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See detailObservations sur l'action détersive des solutions de savon : Troisième communication : Les solutions de savon et l'hydrosol aluminique
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1910), XXIX

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See detailObservations sur l'action détersive des solutions de savon : Quatrième et dernière communication : Les solutions de savon et l'acide silicique, l'argile et la cellulose
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in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1910), XXIX

Spring, W. Luttich. Rec. trav. chim. (1910), 29(1), 8; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). see also C. A., 4, 138, 969. Study of the ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Luttich. Rec. trav. chim. (1910), 29(1), 8; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). see also C. A., 4, 138, 969. Study of the action of hydrated iron oxide, 7Fe2O3.3H2O on soap soln. of varying conc. led to the conclusions that the optimum suspension conc. of the soap soln. is 0.5%, that the soap splits into a basic and acid part, the basic combining with the Fe2O3 and the acid part remaining in soln., and that a soap soln. will remove Fe2O3 from its adsorption compds. with cellulose. Substituting an Fe hydrosol for the Fe2O3 it was found that pptn. occurred between limiting ratios of the soap to hydrosol, i. e., between 1 of soap to 2.16 of Fe2O3 and 1 of soap to 3.47 Fe2O3. The pptn. of Al2O3, with soap soln. shows a periodicity, the ratios of soap to Al2O3 in those solns. which become clear being approx. 8.33, 4.16, 2.06. If the wt. of Al2O3. exceeds that of the soap no pptn. occurs. A large excess of soap, 20 times the wt. of Al2O3, gives a suspension optimum, whereas 80 times the wt. of Al2O3 gives pptn. The speed of the reaction depends primarily on the ratio of the reacting substances. 7SiO2.3H2O combines with a basic constituent of soap, leaving an acid constituent of low ash in soln. The % of ash in the soap in soln. increases when more dil. soap solns. are used, due to soln. of SiO2. The adsorption compd. of basic soap with SiO2 dissociates on shaking with H2O. A pptn. optimum occurs at 1/8% soap soln., and a suspension optimum at 1/16 and 1/2%. A hydrated clay gave approx. the same results, pptg. about 60% of the soap from a 1/2% soln. The soap has a solvent action on the clay, a 1/8% soap soln. giving the highest ratio of suspended clay to soap. A suspension optimum for the settling of clay in soap soln. is found at 1/32% soap soln. Cellulose forms an adsorption compd. with the basic constituents of soap, the cleavage of the soap being noticeable only in concs. above 1%. The cleansing action of soap is due to the formation of an adsorption compd. with the material to be removed, which thus loses its adhesive properties. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur une modification lente de la constitution des solutions de certains sels
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1910), XXIX

By Spring, W. Inst. chim. gen., Liege. Rec. trav. chim. (1910), 29, 163-72; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Solns. of a number of ... [more ▼]

By Spring, W. Inst. chim. gen., Liege. Rec. trav. chim. (1910), 29, 163-72; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Solns. of a number of salts (KNO3, KBr, Na2SO4, K2Cr2O7, ZnSO4, CuCl2, CuSO4, MnCl2, AlCl3, etc.) prepared in 1905 and kept at ordinary temp. from the action of direct sunlight were examined at intervals during the following four years and were found to become more and more transparent. The degree of transparency was judged by the degree of luminosity in the soln. of a beam of light projected through it by an electric lantern (50 volts and 12 amp.). To ascertain if there had been any molecular change in the solns., during the four years the conductivities of the original and the four year old solns. were determined and compared. The cond. of the original solns. was determined from portions of the 4-year-old solns. which had been evaporated to dryness and redissolved to the original vol. In the majority of cases the 4-year-old solns. showed markedly smaller conds. This may be explained by a hydrolysis of the salt which occurs when the soln. is first made. The "hydrate" [hydroxide?] thus formed is in a colloidal condition and does not affect the electrical resistance; this colloidal soln. by reflection renders more luminous a beam of light passed through the soln. The free acid initially present is the cause of the high conductivity of the solution. In the old solns. the colloidal hydrate and the free acid have greatly decreased, and the conductivity is therefore smaller than before. The state of equilibrium of such a hydrolysis, when once displaced by change of temp., etc., is restored very slowly. The soln. becomes more optically transparent owing to the gradual disappearance of the colloidal hydrate. The K2Cr2O7 soln. alone was anomalous and showed a decrease in resistance of almost one-half on standing four years. This soln. had become yellow, but on evaporating the soln. and redissolving to the same vol. the color was reddish yellow as in the original soln. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations sur l'action détersive des solutions de savon : Première communication
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1909), XXVIII

