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See detailIn vivo oocyte developmental competence is reduced in lean but not in obese superovulated dairy cows after intraovarian administration of IGF1.
Velazquez, M. A.; Hadeler, K. G.; Herrmann, D. et al

in Reproduction (Cambridge, England) (2011), 142(1), 41-52

The present study investigated the role of IGF1 in lactating lean and non-lactating obese dairy cows by injecting 1 μg IGF1 into the ovaries prior to superovulation. This amount of IGF1 has been linked ... [more ▼]

The present study investigated the role of IGF1 in lactating lean and non-lactating obese dairy cows by injecting 1 μg IGF1 into the ovaries prior to superovulation. This amount of IGF1 has been linked with pregnancy loss in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and was associated with impaired bovine oocyte competence in vitro. Transcript abundance and protein expression of selected genes involved in apoptosis, glucose metabolism, and the IGF system were analyzed. Plasma concentrations of IGF1 and leptin, and IGF1 in uterine luminal fluid (ULF), were also measured. IGF1 treatment decreased embryo viability in lean cows to the levels observed in obese cows. Obese cows were not affected by IGF1 treatment and showed elevated levels of IGF1 (in both plasma and ULF) and leptin. Blastocysts from lean cows treated with IGF1 showed a higher abundance of SLC2A1 and IGFBP3 transcripts. IGF1 treatment reduced protein expression of tumor protein 53 in blastocysts of lean cows, whereas the opposite was observed in obese cows. IGF1 in plasma and ULF was correlated only in the control groups. Blastocyst transcript abundance of IGF1 receptor and IGFBP3 correlated positively with IGF1 concentrations in both plasma and ULF in lean cows. The detrimental microenvironment created by IGF1 injection in lean cows and the lack of effect in obese cows resemble to a certain extent the situation observed in PCOS patients, where IGF1 bioavailability is increased in normal-weight women but reduced in obese women, suggesting that this bovine model could be useful for studying IGF1 involvement in PCOS. [less ▲]

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See detailThe glycosylation of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins and prolactin-related protein-I in bovine binucleate trophoblast giant cells changes before parturition.
Klisch, Karl; Boos, A.; Friedrich, M. et al

in Reproduction (Cambridge, England) (2006), 132

Binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) in the bovine placenta produce glycoproteins, which are delivered into the mother after fusion of BNC with uterine epithelial cells. During most time of pregnancy ... [more ▼]

Binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) in the bovine placenta produce glycoproteins, which are delivered into the mother after fusion of BNC with uterine epithelial cells. During most time of pregnancy, BNC produce pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) and prolactin-related protein-I (PRP-I) with asparagine-linked lactosamine-type glycans terminating with N-acetyl-galactosamine. We show by lectin histochemistry that terminal N-acetyl-galactosamine (detected by Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, DBA) in placentomal BNC is greatly reduced prior to parturition, while lactosamine-type N-glycans (detected by Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, PHA-L) remain unaltered. The change in DBA-staining showed no statistically significant differences between placentomes of cows with and without retention of fetal membranes. Western blots revealed that, at parturition the apparent molecular mass of PAGs and PRP-I is 1-2 kDa lower than in late pregnancy. These changes are due to alterations of asparagine-linked glycans, since the molecular weight of the peptide backbones after enzymatical release of asparagine-linked glycans is identical at late pregnancy and parturition. Lectin western blots showed a reduction of terminal N-acetyl-galactosamine on PAGs at parturition. A lectin sandwich-ELISAwas used to differentiate DBA- and PHA-L-binding PAGs in sera of pregnant and non-pregnant cows. The values for DBA-binding PAGs at parturition were not significantly different from non-pregnancy, while the values for PHA-L-binding PAGs were significantly higher at parturition. The peripartal changes of PAG- and PRP-I-glycosylation could alter functional properties of these proteins and might therefore be considered for functional studies. The differentiation of PAG glycoforms in maternal serum could be valuable for a further optimization of PAG-based pregnancy diagnosis in cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailPorcine embryo development and fragmentation and their relation to apoptotic markers: a cinematographic and confocal laser scanning microscopic study.
Mateusen, Bart; Van Soom, Ann; Maes, Dominiek G D et al

in Reproduction (Cambridge, England) (2005), 129(4), 443-52

Porcine embryo selection prior to transfer is mainly influenced by morphological criteria. However, the relationship between embryonic morphology, developmental potential and cell death by apoptosis in ... [more ▼]

Porcine embryo selection prior to transfer is mainly influenced by morphological criteria. However, the relationship between embryonic morphology, developmental potential and cell death by apoptosis in porcine embryos is still unclear. The aim of this study was to establish embryo quality parameters for in vivo fertilised porcine embryos based on timing of development in vitro, embryo morphology and the presence of apoptosis. The kinetics of development and morphological parameters were investigated in a time-lapse cinematographic experiment. Possible links between embryo morphology and apoptosis were examined via a confocal laser scanning experiment, analysing nuclear changes, annexin V and terminal dUTP nick-end labelling. The timing of early cleavages was firmly linked to embryo developmental competence in vitro. Attainment of at least the 5-cell stage before 77 h post insemination and attainment of the morula stage before 102 h post insemination significantly increased the odds for reaching the early blastocyst stage. Overall, a negative effect of fragmentation percentage and fragmentation pattern on subsequent embryonic development was observed, but the developmental potential of embryos experiencing slight fragmentation (0-5%) was not different from embryos without fragmentation. Correlations detected between developmental arrest and fragmentation, and fragmentation and apoptosis were 0.60 and 0.87 (P < 0.05) respectively. Only a minority of the embryos arrested between the 1- and 4-cell stage displayed biochemical characteristics of apoptosis. Consequently, a significant correlation (0.57) between developmental arrest and apoptosis could only be established for embryos arrested after embryonic genome activation. [less ▲]

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