References of "Thin Solid Films"
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See detailEffect of the RE (RE = Eu, Er) doping on the structural and textural properties of mesoporous TiO2 thin films obtained by evaporation induced self-assembly method
Borlaf, Mario; Caes, Sébastien ULg; Dewalque, Jennifer ULg et al

in Thin Solid Films (2014), 558

Polymeric sol–gel route has been used for the preparation of TiO2 and RE2O3–TiO2 (RE = Eu, Er) mesoporous thin films by evaporation induced self-assembly method using Si (100) as a substrate. The ... [more ▼]

Polymeric sol–gel route has been used for the preparation of TiO2 and RE2O3–TiO2 (RE = Eu, Er) mesoporous thin films by evaporation induced self-assembly method using Si (100) as a substrate. The influence of the relative humidity (RH) on the preparation of the film has been studied being necessary to work under 40% RH in order to obtain homogeneous and transparent thin films. The films were annealed at different temperatures until 900 °C/1 h and the anatase crystallization and its crystal size evolution were followed by low angle X-ray diffraction. Neither the anatase–rutile transition nor the formation of other compounds was observed in the studied temperature range. Ellipsoporosimetry studies demonstrated that the thickness of the thin films did not change after calcination at 500 °C, the porosity was constant until 700 °C, the pore size increased and the specific surface area decreased with temperature. Moreover, the effect of the doping with Er3 + and Eu3 + was studied and a clear inhibition of the crystal growth and the sintering process was detected (by transmission electron and atomic force microscopy) when the doped films are compared with the undoped ones. Finally, Eu3 + and Er3 + f–f transitions were detected by PL measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailStability of self-assembled monolayers of organothiol mono and bipode on copper in presence of another organothiol solution
Denayer, Jessica ULg; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

in Thin Solid Films (2012), 520(6), 2017-2021

The stability of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on metallic substrates is an important aspect for further application. Some studies point out the poor stability of this coating and the ... [more ▼]

The stability of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on metallic substrates is an important aspect for further application. Some studies point out the poor stability of this coating and the displacement of alkanethiol from the monolayer by immersion in another alkanethiol solution. The aim of this work consists in a comparative investigation of self-exchange of three organothiols: 11-perfluorobutyl-1-thiol-undecane (or R fSH), 2-dodecylpropane-1,3- dithiol (or R(SH) 2) and n-decanedithiocarboxylic (or RS 2H). The immersion of RS 2H monolayer into R fSH solution (first approach) leads to the incorporation of thiol molecules into the defects of the initial SAMs followed by the displacement of RS 2H molecules by R fSH. While for R fSH SAM in presence of R(SH) 2 solution (second approach), longer time of immersion is required to observe the incorporation of dithiol molecules into the coating as well as the displacement of thiol molecules. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrostructural evolution of a TiO2 mesoporous single layer film under calcination: Effect of stabilization and repeated thermal treatments on the film crystallization and surface area
Dewalque, Jennifer ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg; Dubreuil, Olivier et al

in Thin Solid Films (2012), 520

This study quantifies the highest perturbation encountered by the first layer of a TiO2 12 layers-mesoporous coating, which is submitted to a multistep calcination process. Besides, we propose an ... [more ▼]

This study quantifies the highest perturbation encountered by the first layer of a TiO2 12 layers-mesoporous coating, which is submitted to a multistep calcination process. Besides, we propose an alternative thermal treatment in order to limit the degradation induced by repeated calcinations. This paper reports and compares the modifications in film thickness, surface area, anatase crystallite size and global crystallinity of films obtained from different thermal treatments. It defines the maximum crystal size compatible with the preservation of the mesoarchitecture initially induced by templating. Differences in microporosity and rate of crystallization are also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailArsenic-doped Ge-spiked monoemitter SiGe:C heterojunction bipolar transistors by low-temperature trisilane-based chemical vapor deposition
You, Shuzhen; Decoutere, Stefaan; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULg et al

in Thin Solid Films (2012), 520

In this work we optimized the Ge-spiked monoemitter for the SiGe:C heterojunction bipolar transistor by using low-temperature trisilane based chemical vapor deposition to meet the requirements of high ... [more ▼]

