References of "Psychologica Belgica"
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See detailThe self-report Version of the LSAS-CA: Psychometric Properties of the French Version in a non-clinical adolescent sample
Schmits, Emilie ULg; Heeren, Alexandre; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2014), 54(2),

The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is one of the most popular measures of social anxiety in adults. The LSAS has been adapted for clinical assessment of children and adolescents (LSAS-CA). The ... [more ▼]

The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is one of the most popular measures of social anxiety in adults. The LSAS has been adapted for clinical assessment of children and adolescents (LSAS-CA). The psychometric properties of the self-report version of the LSAS-CA (LSAS-CA-SR) have been investigated in a Spanish population. However, no study to date has adapted and validated this scale in French. The purpose of this study was to develop a French version of the LSAS-CA-SR and to assess its score reliability and structural validity in a French-speaking community sample. The sample was made up of 1,343 teenagers from secondary schools, aged between 14 and 18 years. Confirmatory factor analyses established the structural validity of the French version of the LSAS-CA-SR and good psychometric properties, including reliable internal consistency, were observed. [less ▲]

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See detailA French Translation of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI): Factor Structure, Reliability and Validity of This Scale in a Nonclinical Sample of Children
Stassart, Céline ULg; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2014)

Introduction: Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to the fear of anxiety-related sensations due to beliefs that these sensations will lead to catastrophic outcomes. AS plays a central role in the etiology and ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to the fear of anxiety-related sensations due to beliefs that these sensations will lead to catastrophic outcomes. AS plays a central role in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. From a clinical perspective, it therefore seems important to possess a valid scale to assess AS in children. Objective, Method: This study examines the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the French translation of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) in 353 Belgian children (9 to 13 years). Result: Results show that AS can be adequately measured using the French version of the CASI and conceptualized as a hierarchical factor structure with four lower-order factors – Physical Concerns, Mental Incapacity Concerns, Social Concerns, and Losing Control Concerns – loading on a single higher-order factor, Anxiety Sensitivity. The reliability was acceptable for the total scale. Hierarchical multiple regressions show that the CASI makes a significant contribution in predicting anxiety. conclusion: The data support the relevance of the French CASI in the assessment of AS in nonclinical children. [less ▲]

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See detailPROFINTEG: A TOOL FOR REAL-LIFE ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING IN PATIENTS WITH COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT
Anselme, Patrick ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg; Bouwens, Sharon et al

in Psychologica Belgica (2013), 53(1), 3-22

Although there are many instruments for assessing activities of daily living (IADL) in brain injured patients, few instruments specifically target cognitive impairment and its impact on IADL. The present ... [more ▼]

Although there are many instruments for assessing activities of daily living (IADL) in brain injured patients, few instruments specifically target cognitive impairment and its impact on IADL. The present study presents the development of the Profinteg instrument, a tool for real-life assessment as well as rehabilitation of IADL in patients with cognitive impairment. This two-stage instrument covers over 90 activities. Psychometric properties of the different Profinteg measures were explored in twenty-five patients with mild to severe cognitive difficulties and twenty-five caregivers. The feasibility of the Profinteg rehabilitation procedure was explored in three patients. Excellent interrater reliability (r > 0.90, p < 0.01) was observed for all measures. Good sensitivity to changes in IADL disability over time was also observed (T = 2.37, p < 0.02). Significant improvement of IADL functioning was found after rehabilitation guided by Profinteg assessment. The Profinteg instrument detects with precision the difficulties patients encounter in their real-life setting via (1) assessment of a large number of activities and (2) detailed decomposition of activities into sub-activities. The Profinteg tool also provides promising results for guidance of IADL rehabilitation in the patient’s real-life environment. [less ▲]

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See detailA French Translation of the Revised Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI-R): Its Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity in a Nonclinical Sample of Children Aged 12 and 13 Years Old.
Stassart, Céline ULg; Hansez, Isabelle ULg; Delvaux, Muriel ULg et al

in Psychologica Belgica (2013), 53(1), 57-74

This study (n = 237 Belgian children; mean age = 12.3 years; SD = 0.41) examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the French translation of the Revised Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity ... [more ▼]

