development of larval E. multilocularis. We report a case of E. multilocularis portage in two wild boars from a high endemic area in France (Department of Jura). Histological examination was performed and the DNA was isolated from hepatic lesions then amplified by using three PCR methods in two distinct institutes. Molecular characterisation of PCR products revealed 99% nucleotide sequence homology with the specific sequence of the U1 sn RNA gene of E. multilocularis, 99 and 99.9% nucleotide sequence homology with the specific sequence of the cytochrome oxydase gene of Echinococcus genus and 99.9% nucleotide sequence homology with a genomic DNA sequence of Echinococcus genus for the first and the second wild boar, respectively. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA longitudinal epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors in the White Volta river basin of Northern Ghana
Mahama, C. I.; Desquesnes, M.; Dia, M. L. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2005), 128(3-4), 201-208

A longitudinal epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors was carried out in the Volta river basin of Northern Ghana to determine the relationship between cattle management and the ... [more ▼]

A longitudinal epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors was carried out in the Volta river basin of Northern Ghana to determine the relationship between cattle management and the incidence of bovine trypanosomosis. Two groups of sentinel cattle under different systems of management, classified as "fully-sedentary" and "partially-sedentary" (depending on the type of management) were followed over a 1-year period starting from March 2003 onwards. Cattle were screened at intervals of 3 months using the huffy coat technique (BCT). Buffy coat specimen from animals that were positive for the BCT and those that were negative, but with a packed cell volume (PCV) of less than 21% were further tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Plasma from all animals were tested for antibody using the indirect antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Trypanosomosis challenge was determined in tandem with the epidemiological survey with watering sites of sentinel cattle being the foci of interest. The parasitological prevalence at the start of the survey was higher in the fully-sedentary group (9%) than in the partially-sedentary group (3%). In subsequent visits, however, the parasitological incidence was consistently higher in the partially-sedentary group than in the fully-sedentary group. The mean seroprevalence (ELISA) of both groups increased from 3% in March to 54% in December. Statistical analysis of the serological results using a random effect logistic regression, showed a significant difference in incidence of bovine trypanosomosis between the two groups. There was also a significant effect of time. The influence of cattle herding on host-vector-parasite interface and its consequence on the incidence of trypanosomosis are discussed. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailManagement of myiasis: current status and future prospects
Colwell, D. D.; Dorchies, P.; Scholl, P. J. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2004), 125(1-févr Sp. Iss. SI), 93-104

The management of myiasis in livestock has been an example of the success of modem chemical approaches for parasite control, yet in some cases remains extremely intractable, requiring the development of ... [more ▼]

The management of myiasis in livestock has been an example of the success of modem chemical approaches for parasite control, yet in some cases remains extremely intractable, requiring the development of novel strategies. In addition, the growing and urgent need to develop integrated strategies that enhance the sustainability of livestock production systems drives the search for new techniques [see Int. J. Parasitol. 29 (1999) 7]. The following summary represents a synthesis of a symposium presented at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, New Orleans, USA, 10-14 August 2003. The coverage began with a review of the need for more subtle economic analysis of the impact of myiasis based on the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for control of bovine hypodermosis in North America. This was followed by a review of the status of chemical control with particular emphasis on the macrocyclic lactones. The outcome of the use of these compounds in a regulated control program for eradication of bovine hypodermosis in EU was surveyed. Similarly, the success of the screwworm eradication program, using the sterile insect technique has shown how effective this approach can be given the appropriate target. Several aspects of the development of newer approaches were surveyed in discussion of newer chemical control products, development of vaccines, use of host genetics, use of predictive simulation modelling and trapping for monitoring and control and the development of new diagnostic approaches for occult infestations. Finally, use of the latest molecular tools for identification of larvae causing myiasis and their use for the identification of species coming from different and distant geographical areas to colonize regions where they have been eradicated was reviewed. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of three techniques for the serological diagnosis of Neospora caninum in the dog and their use for epidemiological studies
Lasri, S.; De Meerschman, F.; Rettigner, C. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2004), 123(1-2), 25-32

