References of "Research in Veterinary Science"
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See detailEffect of different kinds of anoxia/reoxygenation on the mitochondrial function and the free radicals production of cultured primary equine skeletal myoblasts.
Ceusters, Justine ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2013), 95

Horses are outstanding athletes, performing in many different disciplines involving different kinds of efforts and metabolic responses. Depending on exercise intensity, their skeletal muscle oxygenation ... [more ▼]

Horses are outstanding athletes, performing in many different disciplines involving different kinds of efforts and metabolic responses. Depending on exercise intensity, their skeletal muscle oxygenation decreases, and the reperfusion at cessation of the exercise can cause excessive production of free radicals. This study on cultured primary equine myoblasts investigated the effect of different kinds of anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) on routine respiration, mitochondrial complex I specific activity and free radicals production. Our data revealed that short cycles of A/R caused a decrease of all the parameters, opposite to what a single long period of anoxia did. A preconditioning-like effect could explain our first pattern of results whereas mild uncoupling could be more appropriate for the second one. Anyway, it seems that mitochondrial complex I could play a major role in the regulation of the balance between metabolic and antioxidant protection of the muscular function of athletic horses. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of breed, sex, age and body weight on Echocardiographic Measurements in the Equine Species
Al Haidar, Ali; Farnir, Frédéric ULg; Deleuze, Stefan ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2013), In press

Little is known about the effect of various animal's signalment variables on echocardiographic reference values in the equine species. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of sex, breed, age ... [more ▼]

Little is known about the effect of various animal's signalment variables on echocardiographic reference values in the equine species. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of sex, breed, age and body weight (BW) on echocardiographic measurements in the equine species. Echocardiography was performed on 212 ponies or horses of various breeds, aged from 1 day to 37 years old (mean ± SD: 7.8 ± 5.8 years), BW 38-890 kg (mean ± SD: 421 ± 133 Kg), and free of cardiac disease. Fifty of those animals aged from 2 months to 35 years old (mean ± SD: 11.6 ± 6.4 years old); BW 77-662 kg (mean ± SD: 436 ± 135 kg) were also examined using the pulsed-wave Doppler mode. Standard two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography were performed on all animals. Standard pulsed-wave Doppler examination of each cardiac valve was performed on the 50 first examined animals. Data were analysed using a general linear model including the effect of sex, age, breed and BW after logarithmic transformation of the data. Therefore, the same analysis was performed separately on animals aged  2 years-old and on older animals. All dimensional echocardiographic measurements were significantly affected by BW and most of them were significantly affected by breed, but not by sex. Only the aortic and the pulmonary artery internal diameter were significantly affected by age. None of the Doppler measurements were significantly affected by the tested variables. In conclusion, in the equine species, dimensional echocardiographic reference values should be established using regression equations as a function of BW, which could increase the diagnostic value of this leading technique in equine cardiology. Breed could also have an effect on those measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy-associated glycoprotein, chymosin and pepsinogen immunoreactivity of proteins extracted from fetal gastric tissue in bovine species.
Bella, Amina ULg; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Dehimi, M. L. et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2012), 92(3), 378-386

The objective of this work was to investigate the expression of gastric aspartic proteinases in fundic and pyloric mucosa removed from bovine fetuses. For this purpose, fractions issued from classical ... [more ▼]