In this work we optimized the Ge-spiked monoemitter for the SiGe:C heterojunction bipolar transistor by using low-temperature trisilane based chemical vapor deposition to meet the requirements of high growth rate and high electrically-active doping levels of arsenic. The resultant devices show improvement of open-base breakdown voltage and no degradation of cutoff frequency with incorporation of a Ge spike in the monoemitter. [less ▲]

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See detailOptical properties of thermochromic VO 2 thin films on stainless steel: Experimental and theoretical studies
Lafort, A.; Kebaili, H.; Goumri-Said, S. et al

in Thin Solid Films (2011), 519(10), 3283-3287

Thermochromic films of VO 2 were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering on stainless steel substrate. Complex refractive indexes of VO 2 were determined by ellipsometric spectroscopy (0.35-16.5 μm ... [more ▼]

Thermochromic films of VO 2 were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering on stainless steel substrate. Complex refractive indexes of VO 2 were determined by ellipsometric spectroscopy (0.35-16.5 μm) for different film thicknesses. Optical simulations were performed to model the spectral reflectance of the film/substrate system for a film thickness of 100 nm and 200 nm and to monitor the optical contrast of the thermochromic layers by comparing the spectral reflectance at 25 °C and 100 °C. The good agreement observed between experimental and theoretical spectra demonstrates the adequacy of the model for predicting the optical properties of the samples. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAlkylbetainate chlorides: Synthesis and behavior of monolayers at the air-water interface
Nsimba Zakanda, Francis ULg; Laurent, Pascal ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg et al

in Thin Solid Films (2011), 520

In this study, cationic alkylbetainate chloride surfactants (CnBC, n = 10–16) are synthesized using more environment-friendly reagents (glycine betaine, thionyl chloride and primary alcohols) than in ... [more ▼]

In this study, cationic alkylbetainate chloride surfactants (CnBC, n = 10–16) are synthesized using more environment-friendly reagents (glycine betaine, thionyl chloride and primary alcohols) than in previous works (chloroacetyl chloride, trimethylamine and primary alcohols). The interfacial behavior of the CnBC monolayers is studied onto aqueous subphases at 20 °C using the Langmuir through technique. Different experimental conditions including pH, temperature, sodium salts and Na2SO4 ionic strength are investigated. The results obtained have shown that the CnBC with a hydrocarbon chain length ≥ 14 are able to form insoluble monolayers. The C16BC monolayer stability checked by the compression–expansion cycles has shown a superimposition of isotherms in the whole liquid-condensed region and an irreversible rearrangement of the molecules at high compression. The C16BC monolayer is not influenced by the pH and the presence of monovalent anions but it is influenced by the temperature, the divalent anions and the ionic strength. It has exhibited a great stability whatever the experimental conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailSiGe growth using Si3H8 by low temperature chemical vapor deposition
Takeuchi, Shotaro; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULg; Goossens, Jozefien et al

in Thin Solid Films (2009), 518(6), 18

Low temperature epitaxial growth of group-IV alloys is a key process step to realize the advanced Si-based devices. In order to keep high growth rate below 600 $\,^ rc$C, trisilane (Si3H8) was used for ... [more ▼]

Low temperature epitaxial growth of group-IV alloys is a key process step to realize the advanced Si-based devices. In order to keep high growth rate below 600 $\,^ rc$C, trisilane (Si3H8) was used for their growth as an alternative Si precursor gas. Then, we compared the use of Si3H8 versus SiH4 for Si1−xGex growth in H2 and N2 as carrier gas by low temperature chemical vapor deposition. By using Si3H8 and controlling GeH4 flow rate, Si1−xGex growth with high growth rate and wide range of Ge concentration has been achieved compared to SiH4-based process. The growth rate and Ge concentration in Si1−xGex with Si3H8 grown at 600 $\,^ rc$C ranged from 11 to 74 nm/min and from 0 to 40%, respectively. The obtained growth rates with Si3H8 are between 1.5 and 6 times higher than for SiH4 at a given growth condition. Si3H8-based in-situ B- and C-doped Si1−xGex growth with high growth rate was also demonstrated [less ▲]

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See detailUse of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology
Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULg; Rosseel, Erik; Takeuchi, Shotaro et al

in Thin Solid Films (2009), 518(6), 48

We evaluated the combination of vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal as a novel doping strategy for the fabrication of source and drain extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology, aiming at ... [more ▼]