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed in our laboratory and used to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in three different dog populations in Belgium: healthy dogs from ... [more ▼]

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed in our laboratory and used to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in three different dog populations in Belgium: healthy dogs from cattle farms and urban dogs with or without various neurological disorders. The test was validated and compared with two other tests: an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA). The study showed a good correlation between the IFAT and the ELISA developed. When the two tests were compared with the C-ELISA, moderate positive and negative agreement indices were observed. Using our ELISA and the IFAT techniques, a high prevalence was found in farm dogs. This result showed that the neurological symptoms are not usually associated with the Neospora infection. In conclusion, the ELISA developed in our laboratory could replace the IFAT for the screening of a large number of dogs' sera. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA cross-sectional epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors in the Savelugu and West Mamprusi districts of northern Ghana
Mahama, C. I.; Desquesnes, M.; Dia, M. L. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2004), 122(1), 1-13

The epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis was investigated in two districts (Savelugu and West Mamprusi) of Northern Ghana with different land use and environmental characteristics. The land use intensity ... [more ▼]

The epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis was investigated in two districts (Savelugu and West Mamprusi) of Northern Ghana with different land use and environmental characteristics. The land use intensity and environmental change was suspected to be higher in the Savelugu District. A cross-sectional entomological survey conducted along the White Volta river and its tributaries confirmed the presence of only Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides. The challenge index as measured by the product of tsetse density and tsetse infection rate was much higher in the West Mamprusi (19.6) than in the Savelugu district (4.7). A total of 10 13 cattle (508 in Savelugu and 505 in West Mamprusi) were bled from a random selection of 16 villages in the Savelugu District and 13 villaaes in the West Mamprusi District. Blood samples were examined for trypanosomes by the buffy coat technique (BCT). Blood samples that were positive in the BCT or negative in the BCT but with packed cell volume (PCV) values below 21 were further tested with a polymerase chain reaction for trypanosomal DNA. Plasma samples of all cattle were serologically tested with an indirect ELISA for trypanosomal antibodies. The parasitological and serological prevalence of bovine trypanosomoses was significantly higher in West Mamprusi (16 and 53%, respectively) than in Savelugu District (8 and 24%, respectively). An evaluation of animal health at the village herd level, using PCV as an index of anaemia, provided various epidemiological scenarios prevalent in the entire study-area. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailImmune response and antigen recognition in non-pregnant ewes experimentally infected with Neospora caninum tachyzoites.
Rettigner, Chantal; Lasri, Saadia; De Meerschman, Francois et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2004), 122(4), 261-71

The cellular and humoral responses as well as the antigen recognition during the acute stage of a Neospora caninum (NC) infection were investigated in non-pregnant ewes. The experimentally infected ewes ... [more ▼]

The cellular and humoral responses as well as the antigen recognition during the acute stage of a Neospora caninum (NC) infection were investigated in non-pregnant ewes. The experimentally infected ewes developed specific lymphoproliferative and humoral responses within 2 weeks post-infection (PI). The magnitude of the cellular response showed large variations between animals. A significant decrease in the proliferative response to Con A mitogen and N. caninum, Toxoplasma gondii (TG) antigens was recorded on day 21 post-infection (PI). The humoral response and the pattern of antigen recognition were similar among infected ewes. Proteins of 44, 42, 40, 39 and 28 kDa were intensively recognized by the infected animals during the experiment. The 42 and 28 kDa antigens should be considered as useful for the diagnostic of N. caninum infection, as the intensity of recognition infection of the other antigens had decreased markedly 8 weeks post-infection. For some antigens a sequential recognition was recorded. The 59, 54 and 38-37 kDa proteins were frequently recognized by infected sera during the first weeks of the infection, but recognition of these antigens was absent or rare at the end of the experiment. These antigens could be related to the acute stage of the infection. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in southern Belgium
Losson, Bertrand ULg; Kervyn, Thierry; Detry, Jacques et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2003), 117(1-2), 23-28

Between June 1998 and February 2002,709 red foxes killed in Wallonia (south of Belgium) were available for parasitological examination of the gut. The identification of Echinococcus multilocularis was ... [more ▼]

