References of "Preventive Veterinary Medicine"
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See detailProposed terms and concepts for describing and evaluating animal-health surveillance systems
Hoinville, LJ; Alban, L; Drewe, JA et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (in press)

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See detailRisk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity among cattle in the central savannah-forest area of Ivory Coast.
Sanogo, Moussa; Abatih, Emmanuel; Thys, Eric et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2012)

Serological results obtained from 907 serum samples collected from unvaccinated cattle of at least 6 months of age in the savannah-forest region of Ivory Coast were used to investigate risk factors ... [more ▼]

Serological results obtained from 907 serum samples collected from unvaccinated cattle of at least 6 months of age in the savannah-forest region of Ivory Coast were used to investigate risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis seropositivity. Serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Using a parallel interpretation, RBT and iELISA results showed that 10.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.4, 12.4) of the cattle had antibodies against Brucella in our study area. The logistic regression analysis indicated that brucellosis seropositivity was associated with age and herd size. Cattle above 5 years of age were found to have a higher chance of being seropositive (odd ratio (OR)=2.8; 95% CI: 1.3, 6.4) compared to cattle under 3 years of age. Similarly, the odd of brucellosis seropositivity for herds with more than 100 cattle was 3.3 (95% CI: 1.2, 8.9) times higher compared to those with less than 50 cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailBrucellosis at the animal/ecosystem/human interface at the beginning of the 21st century.
Godfroid, J.; Scholz, H. C.; Barbier, T. et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2011), 102(2), 118-31

Following the recent discovery of new Brucella strains from different animal species and from the environment, ten Brucella species are nowadays included in the genus Brucella. Although the intracellular ... [more ▼]

Following the recent discovery of new Brucella strains from different animal species and from the environment, ten Brucella species are nowadays included in the genus Brucella. Although the intracellular trafficking of Brucella is well described, the strategies developed by Brucella to survive and multiply in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, particularly to access nutriments during its intracellular journey, are still largely unknown. Metabolism and virulence of Brucella are now considered to be two sides of the same coin. Mechanisms presiding to the colonization of the pregnant uterus in different animal species are not known. Vaccination is the cornerstone of control programs in livestock and although the S19, RB51 (both in cattle) and Rev 1 (in sheep and goats) vaccines have been successfully used worldwide, they have drawbacks and thus the ideal brucellosis vaccine is still very much awaited. There is no vaccine available for pigs and wildlife. Animal brucellosis control strategies differ in the developed and the developing world. Most emphasis is put on eradication and on risk analysis to avoid the re-introduction of Brucella in the developed world. Information related to the prevalence of brucellosis is still scarce in the developing world and control programs are rarely implemented. Since there is no vaccine available for humans, prevention of human brucellosis relies on its control in the animal reservoir. Brucella is also considered to be an agent to be used in bio- and agroterrorism attacks. At the animal/ecosystem/human interface it is critical to reduce opportunities for Brucella to jump host species as already seen in livestock, wildlife and humans. This task is a challenge for the future in terms of veterinary public health, as for wildlife and ecosystem managers and will need a "One Health" approach to be successful. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-mortem examination and laboratory-based analysis for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis among dairy cattle in Ecuador
Proano-Perez, F.; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Desmecht, Daniel ULg et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2011), 101(1-2), 65-72

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See detailExpert Judgement in a risk assessment model for Salmonella spp. in pork : on the performance of different weighting schemes.
Boone, Ides; Van der Stede, Yves; Bollaerts, Kaatje et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2009), 92

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See detailCulicoides trapping with Rothamsted suction traps before and during the bluetongue epidemic of 2006 in Belgium.
Fassotte, C.; Delecolle, J. C.; Cors, R. et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2008), 87(1-2), 74-83

The collection of biting midges was taking place some months before the first bluetongue outbreak in Belgium in August 2006. The Walloon Agricultural Research Centre had been monitoring aphid populations ... [more ▼]