This study (n = 237 Belgian children; mean age = 12.3 years; SD = 0.41) examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the French translation of the Revised Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI-R). We obtained a hierarchical factor structure with four lower-order factors – “fear of cognitive dyscontrol,” “fear of publicly observable anxiety reactions,” “fear of respiratory symptoms,” and “fear of cardiovascular symptoms” – loading on a single higher-order factor (“anxiety sensitivity”). The French translation revealed acceptable internal consistency and a good interitem structure. Anxiety sensitivity was connected with the anxiety and depression scales but the correlation between the CASI-R and the depression score was more modest than that between the CASI-R and the trait anxiety score, indicating that the CASI-R is an anxiety scale. Girls reported more fear of anxious feelings than boys. This revised version allows for a more fine-grained assessment of the anxiety sensitivity concept. [less ▲]

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See detailIllusory recollection: The compelling subjective remembrance of things that never happened. Insights from the DRM paradigm.
Dehon, Hedwige ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2012)

Illusory recollection is the subjective detailed feeling of remembering that sometimes accompanies false remembering of events that never happened (e.g., high confidence, “Remember” judgements, or even ... [more ▼]

Illusory recollection is the subjective detailed feeling of remembering that sometimes accompanies false remembering of events that never happened (e.g., high confidence, “Remember” judgements, or even remembrance of precise details supposedly associated with the false event). In this review, typical illusory recollection measures obtained from laboratory studies will be depicted, with a focus on the DRM paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995), one of the most largely used procedures to study memory distortion and its associated illusory recollection. The theoretical explanations of illusory recollection will be described and contrasted in light of factors affecting the phenomenon, in order to shown their strengths and limits. Although the focus on the origins of illusory recollection is relatively recent, overall, this review suggests that DRM false memories can be an excellent tool to study this phenomenon under controlled conditions and to gain insights on false memories occurring in everyday life. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of gaze direction on face recognition: A sensitive effect
Daury, Noémy ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2011), 51(2), 139-153

This study was aimed at determining the conditions in which eye-contact may improve recognition memory for faces. Different stimuli and procedures were tested in four experiments. The effect of gaze ... [more ▼]

This study was aimed at determining the conditions in which eye-contact may improve recognition memory for faces. Different stimuli and procedures were tested in four experiments. The effect of gaze direction on memory was found when a simple “yes-no” recognition task was used but not when the recognition task was more complex (e.g. including “Remember-Know” judgements, cf. Experiment 2, or confidence ratings, cf. Experiment 4). Moreover, even when a “yes-no” recognition paradigm was used, the effect occurred with one series of stimuli (cf. Experiment 1) but not with another one (cf. Experiment3). The difficulty to produce the positive effect of gaze direction on memory is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning a motor skill: Effects of Blocked vs. Random Practice. A review
Merbah, Sarah ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2011), 51(1), 15-48

Procedural learning refers to the ability to learn new perceptual, motor or cognitive skills. While many studies have explored procedural learning abilities in patients with different types of brain ... [more ▼]

Procedural learning refers to the ability to learn new perceptual, motor or cognitive skills. While many studies have explored procedural learning abilities in patients with different types of brain damage, the cognitive mechanisms involved in the acquisition of a new skill are still not well understood. The present review focuses on the conditions that optimize skill acquisition, and more specifically on the contextual interference effect (CIE), which refers to the advantage of a ‘random’ over a ‘blocked’ practice condition in skill learning tasks. According to both the ‘elaboration’ and ‘reconstruction’ hypotheses, the CIE can be explained by the fact that the random schedule requires more cognitive activity than the blocked one. However, if the CIE has been consistently demonstrated in laboratory studies, it is not so clear in fieldbased studies. We discuss this ‘laboratory and field dilemma’, and suggest that two main factors – task complexity and individual variables – may explain the discrepancy between the two types of studies. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning a motor skill: Effects of blocked versus random practice. A review
Merbah, Sarah ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2011), 51

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See detailHow to Statistically Show the Absence of an Effect
Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2011), 51(2), 109-127