The objective of this work was to investigate the expression of gastric aspartic proteinases in fundic and pyloric mucosa removed from bovine fetuses. For this purpose, fractions issued from classical biochemical protocols were analyzed by proteolytic method, by PAG-RIA and by Western blot with the use of antisera raised against both pepsinogens and PAG. A strong reaction of proteins extracted from the fundic mucosa collected at the beginning of pregnancy was revealed with both anti-bPAG-I and anti-bPAG-II antisera, suggesting the expression of pepsinogen F in bovine species. Concerning pyloric mucosa, the analysis by Western blot highlighted a very strong immunoreaction with the anti-bovine chymosin serum. Amino-terminal sequencing allowed to identify bovine fetuin and albumin in fundic extracts, chymosin in the pyloric mucosa extracts, as well as some unknown proteins in both mucosa. Despite no N-terminal microsequence corresponding to the hypothetical pepsinogen F could be identified, it cannot be excluded that an existing bovine pepsinogen F-like molecule could be degraded during the purification procedure or that co-purified proteins could be responsible for masking its N-terminal microsequence. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring of the intra-dermal tuberculosis skin test performed by Belgian field practitioners
Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Walravens, K.; Salandre, O. et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2011)

The present study aimed to monitor skin test practices as performed by veterinarian field practitioners in Belgium. For this purpose, an anonymous postal questionnaire was elaborated and dispatched to ... [more ▼]

The present study aimed to monitor skin test practices as performed by veterinarian field practitioners in Belgium. For this purpose, an anonymous postal questionnaire was elaborated and dispatched to veterinarians involved in bovine tuberculosis detection. The questionnaire included items focusing on the skin test performance. International experts in the field of bovine tuberculosis were asked to fill the questionnaire and a scoring scale was built as follows: 0='ideal' answer, 1=acceptable answer, whereas 2=unacceptable answer. Furthermore, experts were asked to rank the questionnaire's items according to their possible impact on the risk of not detecting reactors. A global score was further calculated for each participant and a comparison of practices was carried out between the two regions of the country, i.e. Wallonia and Flanders. Significant differences were observed between both regions, a harmonization at the country level is thus essential. No veterinarian summed a null score, corresponding to the ideal skin test procedure, which suggests that skin-testing is far from being performed correctly. Field practitioners need to be sensitized to the importance of correctly performing the test. The authors recommend the questionnaire is suitable for application in other countries or regions [less ▲]

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See detailMethod for co-purification of equine neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase from a limited blood volume.
de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULg; Serteyn, Didier ULg; Deby, Ginette ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2009)

Neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) and elastase can be released in severe inflammatory diseases and cause tissue injuries. Equine enzymes have already been individually purified from large blood quantities ... [more ▼]

Neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) and elastase can be released in severe inflammatory diseases and cause tissue injuries. Equine enzymes have already been individually purified from large blood quantities. We describe the isolation of both enzymes from a same limited blood volume. Both MPO and elastase were extracted by crushing PMN isolated by centrifugation on a percoll-gradient from a 460ml blood collection. MPO and elastase were separated by an ionic exchange chromatography phase and further purified by gel filtration chromatography on Superdex 200 and 75, respectively. Enzymes were identified in the collected fractions by specific enzymatic assays. The final purity was verified by electrophoresis. Specific activity was improved to 19.92 and 34.3x for elastase (final yield: 340mug) and MPO (final yield: 130mug), respectively, during the procedure. Results show the possibility of isolating both enzymes from the same blood sample with a sufficient yield and purity for future studies on their implication and interaction during inflammatory diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelation of five radioimmunoassay systems for measurement of bovine plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations at early pregnancy period.
Ayad, A.; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2009), 86

The measurement of serum or plasma PAG concentrations is currently used as a specific method for pregnancy diagnosis in cattle. In this study, the correlation between five radioimmunoassay systems (RIA ... [more ▼]

