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See detailCrystal Structure and Kinetic Analysis of the Class B3 Di-Zinc Metallo-β-Lactamase LRA-12 from an Alaskan Soil Metagenome
Rodríguez, María Margarita; Herman, Raphaël ULiege; Ghiglione, Barbara et al

in PLoS ONE (in press)

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See detailDusp3 deletion in mice promotes experimental lung tumour metastasis in a macrophage dependent manner
Vandereyken, Maud; Jacques, Sophie; Van Overmeire, Eva et al

in PLoS ONE (2017)

Vaccinia-H1 Related (VHR) dual-specificity phosphatase, or DUSP3, plays an important role in cell cycle regulation and its expression is altered in several human cancers. In mouse model, DUSP3 deletion ... [more ▼]

Vaccinia-H1 Related (VHR) dual-specificity phosphatase, or DUSP3, plays an important role in cell cycle regulation and its expression is altered in several human cancers. In mouse model, DUSP3 deletion prevents neo-angiogenesis and b-FGF-induced microvessel out- growth. Considering the importance of angiogenesis in metastasis formation, our study aimed to investigate the role of DUSP3 in tumour cell dissemination. Using a Lewis Lung carcinoma (LLC) experimental metastasis model, we observed that DUSP3-/- mice devel- oped larger lung metastases than littermate controls. DUSP3-/- bone marrow transfer to lethally irradiated DUSP3+/+ mice was sufficient to transfer the phenotype to DUSP3+/+ mice, indicating that hematopoietic cells compartment was involved in the increased tumour cell dissemination to lung tissues. Interestingly, we found a higher percentage of tumour- promoting Ly6Cint macrophages in DUSP3-/- LLC-bearing lung homogenates that was at least partially due to a better recruitment of these cells. This was confirmed by 1) the pres- ence of higher number of the Ly6Bhi macrophages in DUSP3-/- lung homogenates and by 2) the better migration of DUSP3-/- bone marrow sorted monocytes, peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), compared to DUSP3+/+ monocytes, macrophages and BMDMs, in response to LLC-conditioned medium. Our study demon- strates that DUSP3 phosphatase plays a key role in metastatic growth through a mechanism involving the recruitment of macrophages towards LLC-bearing lungs. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular surveillance of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Mvumbi Makaba, Dieudonné; Bobanga Lengu, Thierry; Kayembe Ntumba, Jean-Marie et al

in PLoS ONE (2017)

Malaria is a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Despite progress achieved over the past decade in the fight against malaria, further efforts have to be done such as in the ... [more ▼]

Malaria is a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Despite progress achieved over the past decade in the fight against malaria, further efforts have to be done such as in the surveillance and the containment of Plasmodium falciparum resistant strains. We investigated resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies currently in use in Democratic Republic of Congo by surveying molecular polymorphisms in three genes: pfcrt, pfmdr1 and pfk13 to explore possible emergence of amodiaquine, lumefantrine or artemisinin resistance in Democratic Republic of Congo. This study essentially revealed that resistance to chloroquine is still decreasing while polymorphism related to amodiaquine resistance seems to be not present in Democratic Republic of Congo, that three samples, located in the east of the country, harbor Pfmdr1 amplification and that none of the mutations found in South-East Asia correlated with artemisinine resistance have been found in Democratic Republic of Congo. But new mutations have been identified, especially the M476K, occurred in the same position that the M476I previously identified in the F32-ART strain, strongly resistant to artemisinine. Antimalarial first-line treatments currently in use in Democratic Republic of Congo are not associated with emergence of molecular markers of resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailSbCOMT (Bmr12) is involved in the biosynthesis of tricin-lignin in sorghum
Eudes, Aymerick; Dutta, Tanmoy; Deng, Kei et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(6), 1-11

Lignin in plant biomass represents a target for engineering strategies towards the development of a sustainable bioeconomy. In addition to the conventional lignin monomers, namely p-coumaryl, coniferyl ... [more ▼]

Lignin in plant biomass represents a target for engineering strategies towards the development of a sustainable bioeconomy. In addition to the conventional lignin monomers, namely p-coumaryl, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols, tricin has been shown to be part of the native lignin polymer in certain monocot species. Because tricin is considered to initiate the polymerization of lignin chains, elucidating its biosynthesis and mechanism of export to the cell wall constitute novel challenges for the engineering of bioenergy crops. Late steps of tricin biosynthesis require two methylation reactions involving the pathway intermediate selgin. It has recently been demonstrated in rice and maize that caffeate O-methyltransferase (COMT) involved in the synthesis syringyl (S) lignin units derived from sinapyl alcohol also participates in the synthesis of tricin in planta. In this work, we validate in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) that the O-methyltransferase responsible for the production of S lignin units (SbCOMT / Bmr12) is also involved in the synthesis of lignin-linked tricin. In particular, we show that biomass from the sorghum bmr12 mutant contains lower level of tricin incorporated into lignin, and that SbCOMT can methylate the tricin precursors luteolin and selgin. Our genetic and biochemical data point toward a general mechanism whereby COMT is involved in the synthesis of both tricin and S lignin units. [less ▲]