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1909), 28, 120-35; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1909), 28, 120-35; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The action of soap is explained by the following facts: (1) Carbon hastens the decomp. of soap in water by causing the formation of an acid salt. This combination of C with the soap is not stoichiometric but a combination such as exists between colloidal substances. The combination of the C with the soap is formed because of the difference of the electrical polarity of its constituents from water. (2) C suspended in water forms a combination of absorption more or less stable with the solid substances, especially cellulose. This, the author says, is proved by the fact that a suspension of finely divided C in water will give up its C to filter paper when filtered, and if the paper is then inverted the C cannot be washed off by means of water. There exists a combination of colloidal C and paper. (3) A suspension of C in soap solution is characterized by its stability. When filtered all of the C passes through the filter paper. In his experiments the author employed a 2% soap solution and C from which all oily matter had been removed so that there was no chance for emulsions. It was found that there was an optimum % of concentration for which the C remained in suspension. In a 2% sol. the C deposited almost as rapidly as in pure water, but in solutions of less than 0.5% the deposition was slower. In a 1% sol. the C remained in suspension about 2 months. All of the soap solutions which had retained C in suspension nevertheless had a sediment. Acid and alkaline solutions of soap were tried with regard to their power of holding C in suspension. The acid solutions became clear rapidly while the alkaline held the C better than pure water does. MeOH and EtOH solutions of soap were also tried. The deposition of C from these took place more rapidly than in the case of water. Soap solutions which deposited C were examined to see whether any soap was dragged down with the C. It was found each time that the % of ash of the sol. which had been agitated with C and then filtered, was greater than the corresponding % of ash of the sol. not so treated, which was run as a comparison. The author concludes that the soap sol. was slightly decomposed by contact with the C into an acid portion which agglutinated with C and into a basic portion which remained in solution. The MeOH and EtOH sols. of soap when examined in the same manner as above showed less ash. This would mean that the solution underwent no change and that there was no agglutination with the C. This also explains why alc. solutions of soap give inferior detersive effects. The sediment of C deposited from soap solution is different in character from that deposited from pure water. It is oleaginous and viscous. A suspension of C in water was subjected to electrolysis. With a difference of potential of 8 volts cataphoresis is doubtful, but when the sol. is made slightly alkaline the C acts as if charged electropositive and is deposited around the cathode. A 0.2% soap solution when electrolyzed gave a white deposit around the anode after several hours. This, when separated from the solution and the ash determined and compared with that of the filtrate, indicates that the deposit at the anode is an acid soap while the soap left in the solution is basic. The author is carrying on experiments to show the action of silicic acid, iron oxide, Al2O3, etc., in soap solutions. Also in Arch. sci. phys. nat. g.acte.en., 27, 229. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations sur l'action détersive des solutions de savon : Deuxième communication : Les solutions de savon et les composés ferriques
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1909), XXVIII

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1910), 28, 424-43; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). see C ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1910), 28, 424-43; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). see C. A., 3, 1599-1613; 4, 138. In this investigation finely divided hematite (Fe2O3) containing 4.6% H2O) was treated in a manner similar to the C described) in preceding communication. It was found that in pure H2O it remains in suspension for days, but in acid or alkaline solns. it settles in 0.5 hr. When subjected to action of electric current the tendency is to migrate toward the cathode; hence particles must be positively charged. When Fe2O2 is shaken with soap solns. of varying strength all except those with about 0.5% soap settle in 5 days or less. Those with 7-8% show a ferric color in the clear soln. The residue on evapn. of the clear 7% soln. shows 17.66% and 17.50% ash, after deducting 1.13% Fe2O3; from the same soln. not shaken with Fe2O3 18.31%. Dilute KOH solns. (less than 0.1%) do not cause settling, but as little as 0.0001% HCl does so. A soln. of soap in MeOH was shaken with Fe2O3. The residue on evapn. of the clear soln. showed 17.68% ash; from the original soln. 18.24%. This shows a decomp. of the soap into a basic and an acid portion, the latter combining with the Fe2O3. Suspension of Fe2O3 in H2O filters clear after 16 filtrations, through same paper in alc., after 4. This is due to adsorption, and not to blocking of the pores, for if H2O be poured on the paper through which alc. suspension filtered clear, it comes through more and more turbid as the alc. is washed out. If 2% soap soln. be used instead, it looks as if filter had been pierced. This indicates that Fe2O3 forms an adsorption-combination with soap more stable than with cellulose or other materials. When colloidal Fe(OH)3 solns. are shaken with soap solns. clarification is found to depend on the relative amts. of Fe(OH)3 and soap. It is most rapid when the proportion is between 2.16 and 3.47 mols. Fe2O3 to 1 of soap. By a titration method the ratio was found to be 3.10-3.25:1 when Fe(OH)3 was run into the soap; 1 when soap was run into Fe(OH)3. The ppts. in the 2 cases were almost the same in comp., and were entirely different from the Fe soap prepared by adding FeCl3 soln. to soap soln., in which the ratio is 3 mols. soap to 1 mol. Fecl3. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la couleur du glycol éthylénique et de la glycérine
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in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1908), XXVII