The measurement of serum or plasma PAG concentrations is currently used as a specific method for pregnancy diagnosis in cattle. In this study, the correlation between five radioimmunoassay systems (RIA-497, RIA-706, RIA-780, RIA-809 and RIA-Pool) developed for measurement of PAG concentrations in ruminant species was investigated in plasma from pregnant Friesian Holstein females. Plasma PAG concentrations (ng/mL) measured by different RIA systems were significantly correlated between them ( 0.81; P<0.001). PAG concentrations increased significantly from Day 21 (n=27) to 30 (n=37) after AI by use of all PAG-RIA systems. From Day 30 to 80 after AI, lower PAG concentrations were observed when using the homologous system RIA-497. The addition of several proteinase inhibitors changed neither the non specific binding nor the B(0) binding to the tracer. Our results suggest that all tested PAG-RIA (RIA-497, RIA-706, RIA-780, RIA-809 and RIA-Pool) are highly correlated and can be useful to follow PAG concentrations in samples collected during the first trimester of gestation. [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary characterization of jejunocyte and colonocyte cell lines isolated by enzymatic digestion from adult and young cattle.
Loret, Suzanne; Rusu, Dorina; Moualij, Benaissa El et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2009), 87(1), 123-32

In the present study we developed an enzymatic approach (through the use of collagenase and dispase) to isolate bovine intestinal epithelial cells. Using this method, freshly isolated jejunocytes could be ... [more ▼]

In the present study we developed an enzymatic approach (through the use of collagenase and dispase) to isolate bovine intestinal epithelial cells. Using this method, freshly isolated jejunocytes could be distinguished from simultaneously isolated colonocytes, as the jejunocytes specifically exhibited the small intestinal peptidase gene transcript, as well as an active alkaline phosphatase. The transformation of both types of cell suspension was performed by retroviral infection, using reproduction-defective viruses bearing the gene coding for the large T antigen of the leukaemia simian virus (SV40). The success of the transfection was demonstrated by (1) a significant increase in cell passage numbers (52-53 vs. 7 passages for non-transfected cells), (2) the detection of both the large T transcript and the large T antigen in transformed cells. Possible contamination and progressive substitution of bovine primocultures by non-bovine lineages available in the laboratory was excluded, as the transformed cells presented a bovine typical karyotype. Most transfected cells kept an epithelial morphology after transformation. They also maintained the expression of FABP and enterocyte specific enzymes (brush-border associated maltase and IAP). However, levels of specific activity of these enzymes were low, suggesting that cell differentiation is not completely achieved under the applied culture conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between biochemical markers and radiographic scores in the evaluation of the osteoarticular status of Warmblood stallions
Verwilghen, Denis ULg; Busoni, Valeria ULg; Gangl, Monika et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2009), 87(2), 319-28

Establishing the osteoarticular status of the horse is often performed by means of radiological screening of the animals. Widespread blood sampling could reveal to be an interesting alternative to this ... [more ▼]

Establishing the osteoarticular status of the horse is often performed by means of radiological screening of the animals. Widespread blood sampling could reveal to be an interesting alternative to this procedure which is time consuming and sometimes technically difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the radiological status of the horses and the levels of biochemical markers of cartilage degradation and synovial inflammation. A specific radiological scoring and classification system was therefore developed and applied on 63 stallions presented for studbook admission. Additionally, groups of horses were established according to the occurrence of osteochondrosis, degenerative joint disease and distal interphalangeal joint effusion. Insulin growth factor-I, myeloperoxidases, Coll2-1 and Coll2-1NO(2) were used as blood markers. The combination of the blood parameters did not seem to correlate with the used scoring system. Coll2-1NO(2) levels however tended to increase with poorer radiological class and this could therefore potentially be a useful predictor of the osteoarticular status in the horse. Coll2-1 levels were significantly higher in the degenerative joint disease group. A high percentage of horses with distal interphalangeal joint effusion was present in this study and was associated with decreased IGF-I and increased Coll2-1 levels. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation of new pregnancy-associated glycoproteins from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) placenta by Vicia villosa affinity chromatography.
Barbato, O.; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Klisch, K. et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2008), 85(3), 457-66

The present study describes the isolation and characterization of new pregnancy-associated glycoprotein molecules (PAG) from midpregnancy and late-pregnancy placentas in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis ... [more ▼]