In experimental studies, the lack of statistical significance is often interpreted as the absence of an effect. Unfortunately, such a conclusion is often a serious misinterpretation. Indeed, non ... [more ▼]

In experimental studies, the lack of statistical significance is often interpreted as the absence of an effect. Unfortunately, such a conclusion is often a serious misinterpretation. Indeed, non-significant results are just as often the consequence of an insufficient statistical power. In order to conclude beyond reasonable doubt that there is no meaningful effect at the population level, it is necessary to use proper statistical techniques. The present article reviews three different approaches that can be used to show the absence of a meaningful effect, namely the statistical power test, the equivalence test, and the confidence interval approach. These three techniques are presented with easy to understand examples and equations are given for the case of the two-sample t-test, the paired-sample t-test, the linear regression coefficient and the correlation coefficient. Despite the popularity of the power test, we recommend using preferably the equivalence test or the confidence interval. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring positive and negative occupational states (PNOSI) : Structural confirmation of a new Belgian tool
Barbier, Marie ULg; Peters, Stéphanie ULg; Hansez, Isabelle ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2009), 49(4), 227-247

This article reports on the validation of the Positive and Negative Occupational States Inventory (PNOSI), a new tool for measuring positive and negative occupational states. Three goals were defined ... [more ▼]

This article reports on the validation of the Positive and Negative Occupational States Inventory (PNOSI), a new tool for measuring positive and negative occupational states. Three goals were defined: testing the structural validity of the PNOSI, testing its stability, and testing its convergent and discriminant validity with engagement, burnout, commitment, and workaholism. Data were collected in seven different companies (more than 16,000 participants). The factorial validity of the PNOSI was demonstrated using covariance structure analyses. A two-factor model with a negative occupational state factor and a positive occupational state factor fitted the data better than an alternative one-factor model. The two corresponding scales demonstrated good internal consistency. The results confirmed that positive and negative occupational states are distinct constructs and should be measured with different items. Convergent and discriminant validity with related constructs, such as engagement, burnout, commitment, and workaholism, were also demonstrated. The conclusion is that the PNOSI has good psychometric properties. [less ▲]

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See detailInterference and negative priming in normal aging and in mild Alzheimer’s disease
Hogge, Michaël; Salmon, Eric ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2008), 48(1), 1-23

Most studies that have administered interference and negative priming tasks to patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and healthy elderly subjects have demonstrated inhibitory dysfunction in AD patients ... [more ▼]

Most studies that have administered interference and negative priming tasks to patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and healthy elderly subjects have demonstrated inhibitory dysfunction in AD patients, and mixed results in the elderly. In the present study, we re-explored these two effects in these populations by administering two tasks that allow assessing interference and negative priming effects. Results on both tasks showed (1) the presence of an interference effect in AD and elderly adults, that can be explained by cognitive slowing in the case of elderly controls; (2) the preservation of negative priming abilities in the two groups. These surprising results for AD patients were interpreted by proposing that AD patients have a preserved ability to suppress the representation of a distracter, but specific inhibitory deficits when they have to resolve a selection conflict at the stage of response production (i.e. when competing stimuli have been fully processed). [less ▲]

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See detailThe phenomenological diversity of hallucinations: Some theoretical and clinical implications
Laroi, Frank ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2006), 46(1-2), 163-183

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See detailChange blindness to gradual changes in facial expressions
David, E.; Laloyaux, Cédric ULg; Devue, Christel ULg et al

in Psychologica Belgica (2006), 46(4), 253-268

Change blindness—our inability to detect changes in a stimulus—occurs even when the change takes place gradually, without disruption (Simons et al., 2000). Such gradual changes are more difficult to ... [more ▼]

Change blindness—our inability to detect changes in a stimulus—occurs even when the change takes place gradually, without disruption (Simons et al., 2000). Such gradual changes are more difficult to detect than changes that involve a disruption. In this experiment, we extend previous findings to the domain of facial expressions of emotions occurring in the context of a realistic scene. Even with changes occurring in central, highly relevant stimuli such as faces, gradual changes still produced high levels of change blindness: Detection rates were three times lower for gradual changes than for displays involving disruption, with only 15% of the observers perceiving the gradual change within a single trial. However, despite this high rate of change blindness, changes on faces were significantly better detected than color changes occurring on non facial objects in the same scene. [less ▲]