Spring, W. Liege. Rec. trav. chim. (1908), 27, 110-6; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). From the study of the color of long columns ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Liege. Rec. trav. chim. (1908), 27, 110-6; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). From the study of the color of long columns of water, ethyl alcohol, glycol, and glycerol, the author concludes that organic liquids containing OH groups have a blue color, the intensity of the color bearing some relation, if it is not directly proportional, to the number of these groups. Incidentally, he finds that the addition of water is necessary to remove by means of animal charcoal all dark colored impurities from the liquids with which he worked. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur les modifications subies par quelques phosphates acides à la suite d'une compression ou d'une déformation mécanique
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in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1907), XXVI

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1907), 26, 188-202; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1907), 26, 188-202; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The author subjected several acid phosphates to high pressures in a specially constructed cylinder with the following results: Ca(H2PO4)2H2O loses first its water of crystallization and finally a portion of the phosphoric acid, these two constituents being forced out of the compression cylinder. In general those constituents which were capable of liquefying under the pressure were found to be eliminated most readily. The acid phosphates of calcium, sodium and probably lithium form molecular compounds with their respective sulphates, that of calcium being insoluble in water and probably constituting one of the causes of reversion. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur un hydrate de soufre
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in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1906), XXV

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1906), 25, 253-9 ; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The sulphur which is ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1906), 25, 253-9 ; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The sulphur which is formed together with polythionic acids when hydrogen sulphide and sulphur dioxide react in aqueous solution is a mixture of soluble sulphur and a definite hydrate, S8,H2O, and not a new allotropic form of sulphur, "sulphur δ", as described by Debus (Chem. News, 1888, 57, 87). In order to separate the hydrate from the soluble sulphur, the mixed precipitate in washed by dialysis until it is neutral to litmus, and dried in a vacuum at the ordinary temperature until the weight is constant; the yellow mass thus obtained is powdered, sifted through silk, again dried in a vacuum, and finally extracted with carbon disulphide, which dissolves 51.6 per cent. of the total mass. The residual sulphur hydrate, S8,H2O, when compressed into cylinders, has a sp. gr. 1.9385 at 19°/4°, loses its water at 80°, and has a slight vapour pressure at the ordinary temperature, the powdered substance losing 2.41 per cent. and the compressed substance 1.33 per cent. when kept over sulphuric acid for 205 days. The partially dried powder contains 3.1 per cent. and the compressed substance 5.8 per cent. of sulphur soluble in carbon disulphide. If, however, the hydrate consisted of octahedral sulphur combined with water, the amount of soluble sulphur in the partially dried powder would be 35.186 per cent.; it is probable, therefore, that the hydrate is derived from an amorphous unstable variety of sulphur which is transformed slowly under ordinary conditions, and more rapidly under pressure, into soluble sulphur. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur l'origine des nuances vertes des eaux de la nature et sur l'incompatibilité des composés calciques, ferriques et humiques en leur milieu
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in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1906), XXV

