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See detailMarker vaccines and the impact of their use on diagnosis and prophylactic measures
Vannier, P.; Capua, I.; Le Potier, M. F. et al

in Revue Scientifique et Technique-Office International des Epizooties (2007), 26(2), 351-372

Molecular biology and technical advances in DNA recombination have ushered in a new era in vaccinology. This article examines the recent development of specific marker vaccines and examines the impact of ... [more ▼]

Molecular biology and technical advances in DNA recombination have ushered in a new era in vaccinology. This article examines the recent development of specific marker vaccines and examines the impact of their use on the diagnosis and prevention of major infectious diseases. Gene-deleted vaccines, DIVA strategies (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) and similar methods have been successfully applied in the control and eradication of Aujeszky's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, classical swine fever, foot and mouth disease and, recently, avian influenza. The efficacy and performance of existing marker vaccines and their companion diagnostic tools (which should be assesed by an independent body) are discussed, as are the ways in which these tools are deployed by competent authorities. The limits and the advantages of the use of marker vaccines are carefully analysed in the light of practical experiences. Although these vaccines can limit the speed and the extent of virus dissemination and thus reduce the number of animals slaughtered, marker vaccines are no substitute for sanitary measures. Early detection and warning systems and the quick implementation of sanitary measures, including stamping out, remain key issues in the control of highly contagious diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailVaccination guidelines: a bridge between official requirements and the daily use of vaccines
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Horzinek, M. C.

in Revue Scientifique et Technique-Office International des Epizooties (2007), 26(2), 511-517

Vaccination guidelines are non-compulsory recommendations which assist the veterinary practitioner to use vaccines efficiently. They complement the official information contained in the shortened form of ... [more ▼]

Vaccination guidelines are non-compulsory recommendations which assist the veterinary practitioner to use vaccines efficiently. They complement the official information contained in the shortened form of the summary of product characteristics that is included in the package insert of the product. The aim of this article is to clarify the role of guidelines and examine how they can improve the use of vaccines in practical conditions. The development of vaccination guidelines is explained. Several issues are discussed: primary vaccination schedule; interference with maternally derived antibodies; duration of immunity; vaccination and ageing. Three guidelines dealing with the vaccination of cats against upper respiratory tract disease are compared, as an example. In conclusion, vaccination guidelines are essential tools to assist veterinarians in good vaccination practices. They fill the gap that exists between the official recommendations included in the regulations and the licensing dossiers and the daily use of the vaccines. [less ▲]

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