The present study describes the isolation and characterization of new pregnancy-associated glycoprotein molecules (PAG) from midpregnancy and late-pregnancy placentas in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). After extraction, the homogenates are subjected to acid and ammonium sulfate precipitations followed by DEAE chromatography. Subsequently, the water buffalo PAG (wbPAG) from these solutions are enriched by Vicia villosa agarose (VVA) affinity chromatography. As determined by western blotting with anti-PAG sera, the apparent molecular masses of the immunoreactive bands from the VVA peaks range from 59.5 to 75.8kDa and from 57.8 to 73.3kDa in the midpregnancy and late-pregnancy placentas, respectively. Amino-terminal microsequencing of the immunoreactive proteins has allowed the identification of three distinct wbPAG sequences, which have been deposited in the SwissProt database: RGSXLTIHPLRNIRDFFYVG (acc. no. P85048), RGSXLTILPLRNIID (acc. no. P85049), and RGSXLTHLPLRNI (acc. no. P85050). Their comparison to previously identified proteins has shown that two of them are new because they have not been described before. Our results confirm the suitability of VVA chromatography for the enrichment of the multiple PAG molecules expressed in buffalo placenta. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects Of Oral Supplementation With Bovine Colostrum On The Immune System Of Weaned Piglets
Boudry, Christelle ULg; Buldgen, André; Portetelle, Daniel ULg et al

in Research In Veterinary Science (2007), 83(1), 91-101

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of bovine colostrum supplementation on the immune system of weaned piglets in a context of a full ban on in-feed antibiotics. After weaning at 21 days ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of bovine colostrum supplementation on the immune system of weaned piglets in a context of a full ban on in-feed antibiotics. After weaning at 21 days, 24 outbred piglets were fed with a diet supplemented daily for three weeks with 0, 1 or 5 g of colostrum. Feed intake, growth performance, haematological parameters, and serum and local anti-colostrum immunoglobulin levels were examined. Lymphocytes from the blood, spleen and gut-associated lymphoid tissues were analysed for phenotype as well as for their ability to produce cytokines. The stimulation index (SI) of mononuclear cells from different organs was obtained after colostral or mitogenic stimulation. Feed intake, growth and haematological parameters were not significantly affected by colostrum. Total serum IgA levels were increased after colostrum supplementation, with a transient decrease in total IgG. Local anti-colostrum immunization was observed in colostrum-fed piglets. The CD21+/CD3+ cells populations of the ileal Peyer’s patch (iPP) were markedly affected. The SI of lymphocyte populations changed significantly whereas, naive blood lymphocytes were not stimulated in vitro in the presence of bovine colostrum, suggesting local anti-colostrum immunization and an absence of direct mitogenic effects of the colostrum. Both Th1 and Th2 cytokine production was present in the different organs of colostrum-fed piglets. Bovine colostrum especially stimulated iPP cells. [less ▲]

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See detailA type II-collagen derived peptide and its nitrated form as new markers of inflammation and cartilage degradation in equine osteochondral lesions.
Gangl, Monika; Deberg, Michelle ULg; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2007), 82

Markers of cartilage breakdown enable studying the degradation of cartilage matrix in equine joint pathologies. This study was designed to determine the levels of Coll2-1, a peptide of the triple helix of ... [more ▼]

Markers of cartilage breakdown enable studying the degradation of cartilage matrix in equine joint pathologies. This study was designed to determine the levels of Coll2-1, a peptide of the triple helix of type II collagen, and Coll2-1NO(2), its nitrated form in the plasma of healthy horses (controls; n=37) and horses suffering from osteochondrosis (n=34). Clinical and arthroscopic scores were attributed reflecting the severity of lesions and were related to the plasma levels of Coll2-1 and Coll2-1NO(2). The median of Coll2-1 was significantly higher in the control group, whereas the mean of Coll2-1NO(2) showed significant elevation in the pathological group. However, the measurement means of scoring classes did not vary significantly. The markers were able to differentiate the group of horses suffering from osteochondrosis from the group of healthy horses. The elevation of Coll2-1NO(2) in the pathological group indicates an inflammation, mediated through reactive oxygen species and/or increased myeloperoxidase activity. [less ▲]