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1906), 25, 32-39; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). After Baron V. AUFSESS ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1906), 25, 32-39; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). After Baron V. AUFSESS (Die Farbe der Seen. Inaug.-Diss. Muenchen 1903) the refraction of the light does not have influence on the change of the blue color water, mainly also because one can obtain green water by dissolving lime compounds/connections, yellow or brown water by solve ones of humus substances in pure water. The going by experiments of the authors, which are down partly in detail described, led however to the subsequent results: the lime compounds/connections natural water do not have inherent color and are not a cause of the much-observed green coloring in with examination appearing even clear lime water; the green, after elimination of the dyes residual coloring contained in the water is the result of the refraction of the light through invisible portion cups, which the water still includes, and whose presence can be done by an intensive light beam. The lime compounds/connections affect strongly fell in the water contained the ferric compounds/connections and with these on the humus substances, which the latter natural color water strongly change. Lime salts protect therefore the blue color water. In case of the not-blue, lime-containing, natural water an equilibrium between the cleaning effect of their lime compounds/connections results and steady influxes of the humus and ferric compounds/connections, which let disappear its brown coloring lower for itself the blue color water. The blue, more or less greenish color of the purest water give information over the point, where the equilibrium between the antagonists is fixed. Purely blue water (6 m coating thickness) becomes green by dissolving lime from Icelandic double spar; when introducing CO2 a clear, somewhat less green solution of acid calcium carbonate forms; also gypsum colors such water green. During the passage of radiation of electrical light these solutions appear, particularly the CaH2(CO3)2-containing, optically clouds, it carefully to dry was evaporated, the residue contained partially organic substance, partially SiO2 or silicates (from the glass of the container), which were contained in the solution therefore in the colloidal condition. After filtering the other Ca-containing solutions by animal charcoal these showed the same blue color as pure water. When regarding by a pipe of 6 m length appears pure water with 1/1 000 000 part ferric hydroxide brown, with 1/2 000 000 green, with 1/5 000 000 unmodified blue. With humus substances the blue color is already changed by more than 1/40 000 000 part. Ferric salts color brownish; they are particularly reduced by humus substances, in the light, sometimes partially to ferrous compounds/connections, whose color is not possible, and which with the humus substances insoluble, failing compounds to be received. To a liter of clear solution with 1/3 000 000 if part colloidal Fe(OH) 3 (to dissolve of FeCl3 in H2O) is added a same volume acid calcium carbonate or CaSO4-Solution, then a flocculation, tags begins is because of the container soil a brown, ocher-colored dirt, the water is perfectly clear, appears green and leaves a residue of CaCO3 or CaSO4 without trace iron after few instants; the sediment contains 85-90% Fe(OH)3, CaCO3 or CaSO4. Also with insoluble CaCO3 begins the flocculation of the ferric compounds/connections immediately; similarly soluble salts work; with sodium chloride (sea water) a trace remains iron in solution. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la limite de visibilité de la fluorescence et sur la limite supérieure du poids absolu des atomes
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1905), XXIV

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1905), 24, 297-304; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Compare de Bruyn and ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1905), 24, 297-304; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Compare de Bruyn and Wolff, Abstr., 1904, ii, 470. The fluorescence of a solution of fluorescein or of eosin in optically transparent water (Abstr., 1899, ii, 537) becomes invisible in daylight when the amount of the fluorescent substance present falls to 0.000,000,01 gram per c.c., and is just visible at the apex of a powerful beam of electric light when the concentration is 0.000,000,000,000,001 gram per c.c. It is found that the area of liquid illuminated by the apex of the cone of light must be at least 1 sq. mm. in order to render the fluorescence visible, and consequently, assuming that 1 cubic millimetre of the liquid contains at least one molecule of fluorescein (mol. wt. 408) for example, then the weight of an atom of hydrogen would be 2.5 × 10-21 grams. This value, which represents only the higher limit among possible values, is much smaller than those arrived at from other considerations by Clerk Maxwell, Kelvin, de Heen, Annaheim, and others. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la décomposition de quelques sulfates acides à la suite d'une déformation mécanique
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in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1904), XXIII

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1904), 23, 187-201; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). A series of experiments ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1904), 23, 187-201; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). A series of experiments on anhydrous and hydrated sulfates of the alkali metals was conducted to study the decomposition of some acid sulfates as the result of mechanical deformation. The compression was effected in a steel cylinder, the bottom of which was perforated with a single small hole to permit liquid to flow away and provided with a loosely-fitting piston between which and the walls of the cylinder the salt could "flow". Results demonstrate that under compression involving mechanical deformation, compounds which may be regarded as resulting from the combination of a solid with a liquid tend to decompose into these generators. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la diminution de densité qu'éprouvent certains corps à la suite d'une forte compression et sur la raison probable de ce phénomène
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in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1904), XXIII