The collection of biting midges was taking place some months before the first bluetongue outbreak in Belgium in August 2006. The Walloon Agricultural Research Centre had been monitoring aphid populations at two sites annually in Belgium (Gembloux and Libramont), using two stationary '12-m' Rothamsted suction traps. For the Gembloux trap, collections of insects captured daily from 11 May 2006 onwards were already available at the time of the outbreak. An examination of these samples revealed the presence of Culicoides, some species of which are considered as potential vectors of the bluetongue virus (BTV). The trapping was therefore extended beyond the normal aphid activity period and the Culicoides captured were identified to species level. From 11 May to 31 December 2006, the Gembloux trap caught 664 Culicoides specimens belonging to 19 species comprising known BTV-vectors. The second trap, at Libramont, was reactivated from 12 September to 13 October and caught 97 specimens belonging to nine species, all of which had been found at the Gembloux site. Among the 19 species identified, four were new to Belgian fauna: Culicoides achrayi, C. deltus, C. lupicaris and C. newsteadi. This paper examines the overall phenology and the physiological status of Culicoides in 2006 before and during the bluetongue epidemic. It discusses the potential of the Rothamsted suction trap to monitor Culicoides. [less ▲]

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See detailVector monitoring at Belgian outbreak sites during the bluetongue epidemic of 2006.
De Deken, G.; Madder, M.; Deblauwe, I. et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2008), 87(1-2), 64-73

In response to the first bluetongue outbreak in Belgium a monitoring programme was started at the end of August 2006 to identify possible vectors transmitting the disease. Black light traps were deployed ... [more ▼]

In response to the first bluetongue outbreak in Belgium a monitoring programme was started at the end of August 2006 to identify possible vectors transmitting the disease. Black light traps were deployed at 36 outbreak sites and captured 1959 Culicoides specimens belonging to 16 different species. Eighty four percent of the biting midges captured belonged to the C. obsoletus complex, among them C. obsoletus s.s., C. dewulfi and C. scoticus, three suspected bluetongue vectors. The Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre detected viral RNA in pools of individuals belonging to this complex. Culicoides pulicaris, a potential bluetongue vector in Italy, should yet not be excluded as a possible vector in Belgium as this species was frequently found around outbreak sites, notwithstanding this species is not easily captured with the trapping techniques used during this survey. [less ▲]

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See detailEchinococcus multilocularis and Toxocara canis in urban red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Brussels, Belgium
Brochier, B.; De Blander, H.; Hanosset, R. et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2007), 80(1), 65-73

During the last decades, European red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have been implicated in the transmission of several viral or parasitic pathogenic agents to domestic animals and humans. In urban areas, risks ... [more ▼]

During the last decades, European red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have been implicated in the transmission of several viral or parasitic pathogenic agents to domestic animals and humans. In urban areas, risks of zoonoses transmission are likely to increase as a result of a higher rate of intra and inter-species contacts. Foxes occur on 35% of the Brussels-Capital Region area and local densities reach up to 4 family groups per square kilometre. According to the directive 2003/99/ECC, a first survey for the presence in foxes of Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxocara canis was conducted in Brussels from 2001 to 2004. None of 160 foxes were found to be infected with E. multilocularis and 24 of 134 foxes were found to be infected with T canis. Considering numbers of examined foxes, the sensitivity and the specificity of tests used for diagnosis, the 95% credibility intervals for the true prevalence of E. multilocularis and T canis were estimated in a Bayesian framework to be 0 to 1.87% (median value of 0%) and 12.7 to 26% (median value of 18.7%), respectively. For T canis, a significantly higher risk to be a carrier occurs in cubs and a significantly lower risk in adults. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial spreading of Echinococcus multilocularis in Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) across nation borders in Western Europe
Vervaeke, M.; van der Giessen, J.; Brochier, B. et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2006), 76(3-4), 137-150

The occurrence of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in Red foxes was studied in Belgium and a neighbouring region in The Netherlands. A total number of 1202 foxes were analysed (1018 in Belgium ... [more ▼]