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See detailSendai virus, the mouse parainfluenza type 1: A longstanding pathogen that remains up-to-date
Faisca, Pedro; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Research in Veterinary Science (2007), 82(1), 115-125

Biologically speaking, Sendai virus (SeV), the murine parainfluenza virus type 1, is perceived as a common respiratory pathogen that is endemic in many rodent colonies throughout the world. Currently it ... [more ▼]

Biologically speaking, Sendai virus (SeV), the murine parainfluenza virus type 1, is perceived as a common respiratory pathogen that is endemic in many rodent colonies throughout the world. Currently it is believed that SeV is the leading cause of pneumonia in mice and together with the mouse hepatitis viruses, is the most prevalent and important of the naturally occurring infections of mice. The scientific community also considers SeV as the archetype organism of the Paramyxoviridae family because most of the basic biochemical, molecular and biologic properties of the whole family were derived from its own characteristics. Recently, scientific interest for this old pathogen has re-emerged, this time because of its potential value as a vector for gene transfer. This review aimed at drawing an exhaustive picture of this multifaceted pathogen. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelation between a proteolytic method and a radioimmunoassay for porcine serum pepsinogen concentrations
Sidikou, D. I.; Banga-Mboko, H.; Tamboura, H. H. et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2006), 80(3), 260-266

The measurement of serum pepsinogen concentrations by enzymatic method and immunoassay provides diagnostic values and should be helpful in the detection of gastric diseases related to a rise of blood ... [more ▼]

The measurement of serum pepsinogen concentrations by enzymatic method and immunoassay provides diagnostic values and should be helpful in the detection of gastric diseases related to a rise of blood pepsinogen. In the present study, the correlation between a conventional enzymatic method and a recently developed radioimmunoassay (RIA) for serum pepsinogen A was investigated. A total of 123 sera samples of porcine foetuses (n = 28), adult healthy pigs (n = 56), pigs with parakeratosis (n = 25) and pigs with ulceration of the pars oesophagea (n = 14) were tested. Overall, there was a slight correlation between the two methods (r = 0.60). In relation to individual animal groups, the correlations (r) were 0.39 (P>0.05), 0.74 (P<0.001), 0.19 (P>0.05) and 0.34 (P>0.05) in foetuses, healthy pigs, pigs with parakeratosis and pigs with ulcers, respectively. In both methods, pepsinogen concentrations (means+/-SE) were significantly higher (P<0.05) in pigs with parakeratosis (1778 +/- 86.00 mUTyr/L; 690 +/- 53.00 ng/mL) and in pigs with ulcers (2026 +/- 153.00 mUTyr/L; 1747 +/- 94.00 ng/mL) when compared to healthy pigs (935 +/- 58.00 mUTyr/L; 275 +/- 35.00 ng/mL). The proteolytic method gave a significant increased activity (P<0.05) in foetuses (1150 +/- 82.00 mUTyr/L) vs. (935 +/- 58.00 mUTyr/L) in healthy adult pigs, indicating an additional proteolytic activity in the sera of foetuses or neonates. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of chronic obesity and weight loss on plasma ghrelin and leptin concentrations in dogs.
Jeusette, Isabelle C; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Shibata, Haruki et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2005), 79(2), 169-75