Spring, Walthere. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1904), 23, 1-15; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). In a previous ... [more ▼]

Spring, Walthere. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1904), 23, 1-15; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). In a previous communication (Abstr., 1884, 256), the author has shown that lead, zinc, ammonium sulphate, and ammonium alum, when strongly compressed, exhibit a diminished density. These observations have been extended to various metals by Kahlbaum, Roth and Siedler (Abstr., 1902, ii, 259), and to steel by Grunmach (Ann. Phys. Chem., 1889, 67, 227). It is now shown that specimens of lead, tin, cadmium, and silver which have been forced through small apertures under pressure exhibit slight diminutions from the normal densities of these metals, whereas bismuth, similarly prepared, shows an increase in density. Further, when two plates of the same metal, one having been compressed and the other being the metal in the normal condition, are simultaneously placed in an electrolyte, a slight permanent current is produced, in one direction with the first four metals, which expand on liquefaction, and in the opposite direction for bismuth, which contracts when liquefied. Other slight changes in physical properties are also induced by strong compression. The author suggests that these changes in density are due to the assumption by these substances under compression of the molecular condition characteristic of the liquid state. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la transparence des milieux troubles aux rayons X
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in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1903), XXI

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1903), 21, 460-64; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). In order to determine ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1903), 21, 460-64; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). In order to determine, whether medium affect the x-ray by aqueous-alcoholic resin solution and furthermore colloidal solutions of S, gold and platinum prepared and the behavior of the x-rays when passing these liquids compared to their behavior when passing a equivalent thick layer of pure water and in order to leave the opacity of the clouding substance unconsidered actually, the termination coil which contained the pure water, was dressed in compact substance in the way that the quantity latter the same was in colloidal condition in the applied liquid. The experiments ran in as much quite negatively as the applied cloudy medium that let the x-rays happen exactly just as easily as the water in compound with the membrane of compact substance; only the resin solution showed a small, but possibly coincidental difference in the permeability, but so, as if the cloudy medium would have been more transparent. One does not have to conclude from experiments that the x-rays do not change with the passage by cloudy medium, anyhow is weakened their effect on the photographic plate. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur l'illumination de quelques verres
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in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1900), XIX

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1900), 19, 339-49; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Ruby-glass is made by the ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1900), 19, 339-49; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Ruby-glass is made by the addition of traces of gold chloride to an ordinary fused glass; the glass so obtained is at first colourless and only assumes a ruby colour during subsequent prolonged heating. When an intensely luminous electric beam is passed tangentially through a small cylinder of the colourless gold-glass, practically no internal illumination is visible; in the case of the ruby-glass, however, a yellowish-brown, luminous trace is produced, probably due to reflection from minute particles of metallic gold. The intensity of colour of the ruby-glass depends on the time of its reheating, and determines the intensity of illumination necessary to produce a visible trace; the deeper the colour of the glass the less illumination is required. In the colourless glass, the gold probably exists in a state of extreme subdivision, and the reheating which produces the ruby colour brings about a coarser colloidal aggregation, similar to that which takes place in gelatino-bromide plates during maturation (de Bruyn, Rec. Trav. Chim., 1900, 19, 236). Red glass coloured by copper, and yellow glass coloured by silver, show respectively dull brown and greyish luminous traces, due to the finely divided metals. Glasses coloured by silicates of iron, chromium, manganese, and cobalt show only a faint luminous trace, and, allowing for the presence of small air bubbles, are optically "void" (vide). Glasses which are colourless of themselves show a faint bluish trace and are yellow when viewed through a great length; they thus resemble media containing an extremely minute turbidity (compare Abstr., 1899, ii, 537, 585). Glass decolorised by manganese compounds shows an intensely green fluorescence, the luminous trace being green when the incident light is either violet or blue, but suppressed when it is green, yellow, or red. Glasses containing iron alone or manganese alone are not fluorescent. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la diffusion de la lumière par les solutions
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1899), XVIII