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See detailEvent-related brain potentials in psychopathology: Clinical and cognitive perspectives
Hansenne, Michel ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2006), 46(1-2), 5-36

Since the discovery of the P300 component, a large number of studies have been conducted with the aim to find abnormalities of this psychophysiological marker among the main psychiatric disorders. The ... [more ▼]

Since the discovery of the P300 component, a large number of studies have been conducted with the aim to find abnormalities of this psychophysiological marker among the main psychiatric disorders. The first studies were very promising, but successive findings were rather controversial resulting in two main positions (the pros and the cons) as regard to the usefulness of P300 in clinical psychopathology. However, P300 studies provide interesting findings concerning information processing in psychopathology. Moreover, other Event-Related Potentials (ERPs), such as the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) and the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) are particularly interesting for the study of cognitive processes in psychopathology. In this review, the author will give an overview of the main findings of P300, MMN and ERN values in psychopathology from a clinical and a cognitive point of view. After a brief description of the rationale of ERPs, the findings in schizophrenia, depression, alcoholism, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder will be sequentially reviewed. The diagnostic usefulness of P300 in psychopathology is limited, but could be increased if variables known to influence P300 amplitude or latency are controlled. Doubtless, grouping two or more different ERP components would greatly improve the usefulness of the clinical applications of brain potentials. On the other hand, a growing number of studies have provided evidence of the relevance of ERPs to investigate cognitive processes in psychopathology. [less ▲]

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See detailMemory processing during sleep: mechanisms and evidence from neuroimaging studies
Peigneux, Philippe ULg; Melchior, Gwenaelle; Schmidt, Christina ULg et al

in Psychologica Belgica (2004), 44(1-2), 121-142

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See detailNormative and psychometric data from the Body Image Assessment - Revised in a population of french-speaking women
Bragard, Isabelle ULg; Mayers, I.; Demoulin, Catherine et al

in Psychologica Belgica (2002), 42(4), 227-249

This article concerns the creation of norms and the validation in French of the Body Image Assessment – Revised (BIA-R; Beebe, Holmbeck, & Grzeskiewicz, 1999). The sample comprised 100 normal female ... [more ▼]

This article concerns the creation of norms and the validation in French of the Body Image Assessment – Revised (BIA-R; Beebe, Holmbeck, & Grzeskiewicz, 1999). The sample comprised 100 normal female subjects. They completed questionnaires assessing body experience, eating pathology, psychological functioning, general perception and the BIA-R (Beebe et al., 1999). This test consists of nine silhouettes from which the subject has to choose the somatotype corresponding to her actual shape (cognitive response), the way she feels (affective response) and the way she would like to look (optative response). The results show a good concurrent validity for the cognitive and affective indices and the affective/ cognitive vs. optative divergences. On the other hand, we were not able to demonstrate such validity for the optative index and the affective vs. cognitive divergence index [less ▲]

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See detailThe relationships between episodic memory, working memory, and executive functions: The contribution of the prefrontal cortex
Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Marczewski, Philippe et al

in Psychologica Belgica (2000), 40(4), 275-297

Discusses the neurophysiological functions of the prefrontal cortex related to memory processes. Functional brain imaging studies have revealed that distinct regions of the prefrontal cortex are engaged ... [more ▼]

Discusses the neurophysiological functions of the prefrontal cortex related to memory processes. Functional brain imaging studies have revealed that distinct regions of the prefrontal cortex are engaged in episodic memory operations, with some regions apparently part of multiple networks subserving different memory abilities. The prefrontal cortex is also involved in shifting processes. Working memory processes within the dorsolateral and ventrolateral frontal cortex are organized according to the type of processing required rather than the nature of the information being processed. The binding of contextual information, both incidentally and intentionally, is the most crucial process involved in episodic memory. Inhibition control involves not only bilateral prefrontal areas, but also posterior regions and subcortical structures, but the specific role of the cerebral areas is not clear at present. [less ▲]

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