We evaluated the combination of vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal as a novel doping strategy for the fabrication of source and drain extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology, aiming at both planar and non-planar device applications. High quality ultra shallow junctions with abrupt profiles in Si substrates were demonstrated on 300 mm Si substrates. The excellent results obtained for the sheet resistance and the junction depth with boron allowed us to fulfill the requirements for the 32 nm as well as for the 22 nm technology nodes in the PMOS case by choosing appropriate laser anneal conditions. For instance, using 3 laser scans at 1300 $\,^ rc$C, we measured an active dopant concentration of about 2.1 × 1020 cm− 3 and a junction depth of 12 nm. With arsenic for NMOS, ultra shallow junctions were achieved as well. However, as also seen for other junction fabrication schemes, low dopant activation level and active dose (in the range of 1--4 × 1013 cm− 2) were observed although dopant concentration versus depth profiles indicate that the dopant atoms were properly driven into the substrate during the anneal step. The electrical deactivation of a large part of the in-diffused dopants was responsible for the high sheet resistance values. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles by reactive DC magnetron sputtering
Dreesen, Laurent ULg; Colomer, Jean-François; Limage, Hervé et al

in Thin Solid Films (2009), 518

Nanometer-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles were prepared on carbon substrates by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering. By performing measurements with high resolution electron microscopes ... [more ▼]

Nanometer-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles were prepared on carbon substrates by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering. By performing measurements with high resolution electron microscopes, the mean nanoparticle diameter and the coverage fraction of the substrate by the nanoparticles (NPs) were measured at 19 nm and 30%, respectively. Moreover, electron diffraction analysis showed that the TiO2 NPs' crystalline structure on the carbon substrate was a mixture of anatase and rutile. Finally,we provided information on the TiO2 initial growth stage: crystalline NPs were formed after deposition of amorphous nanoparticles on the substrate and heating. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of external poly base sheet resistance in 0.13 µm quasi self-aligned SiGe:C HBTs
You, Suzhen; Van Huylenbroeck, Stefaan; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULg et al

in Thin Solid Films (2009), 518(6), 68

This paper investigates the optimization of the external polysilicon base sheet resistance of quasi self-aligned (QSA) SiGe:C HBTs from a 0.13 μm BiCMOS process. Taking advantage of optimized implant ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the optimization of the external polysilicon base sheet resistance of quasi self-aligned (QSA) SiGe:C HBTs from a 0.13 μm BiCMOS process. Taking advantage of optimized implant conditions to improve the doping of the external base poly, and using an optimized non-selective epitaxy process with improved growth rate ratio of 1.7 between the polycrystalline silicon and monocrystalline silicon of the base, the maximum oscillation frequency fmax reaches 300 GHz. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and characterization of aromatic self-assembled monolayers containing methylene and ethyleneglycol entities by means of sum-frequency generation spectroscopy
Dreesen, Laurent ULg; Sartenaer, Y.; Peremans, A. et al

in Thin Solid Films (2006), 500

We use infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy in order to investigate the adsorption properties on Pt(111) of molecules having CH3–C6H4–(O–CH2–CH2)n –O–(CH2)m –SH as general chemical ... [more ▼]

We use infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy in order to investigate the adsorption properties on Pt(111) of molecules having CH3–C6H4–(O–CH2–CH2)n –O–(CH2)m –SH as general chemical formula. We synthesized three molecules defined by the values m=5 n =4, m =11 n =4, m=11 n =8 and characterized them by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Thanks to spectroscopic measurements, we show that these molecules build self-assembled monolayers on Pt(111). First, the weak SFG signals arising from the ad-layer indicate low order and surface coverage of the substrate by these molecules. Next, the vibrational fingerprints of the aforementioned molecules are determined between 2825 and 3125 cm 1 and the observed SFG spectral features are ascribed on the basis of the analysis of shorter and simpler molecules (1- dodecanethiol, 4-methylbenzenethiol and CH3–C6H4–O–(CH2)11–SH) also adsorbed on Pt(111). The occurrence of methylene vibration modes indicates a significant amount of chain defects whatever the n and m numbers are. Finally, the identification of a particular vibration mode, characteristic of the aromatic ring, enables us to qualitatively discuss the effect of the number of methylene and ethylene glycol entities on its orientation. More precisely, higher these numbers, more tilted (with respect to the substrate normal) the aromatic ring plane is. [less ▲]