The objective of this study was to evaluate, in dogs, the effects of obesity and weight loss on plasma total ghrelin and leptin concentrations. Twenty-four Beagle dogs, 12 control lean and 12 obese dogs ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to evaluate, in dogs, the effects of obesity and weight loss on plasma total ghrelin and leptin concentrations. Twenty-four Beagle dogs, 12 control lean and 12 obese dogs of both genders and aged between 1 and 9 years, were used for the experiments. Mean body weight was 12.7+/-0.7 kg for the lean group and 21.9+/-0.8 kg for the obese group. The trial was divided into three phases. During phase 1, all 24 Beagle dogs were fed a maintenance diet. During phase 2, the obese dogs were submitted to a weight loss protocol with a high protein-low energy diet. The weight loss protocol ended once dogs reached optimal body weight. During phase 3, the dogs that were submitted to the weight loss protocol were maintained at their optimal body weight for 6 months. Plasma total ghrelin, leptin, insulin and glucose concentrations were measured to evaluate the effects of obesity and weight loss on these parameters in dogs. Body weight, body condition score, thoracic and pelvic perimeters, and ingested food amounts were also recorded during the study. Obese dogs demonstrated a significant decrease in plasma ghrelin and a significant increase in plasma leptin and insulin concentrations when compared with control dogs. During weight loss, significant increases in plasma total ghrelin and glucose and significant decreases in plasma leptin and insulin were observed. The increase in plasma ghrelin concentrations seemed to be transient. Body weight and the morphometric parameters correlated positively with leptin concentrations and negatively with total ghrelin concentrations. These results suggest that ghrelin and leptin could play a role in dogs in the adaptation to a positive or negative energy balance, as observed in humans. [less ▲]

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See detailAcute phase proteins assessment for an early selection of treatments in growing calves suffering from bronchopneumonia under field conditions
Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Coghe, J.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2004), 77(1), 41-47

Blood samples were taken from calves with respiratory disease the first day of examination for determination of the serum concentration of haptoglobin, fibrinogen, alpha-2- and gamma-globulins, and ... [more ▼]

Blood samples were taken from calves with respiratory disease the first day of examination for determination of the serum concentration of haptoglobin, fibrinogen, alpha-2- and gamma-globulins, and albumin. A clinical examination was performed daily for the duration of the disease. The animals were retrospectively classified in two categories: those animals requiring no treatment or antibiotics alone (group A), and antibiotics associated to anti-inflammatory drugs (group B). The serum proteins were tested in order to check whether they were able to distinguish, on the first day of clinical examination, between calves requiring anti-inflammatory treatment (group B) or not (group A). About 80% of calves were properly classified in both groups by the combined use of the two serum proteins haptoglobin and fibrinogen: these two proteins, and especially haptoglobin, were useful for the identification of calves requiring an anti-inflammatory treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailHaemoglobin oxygen affinity and regulating factors of the blood oxygen transport in canine and feline blood
Cambier, Carole ULg; Wierinckx, Maude ULg; Clerbaux, T. et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2004), 77(1), 83-88

Complete dynamic oxygen equilibrium curves (OEC) on dogs and cats whole blood were measured at 33, 37 and 41 degrees C. OEC were also run at three partial carbon dioxide pressures (20, 40 and 80 mmHg) as ... [more ▼]

Complete dynamic oxygen equilibrium curves (OEC) on dogs and cats whole blood were measured at 33, 37 and 41 degrees C. OEC were also run at three partial carbon dioxide pressures (20, 40 and 80 mmHg) as well as at five pH levels (7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5 and 7.6). 2,3- diphosphoglycerate (DPG) concentrations were determined. Results were compared to those previously published in humans, using the same experimental method [Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 106 (1993) 687]. In standard conditions (pH 7.4, pCO2 40 mmHg and temperature 37 degrees C), the partial oxygen pressure at half-saturation of haemoglobin (p50) was 30.0+/-1.3 mmHg for dogs and 34.1+/-1.8 mmHg for cats. Cat's OEC was thus rightshifted compared to dog's OEC, itself rightshifted compared to human OEC. 2,3-DPG concentrations were higher in dogs than in men until they were very low in cats. Contrary to that observed in human medicine, no significant correlation was identified between standard p50 and canine 2,3-DPG values. Influence of pH, pCO2 and temperature on the OEC was saturation dependent. In dogs, Delta log p50/Delta pH was equal to -0.370, Delta log p50/Delta log pCO2 was 0.093 and Delta log p50/Delta T was 0.020. In cats, Delta log p50/Delta pH was equal to -0.405, Delta log p50/Delta log pCO2 was 0.080 and Delta log p50/Delta T was 0.016. Practically, temperature and pH variations exert a lesser influence in domestic carnivores than in humans, effect of pCO2 being similar in both. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the performance of linear resistance and ultrasonic pneumotachometers at rest and during lobeline-induced hyperpnoea
Kästner, S. B. R.; Marlin, D. J.; Roberts, C. A. et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2000), 68(2), 153-9