Between June 1998 and February 2002,709 red foxes killed in Wallonia (south of Belgium) were available for parasitological examination of the gut. The identification of Echinococcus multilocularis was based on morphological data. E. multilocularis adults were observed in 20.2% of the animals. The analysis of data revealed marked differences between the geological areas of Wallonia; the highest prevalence (33%) was found in the Ardenne and the lowest (0%) on the Plateau de Herve. Host gender and the collection season had no effect on the prevalence. However, the latter was significantly higher in juveniles (<8 months of age). The geographical distribution of E. multilocularis in Belgium is much wider than originally thought. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailKinetics of circulating antigens in pigs experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs
Nguekam, A.; Zoli, A. P.; Vondou, L. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2003), 111(4), 323-332

Three groups of four piglets were experimentally infected with different doses (10(3), 10(4) and 10(5)) of Taenia solium eggs whereas a fourth group of two pigs received gravid proglottids. At autopsy 6 ... [more ▼]

Three groups of four piglets were experimentally infected with different doses (10(3), 10(4) and 10(5)) of Taenia solium eggs whereas a fourth group of two pigs received gravid proglottids. At autopsy 6 months post infection, the two latter pigs were heavily infected with more than 3000 living cysts per kg of muscle. Ten of the 12 other pigs harboured light infections, i.e. between 2 and 107 cysticerci, 42.4% of which were degenerated. The two remaining pigs had no detectable cysts at post mortem examination. Circulating antigens (CA) were detected in the sera of all pigs harbouring living cysticerci using a monoclonal antibody based ELISA. CA were first detected between 2 and 6 weeks post infection and remained present generally throughout the entire observation period even in pigs carrying only five to eight living cysts, although strong fluctuations of the level of CA were observed in some pigs. In animals without living cysts at post mortem CA were only detected for a short period and disappeared presumably when the cysticerci became degenerated. The minimum number of living cysts, which could be detected using this ELISA, was 1. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailImmunisation against Theileria parva in eastern Zambia: influence of maternal antibodies and demonstration of the carrier status
Marcotty, T.; Brandt, J.; Billiouw, M. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2002), 110(1-2), 45-56

Immunisation of calves by the infection and treatment method (I

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See detailSusceptibility of trypanotolerant West African Dwarf goats and F1 crosses with the susceptible Sahelian breed to experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection and interactions with helminth infections and different levels of diet
Faye, D.; Osaer, S.; Goossens, B. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2002), 108(2), 117-136

dForty pure West African Dwarf (WAD) goats and 35 of its F1 crosses with the Sahelian breed were used in a multifactorial experimental design to evaluate the effects of an experimental Trypanosoma ... [more ▼]

dForty pure West African Dwarf (WAD) goats and 35 of its F1 crosses with the Sahelian breed were used in a multifactorial experimental design to evaluate the effects of an experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection and interactions with natural helminth infections and different levels of diet on health and productivity of these two breeds. Trypanosome infection caused a severe drop in packed cell volume (PCV), but this was not significantly affected by breed. Neither deworming nor diet had any effect on the course of anaemia after trypanosome infection. The mean score of parasitaemia tended to be higher in crossbreeds than in WAD goats although this was not significant (P > 0.05). Similarly, the antibody response to trypanosome infection was not significantly different between breeds. Parasitaemia level was significantly influenced by the level of diet with the group under high supplementation having a higher mean parasitaemia score than the group under low supplementation. Weight loss due to trypanosome infection tended to be greater in crossbreeds than in WAD goats (P > 0.05). During this study, there was no difference in mean helminth egg output between crossbred and WAD goats. However, between weeks 4 and 10 after trypanosome infection (corresponding to a period of heavy rainfall and highly infective pastures), the mean egg output was higher in the crossbreeds. The immunosuppressive effect of trypanosome infections was revealed by a lower antibody response to Haemonchus contortus in infected animals compared to the uninfected controls.Trypanosome infection tended to increase strongyle egg output. This study did no reveal any superior trypanotolerance of WAD goats compared to crossbreeds. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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