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See detailFabrication, optical characterization and modeling of strained core-shell nanowires
Zanolli, Zeila ULg; Froberg, Linus E; Bjork, M. T. et al

in Thin Solid Films (2006), 515(2), 793-796

Strained nanowires with varying InAs/InP core/shell thicknesses were grown using Chemical Beam Epitaxy. Microphotoluminescence spectroscopy, performed at low temperature, was then used to study the ... [more ▼]

Strained nanowires with varying InAs/InP core/shell thicknesses were grown using Chemical Beam Epitaxy. Microphotoluminescence spectroscopy, performed at low temperature, was then used to study the optical properties of single wires. Emission from the InAs core was observed and its dependence on the shell thickness / core diameter ratio was investigated. We found that it is possible to tune the emission energy towards 0.8 eV by controlling this ratio. We have compared the measured energies with calculated energies. Our findings are consistent with the wires having a hexagonal crystal structure. [less ▲]

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See detailSum-frequency generation spectroscopy applied to model biosensors systems
Dreesen, Laurent ULg; Sartenaer, Y.; Humbert, C. et al

in Thin Solid Films (2004), 464-465

Vibrational information recorded by infrared-visible sum frequency generation spectroscopy was used to study the adsorption of a derivated vitamin (biocytin) on different substrates and its subsequent ... [more ▼]

Vibrational information recorded by infrared-visible sum frequency generation spectroscopy was used to study the adsorption of a derivated vitamin (biocytin) on different substrates and its subsequent reaction with a protein (avidin). No reaction is observed on metallic substrates. When the experiments are carried out with a CaF2 substrate in the total internal reflection configuration, significant changes of the CH and NH vibrations can be related to the specific bonding of avidin to biocytin. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular Structure and Surface Order in Monolayers of Alkanethiols Evidenced by HREELS
Duwez, Anne-Sophie ULg; Yu, Li-Ming; Riga, Joseph et al

in Thin Solid Films (1998), 327-329

Structural characteristics and order within n-alkanethiols, a,q-alkanedithiols and a-cycloalkyl-q-alkanethiols monolayers self-assembled on gold have been investigated using high resolution electron ... [more ▼]

Structural characteristics and order within n-alkanethiols, a,q-alkanedithiols and a-cycloalkyl-q-alkanethiols monolayers self-assembled on gold have been investigated using high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The coherent domain sizes have been estimated from the angular distribution of the elastic peak as a function of the nature of the alkane chain and of the immersion time in the thiol solutions. These data have revealed many defects in the organization of the monolayers on evaporated gold substrates. It has been shown that the domains are smaller on Au(100) than on Au(111). [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of polyacrylonitrile films grafted onto nickel by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy and X-ray reflectivity
Calberg, Cédric ULg; Mertens, Marc; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Thin Solid Films (1997), 310(1-2), 148-155

The thickness and roughness of polyacrylonitrile films electrografted on a nickel surface have been measured by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy and X-ray reflectivity. From combined ellipsometry and ... [more ▼]

The thickness and roughness of polyacrylonitrile films electrografted on a nickel surface have been measured by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy and X-ray reflectivity. From combined ellipsometry and X-ray reflectivity measurements, accurate values for the refractive indices of polyacrylonitrile and nickel have been derived at a 6328-Åwavelength. Dependence of the film thickness on the monomer concentration has been quantified for the first time. Furthermore, the thickness of the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) film is related to the nature of the solvent, depending on whether it is a good solvent for PAN (dimethylformamide; DMF) or not (acetonitrile; ACN). [less ▲]

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See detailSurface pressure in SOS models
De Coninck, Joël; Limbourg, Sabine ULg; Newman, Charles

in Thin Solid Films (1994), 244

Microscopic models of the solid-on-solid type were considered to describe the surface pressure of monolayers and bilayers on top of another layer in two and three dimensions. The two interfaces, above and ... [more ▼]

Microscopic models of the solid-on-solid type were considered to describe the surface pressure of monolayers and bilayers on top of another layer in two and three dimensions. The two interfaces, above and below the film, were studied in simultaneous thermal equilibrium without imposing a fixed profile for the first fluid or solid. It is shown that the associated mean field approximation leads to an exact determination of the surface pressure isotherms revealing the possible existence of plateaux, typical of first-order phase transitions. [less ▲]

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