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See detailModel-based classification of CPT data and automated lithostratigraphic mapping for high-resolution characterization of a heterogeneous sedimentary aquifer
Rogiers, Bart; Mallants, Dirk; Batelaan, Okke et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(5), 0176656

Cone penetration testing (CPT) is one of the most efficient and versatile methods currently available for geotechnical, lithostratigraphic and hydrogeological site characterization. Currently available ... [more ▼]

Cone penetration testing (CPT) is one of the most efficient and versatile methods currently available for geotechnical, lithostratigraphic and hydrogeological site characterization. Currently available methods for soil behaviour type classification (SBT) of CPT data however have severe limitations, often restricting their application to a local scale. For parameterization of regional groundwater flow or geotechnical models, and delineation of regional hydro- or lithostratigraphy, regional SBT classification would be very useful. This paper investigates the use of model-based clustering for SBT classification, and the influence of different clustering approaches on the properties and spatial distribution of the obtained soil classes. We additionally propose a methodology for automated lithostratigraphic mapping of regionally occurring sedimentary units using SBT classification. The methodology is applied to a large CPT dataset, covering a groundwater basin of ~60 km2 with predominantly unconsolidated sandy sediments in northern Belgium. Results show that the model-based approach is superior in detecting the true lithological classes when compared to more frequently applied unsupervised classification approaches or literature classification diagrams. We demonstrate that automated mapping of lithostratigraphic units using advanced SBT classification techniques can provide a large gain in efficiency, compared to more time-consuming manual approaches and yields at least equally accurate results. [less ▲]

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See detailPressure flaking to serrate bifacial points for the hunt during the MIS5 at Sibudu Cave (South Africa)
Rots, Veerle ULiege; Lentfer, Carol ULiege; Schmid, Viola C. et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(4), 0175151

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See detailStress indicator gene expression profiles, colony dynamics and tissue development of honey bees exposed to sub-lethal doses of imidacloprid in laboratory and field experiments
De Smet, Lina; Hatjina; Ioannidis, Pavlos et al

in PLOS One (2017), 10(137),

In this study, different context-dependent effects of imidacloprid exposure on the honey bee response were studied. Honey bees were exposed to different concentrations of imidacloprid during a time period ... [more ▼]

In this study, different context-dependent effects of imidacloprid exposure on the honey bee response were studied. Honey bees were exposed to different concentrations of imidacloprid during a time period of 40 days. Next to these variables, a laboratory-field comparison was conducted. The influence of the chronic exposure on gene expression levels was determined using an in-house developed microarray targeting different immunity-related and detoxification genes to determine stress-related gene expression changes. Increased levels of the detoxification genes encoding, CYP9Q3 and CYT P450, were detected in imidacloprid- exposed honey bees. The different context-dependent effects of imidacloprid exposure on honey bees were confirmed physiologically by decreased hypopharyngeal gland sizes. Honey bees exposed to imidacloprid in laboratory cages showed a general immunosuppression and no detoxification mechanisms were triggered significantly, while honey bees infield showed a resilient response with an immune stimulation at later time points. However, the treated colonies had a brood and population decline tendency after the first brood cycle in the field. In conclusion, this study highlighted the different context-dependent effects of imidacloprid exposure on the honey bee response. These findings warn for possible pitfalls concerning the generalization of results based on specific experiments with short exposure times. The increased levels of CYT P450 and CYP9Q3 combined with an immune response reaction can be used as markers for bees which are exposed to pesticides in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailSputum biomarkers in IPF: Evidence for raised gene expression and protein level of IGFBP-2, IL-8 and MMP-7.
GUIOT, Julien ULiege; Henket, Monique; Corhay, Jean-Louis ULiege et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(2), 0171344