The performance of a Fleisch No. 5 pneumotachometer (F), and two commercial ultrasonic pneumotachometers, the BRDL (B) and the Spiroson (S) systems were compared in respect to their use for determination ... [more ▼]

The performance of a Fleisch No. 5 pneumotachometer (F), and two commercial ultrasonic pneumotachometers, the BRDL (B) and the Spiroson (S) systems were compared in respect to their use for determination of ventilatory parameters at rest and during lobeline-induced hyperpnoea. Five clinically healthy Thoroughbred horses were tested with the three pneumotachometers in random order. Respiratory airflow, respired gas concentrations, oesophageal pressures, pressures within the mask systems and arterial blood gases were determined before and during lobeline-induced hyperpnoea. Because measured peak expiratory airflow rates exceeded the stated linear range of the Fleisch pneumotachometer ( approximately +/- 25 l s(-1)) differential pressure-flow curves were determined in vitro over the range of flows recorded in vivo. Expired flows greater than the linear range were corrected according to the derived regression equation. No differences in any of the measured variables among the three systems were present at rest. At peak ventilation of lobeline-induced hyperpnoea mask pressures [Delta P(mask)(mean (SEM)): F: 9.6 (2.8) cm H(2)O, B: 0.8 (0.4) cm H(2)O, S: 1.4 (0.8) cm H(2)O] and end tidal carbon dioxide [ ET CO(2)(mean (SEM)): F: 2. 6 (0.1)%, B: 2.1 (0.2)%, S: 2.1 (0.1)%] were significantly higher in system F. Despite a tendency for respiratory frequency and peak inspired and expired flows, to be lower with system F, no significant differences in the measurements of ventilatory mechanics were detected. In conclusion, the ultrasonic flowmeters pose significantly lower resistive loads onto the respiratory system during ventilation above resting levels than Fleisch No 5 pneumotachometers. However, at the flowrates achieved during lobeline-induced hyperpnoea an in vitro calibration of the differential pressure-flow relationship allows correction for expiratory alinearity in system F. In addition, the performance of the Spiroson flowmeter is accurate in determining ventilatory mechanics at rest and during lobeline-induced hyperpnoea. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanics of the Respiratory System in Healthy Newborn Calves Using Impulse Oscillometry
Uystepruyst, Christophe; Reinhold, Petra; Coghe, Joost et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2000), 68(1), 47-55

Arterial blood gases, acid-base balance and respiratory function tests using impulse oscillometry (IOS) were performed on 40 clinically healthy newborn calves during the first 24 hours of life to evaluate ... [more ▼]

Arterial blood gases, acid-base balance and respiratory function tests using impulse oscillometry (IOS) were performed on 40 clinically healthy newborn calves during the first 24 hours of life to evaluate their respiratory adaptation to extrauterine life. Gas exchange efficiency of the lung was significantly improved with time and was accompanied by the correction of the mixed acidosis observed at birth and by significant changes in respiratory mechanics. Major changes were detected within the first 6 hours. The significant decrease in resistance (R) and the increase in reactance (X) with time, demonstrate the improvement in respiratory mechanics of both upper and lower airways, and reflect the increase in lung volume, the improved lung tissue elasticity and/or distribution of the ventilation. Respiratory mechanical, arterial blood gases and acid-base balance data provided in this study describe a successful respiratory adaptation to extrauterine life in healthy newborn calves. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of sugar-beet fibre, guar gum and inulin on nutrient digestibility, water consumption and plasma metabolites in healthy Beagle dogs.
Diez, Marianne ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Baldwin, Paule ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (1998), 64(2), 91-6