The occurrence of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in Red foxes was studied in Belgium and a neighbouring region in The Netherlands. A total number of 1202 foxes were analysed (1018 in Belgium and 184 in The Netherlands) of which 179 were infected with E. multilocularis (164 in Belgium and 15 in The Netherlands). Further, the spatial distribution of infection among sampled foxes was analysed with an ellipsoidal gradient, demonstrating a decreasing prevalence in northwestern direction. Using this gradient, we showed that the spatial patterns of infection in Belgium and the neighbouring region in The Netherlands correspond, indicating a continuous distribution of E. multilocularis across the nation borders. Part of the Belgian data allowed investigating temporal changes in the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis. This revealed a northwestern spread of E. multilocularis. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailHerd-level seroprevalence and risk-mapping of bovine hypodermosis in Belgian cattle herds
Haine, D.; Boelaert, F.; Pfeiffer, D. U. et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2004), 65(1-2), 93-104

Our objective was to determine the seroprevalence of Hypoderma spp. and to develop a spatial model describing the risk surface of warble-fly infection in Belgian cattle herds (adjusting for herd size ... [more ▼]

Our objective was to determine the seroprevalence of Hypoderma spp. and to develop a spatial model describing the risk surface of warble-fly infection in Belgian cattle herds (adjusting for herd size, herd type, local temperature, rainfall, relative air humidity and land-cover). This survey was carried out in 390 selected herds of all types (dairy, mixed and beef) from December 1997 to March 1998, which were included in a national infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and paratuberculosis (Johne's-disease) survey. All animals >24 months old were blood sampled and an ELISA was used on pooled serum samples (10 animals per pool). The herd seroprevalence was 48.7% (95% confidence interval: 43.6-53.8); positive herds were mainly in the south of the country and along the North Sea coast. The logistic multiple-regression model of herd-level seropositivity indicated that mixed-type and beef-cattle herds have more than four-fold and two-fold increases in the odds of being Hypoderma-positive, respectively, compared with dairy herds. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailComments on Pouillot, R., Gerbier, G. & Gadner, I.A. “TAGS”, a program for the evaluation of test accuracy in the absence of a gold standard
Berkvens, D. L.; Speybroeck, N.; Lesaffre, E. et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2003), 59

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See detailCross-Sectional Study of the Association between Pathological Conditions and Myxoma-Virus Seroprevalence in Intensive Rabbit Farms in Europe
Marlier, Didier ULg; Herbots, J.; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2001), 48(1), 55-64

Myxomatosis is a major viral disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Two forms of the disease (nodular and amyxomatous) exist. The clinical diagnosis of the nodular form is easily ... [more ▼]

Myxomatosis is a major viral disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Two forms of the disease (nodular and amyxomatous) exist. The clinical diagnosis of the nodular form is easily performed on the basis of typical skin lesions whereas that of amyxomatous forms must be based on virus isolation or detection of specific antibodies to myxoma virus (MV). The seroprevalence of MV was studied between March 1998 and February 1999 in 16 farms from three European countries considered free of myxomatosis on the basis of the absence of typical clinical signs. MV antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (sensitivity 100%, specificity 90%) in all 16 farms; the seroprevalences corrected for test inaccuracy (95% confidence interval) were 55+/-7.7% and 37+/-6.1% for does and broilers, respectively. The association between herd sizes, types of rabbitries, and presence of recurrent respiratory or digestive troubles and seroprevalence of MV antibodies was tested in logistic multiple regressions. In all models, the seroprevalence of MV antibodies was significantly higher in herds (does and broilers) with recurrent respiratory or digestive troubles than in herds without these problems. The seroprevalence was also higher in herds (does and broilers) where animals were housed totally or partially in outdoors rabbitries than in totally enclosed rabbitries. The effect of herd sizes on the presence of MV antibodies was the same in does and broilers; intermediate sizes were at lower risk than the smaller and larger ones. [less ▲]

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See detailMethods for Estimating Areas under Receiver-Operating Characteristic Curves: Illustration with Somatic-Cell Scores in Subclinical Intramammary Infections
Detilleux, Johann ULg; Arendt, J.; Lomba, F. et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (1999), 41(2-3), 75-88