Spring, W. Chemiker-Zeitung (1899), 23, 375-77; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed Jully 15, 2010). Following its studies over the color water(see p ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Chemiker-Zeitung (1899), 23, 375-77; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed Jully 15, 2010). Following its studies over the color water(see p. 1011) reports authors over experiments concerning so-called shining of the liquids was examined particularly to solutions, D. hot liquids, those from molecules with different forces of attraction combined law. The used solutions disintegrate after their behavior into three groups: asymmetrical those of the alkali metal salts, education those of the ground compound/connection and heavy metal salts and C. those of the actual colloidal solutions only the solutions of the group of asymmetrical - were examined chlorides,bromides, chlorates and nitrates of sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium and barium - can be represented without special difficulty optically empty(Tyndall), by distillation to one with usual water solution of these salts some drops of a colloidal iron, zinc or a cadmium oxide hydrate solution prepared add, the well jelly precipitation tear then all for portion cups with itself and leave an optically empty liquid. A similar clarifying of the solutions from the second group could not be accomplished because of the chemical reactions occurring thereby and the formation of basic salts. Author was content to compare a shining of the filtered solutions with that distilled water also filtered solutions the zinc, cadmium, manganese, cobalt, nickel old person behaved completely like distilled water, on the other hand solutions of aluminum, chrome, a, copper, mercury and lead salts made the electrical light bundle strongly visible. In by the dissociated effect water is formed for the latter trap on the salts a metal oxide hydrate, which, equal the colloids, which reflects light laterally. Addition decreased from HCl to the solutions(lead solution except for) corresponding shining, with the help of a strong light bundle one can recognize therefore the character of a solution. Clear one aqueous solutions of really colloidal substances such as gelatin, rubber arabicum, dextrine, alcoholic of colophony, sandarac, mastic, lacquer, furthermore stagnant Selfen solutions, diluted Solutions of alkali silicates, of different coloring materials as citizen of Berlin blue, Phenyl blue etc. show a constant strong light cone in each concentration. The past experiments could not decide the question, whether this light diffusion depends dissolved substances on the imperfect type of the solution or however on the molecular size, yet. From its observations author concludes that the clear can be separated solutions, which appear alike with usual lighting in intensive light into such asymmetrical, which behave as optically empty, and in education such, which reflects the light laterally. Only the first are chemically completely homogeneous, in them are an intimate mutual compound gel to assume with the solvent. That light-ether is closer in such a solution than everywhere in the empty area, but from same condensation. Those optically empty solutions are all also Electrolyte, the ions cause therefore no unequal condensation of light ether. In that it already cause the electrostatic forces before the light of a stream a regular distribution of the ions, so that these probably affect the refractive indexes, but the continuous light in its straight-line run cannot disturb. Although solutions that To group of education as electrolytes seem, steps the diffusion of the light only after suitable Diluted the solution up. Furthermore the salts of the metals concerned do not suffer an hydrolytic Dissociation, absolute homogeneity can any more exist, and consequently the hydrolysis is to be differentiated from the electrolytic Dissociation with respect to the light bundle. Finally come the solutions as really not electrolytic, i.e. as colloidal forwards, then they cause the diffusion of the light in each degrees of the Diluted u.7 can be never regarded as true transparent liquids. Substances with complicated molecules behave in an intensive light beam, similarly a molecular complex, therefore the majority of the organic bodies causes a light diffusion similarly colloidal solutions, but becomes shining organic liquids still more complicated by the occurrence of fluorescence features. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur l'unité d'origine du bleu de l'eau
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1899), XVIII

Spring, W.Rec. trav. Chim. Pays-Bas (1899). 18, 1-8; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). After a short overview of the theories on the ... [more ▼]

Spring, W.Rec. trav. Chim. Pays-Bas (1899). 18, 1-8; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). After a short overview of the theories on the blue of the sky and water, author turns against Abegg, that, despite the work of Soret (C. r. d. l'Acad. des sciences 69. 1192) and the author's (see Bull. Acad. Royal Belgique [3] 36. 266; C. 99. I. 146), in articles on the color of the seas and lakes (Naturw. Rundsch. 13. 169) their blue color is encountered by two different causes, namely one is attributed to the natural blue coloring of water, and secondly, reflection features. By new experiments concerning the details to the original works it must be referred by author that particles to which the water (distilled or natural) owes its discoloration and the light waves of each length in same way reflected, does not show it therefore a blue color water can arrange. Author sees experiments a new confirmation of its into this previously (previously cited) expressed opinion that the color is compensated to and for itself blue water by in it suspended particles depending upon their nature modified or respectively to the colorlessness. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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