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of three fibres (sugar-beet fibre, guar gum and inulin) incorporated in the basal diet of healthy dogs at 7 per cent of dry matter (DM). Parameters ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of three fibres (sugar-beet fibre, guar gum and inulin) incorporated in the basal diet of healthy dogs at 7 per cent of dry matter (DM). Parameters examined included stool output, water consumption, nutrient digestibility and fasting and postprandial plasma metabolites. All fibres increased wet faecal output; an increase in faecal DM output being observed with sugar-beet fibre only. Sugar-beet fibre and inulin increased daily water consumption. Sugar-beet fibre and guar gum decreased DM digestibility. The three fibres diminished organic matter and crude protein digestibility while ether extract digestibility was decreased by guar gum and inulin. Guar gum induced lower postprandial insulin, alpha-amino-nitrogen and urea plasma concentrations. Guar gum also lowered fasting cholesterolaemia. Sugar-beet fibre and inulin showed no metabolic effects. These physiological properties suggest that guar gum would be a suitable ingredient for dietary therapy of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidaemia in the dog. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuous and non-invasive study of brain oxygenation in the calf by near infrared spectroscopy
Pringle, John; Uystepruyst, C.; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (1998), 65

Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to detect changes in brain oxygenation in five tranquilised calves that were placed on a hypoxic gas mixture (10 per cent O2/90 per cent N2) and hyperoxic gas ... [more ▼]

Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to detect changes in brain oxygenation in five tranquilised calves that were placed on a hypoxic gas mixture (10 per cent O2/90 per cent N2) and hyperoxic gas mixture (30 per cent O2/70 per cent N2) for five minutes at each concentration. A NIRO 500 (Hamamatsu, Japan) was used for the NIRS, with the incident light source and separate detector (optodes) placed on shaved skin on the most dorsal surface of the frontal bone. Sequential arterial blood gas sample analyses provided confirmation of the appropriate change in systemic oxygenation status. By the end of the five-minute-period of breathing 10 per cent oxygen, NIRS of the calf head detected highly significant changes in haemoglobin oxygenation reflective of hypoxaemia, with oxyhaemoglobin decreasing by 23.5 units (P<0.01) and deoxyhaemoglobin increasing by 45.6 units, (P<0.01) from the baseline of breathing room air. Total haemoglobin (oxyhaemoglobin + deoxyhaemoglobin) showed a significant increase of 22.1 units (P<0.05) but there was no significant change in NIRS determined cytochrome aa3 oxygenation. Concomitant blood gas alterations included significant decreases in PaO2 (-27.8 mmHg, P<0.01), haemoglobin saturation (-29.0 per cent, P<0.05), and PaCO2 (-7.8 mmHg, P<0.05) and significantly increased blood pH (0.059, P<0.05). At the end of the five minutes of breathing 30 per cent oxygen NIRS of the calf head detected significantly increased oxyhaemoglobin (13.1 units, P<0.01) and decreased deoxyhaemoglobin (-13.7 units, P<0.05) when compared with baseline breathing of room aim. Total haemoglobin and cytochrome aa3 were unchanged from baseline. The accompanying arterial blood gas changes included significant increases in PaO2 (30.9 mmHg, P<0.05), arterial O2 saturation (11.7 per cent, P<0.05), and significantly decreased pH (-0.026, P<0.05). This study showed that NIRS can be used to continuously and non-invasively detect cerebral oxygenation changes in the live calf in response to both increased and decreased systemic arterial oxygen. Additionally, despite induction of profound hypoxaemia, cytochrome aa3 in the brain did not appear to become reduced. [less ▲]

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