The aim of this study was to demonstrate receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) methodology in the context of bovine intramammary infection (IMI). Quarter somatic cell scores (SCS) were available to ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to demonstrate receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) methodology in the context of bovine intramammary infection (IMI). Quarter somatic cell scores (SCS) were available to evaluate quarter IMI, and the final IMI diagnosis was made from milk bacteriologic cultures. Data consisted of 11,453 quarter-milk samples collected on 2084 clinically healthy cows located in 154 Belgian herds. Bacteriological analyses showed 16.2%, 7.2%, and 11.9% of quarters infected with coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus agalactiae, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., respectively. The ROC curve indicated all the combinations of sensitivity and specificity that quarter SCS was able to provide as a test to identify quarter IMI. Among parametric, semi-parametric, and non-parametric methods to estimate area under ROC curves, the parametric method seemed the least appropriate for analyzing SCS in this study. With the non-parametric method, the total area under the ROC curves showed quarter SCS could identify quarter IMI with an overall accuracy of 69%, 76%, and 59% for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp., S. agalactiae, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., respectively. Parametric and non-parametric statistical tests showed that overall SCS diagnostic capability was significantly (p<0.01) different from chance and was different (p<0.01) across the three bacteria. However, the SCS thresholds yielding the highest percentage of quarters correctly classified as infected (for the observed prevalence and for equal costs assigned to false-positive and false-negative results) were so high that they had no practical value. The major advantage of ROC analysis is the comprehensive description of the discrimination capacity of SCS for all possible choices of critical values. The major disadvantage is the dependency upon the gold standard used for the final diagnosis--but recent improvements of the methodology will correct the problem. [less ▲]

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See detailAn association exists between bovine herpesvirus-4 seropositivity and abortion in cows.
Czaplicki, G.; Thiry, Etienne ULg

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (1998), 33(1-4), 235-40

The prevalence of cattle seropositive to bovine herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4) is high in Belgium. In Belgian farms, clinical signs associated with BHV-4 infection essentially involve the genital tract and consist ... [more ▼]

The prevalence of cattle seropositive to bovine herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4) is high in Belgium. In Belgian farms, clinical signs associated with BHV-4 infection essentially involve the genital tract and consist mainly of postpartum metritis or metroperitonitis. The role of BHV-4 in abortion has not been definitively demonstrated but epidemiological and experimental facts suggest its involvement. A seroepidemiological investigation was therefore conducted as a case-control study to compare the seroprevalences of BHV-4 infections in the aborted-cow population and in a randomly selected control group in the province of Liege (Belgium). The seroprevalence (17.2%) in aborted cows was significantly higher than that of the control group (10.0%). The odds ratio (OR) was 1.87 (1.06 < 3.30). BHV-4 infection is therefore considered as a risk factor for abortion in cows. [less ▲]

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See detailSerological and cutaneous testing of bovine tuberculosis with the A60 antigen complex from Mycobacterium bovis, strain Calmette-Guérin
Saegerman, Claude ULg

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (1995), 23

A60, a major thermostable macromolecular antigen complex of Mycobacterium bovis strain Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is immunodominant in tuberculosis and able to elicit both humoral and cellular immune ... [more ▼]

A60, a major thermostable macromolecular antigen complex of Mycobacterium bovis strain Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is immunodominant in tuberculosis and able to elicit both humoral and cellular immune reactions in infected hosts. A60-based ELISA and cutaneous tests have been used, in conjunction with the PPD-based skin reaction, in a control group of healthy animals, and in a herd including tuberculous animals. Cutaneous testing with A60 yielded results comparable with those with PPD: both were negative with control cattle and positive with infected animals. Moreover, comparative cutaneous testing with avian tuberculin yielded similar results with PPD and A60. When animals from the infected herd were tested with both avian and bovine sensitins, 54% of cattle were diagnosed as fully positive, 26% suspect, and 20% negative. Serological analysis with the A60-ELISA of part of the infected herd yielded 74% positive, 21% suspect and 5% negative results. Thus, positivity was 74% for serological analysis and 54% for cutaneous testing, whereas positive plus suspect results were 95% for serological analysis and 80% for cutaneous testing. It can be concluded that A60 can be used in place of PPD for cutaneous testing in cattle, and that the diagnostic value of the A60-ELISA is superior to that of the PPD-cutaneous test. [less ▲]

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