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a rare lung disease of unknown origin leading rapidly to death. This paper addresses the issue of whether sputum induction is a suitable tool to study ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a rare lung disease of unknown origin leading rapidly to death. This paper addresses the issue of whether sputum induction is a suitable tool to study respiratory tract inflammation and potential biomarkers in IPF compared to COPD, a fibrosing airway wall disease. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis, 15 IPF patients, 32 COPD and 30 healthy subjects underwent sputum induction. Total sputum cell counts and the amount of TGF- beta, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IL-8, IL-13, MMP-7, MMP-9, YKL-40, TNF-alpha and KL-6 in sputum supernatant were analysed. We also profiled gene expression of cells in the induced sputum for TGF-beta, MMP-7, YKL-40, IGFBP-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha. RESULTS: IPF patients, like COPD, had increased sputum absolute number of neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages and epithelial cells compared to HS. IPF sputum supernatants had increased concentrations of IGFBP-2, IL-8, TGF-beta, MMP-7, MMP-9 and KL-6 (p<0.05, p<0.0001, p<0.05, p<0.05, p<0.0001, p<0.05 respectively) when compared to healthy subjects where COPD had higher IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels than IPF (p<0.05 and p<0.05 respectively) and HS (p<0.0001 and p<0.001 respectively) and higher IL-8 and MMP-9 than HS (p<0.0001 and p<0.001 respectively). Conversely to IL-6 and TNF-alpha, MMP-7 was increased in IPF compared to COPD (p<0.05). The KL-6 and MMP-7 protein levels in sputum were inversely correlated with total lung capacity (TLC, % of predicted) in IPF patients (r = -0.73 and r = -0.53 respectively). Sputum gene expression analysis identified a significant increase for IGFBP-2, IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-7 in IPF compared to HS (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.05 and p<0.0001 respectively) and for IGFBP-2, YKL-40, IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-7 compared to COPD (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.0001 respectively). Furthermore, gene expression of TGF-beta was increased in IPF compared to COPD (p<0.001) but not to HS. CONCLUSION: Our data show clear increase in expression and production of IGFBP-2, IL-8 and MMP-7 in sputum from patients with IPF that may contribute to the disease. [less ▲]

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See detailAcylcarnitines profile best predicts survival in horses with atypical myopathy
BOEMER, François ULiege; Detilleux, Johann ULiege; CELLO, Christophe ULiege et al

in PLoS ONE (2017)

Equine atypical myopathy (AM) is caused by hypoglycin A intoxication and is characterized by a high fatality rate. Predictive estimation of survival in AM horses is necessary to prevent unnecessary ... [more ▼]

Equine atypical myopathy (AM) is caused by hypoglycin A intoxication and is characterized by a high fatality rate. Predictive estimation of survival in AM horses is necessary to prevent unnecessary suffering of animals that are unlikely to survive and to focus supportive therapy on horses with a possible favourable prognosis of survival. We hypothesized that outcome may be predicted early in the course of disease based on the assumption that the acylcarnitine profile reflects the derangement of muscle energetics. We developed a statistical model to prognosticate the risk of death of diseased animals and found that estimation of outcome may be drawn from three acylcarnitines (C2, C10:2 and C18 -carnitines) with a high sensitivity and specificity. The calculation of the prognosis of survival makes it possible to distinguish the horses that will survive from those that will die despite severe sign of acute rhabdomyolysis in both groups [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Various Indices of Energy Metabolism in Recumbent and Healthy Dairy Cows
Guyot, Hugues ULiege; Detilleux, Johann ULiege; Lebreton, Pascal et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(1), 1-11

BACKGROUND: Downer cow syndrome (DCS) is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Downer cow syndrome (DCS) is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows. ANIMALS: A prospective study has been undertaken on 361 recumbent and 80 healthy Holstein cows. METHODS: Plasmatic glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were assayed in all cows in order to calculate the insulin sensitivity indices but also minerals (Calcium, Phosphorous and Magnesium), thyroxin and creatine kinase. Body Condition Scores (BCS) was assessed. RESULTS: Significant differences in NEFA, and the glucose and insulin sensitivity indices ("Homeostasis Model Assessment" HOMA, "Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index" RQUICKI, RQUICKI-BHB) were observed between healthy and recumbent cows in the early post-parturient period indicating disturbances of glucose and insulin homeostasis in the recumbent cows. In the same manner, mineral concentrations were significantly different between healthy and recumbent cows. Glucose, insulin NEFA, and HOMA, were different between early post-partum downer cows and the DCS-affected cows later in lactation. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Results indicate disturbances in energy homeostasis in DCS-affected dairy cows. Further research should determine a prognostic value of the indices in cows suffering from recumbency of metabolic origin [less ▲]

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See detailHealth Outcomes of Sarcopenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Beaudart, Charlotte ULiege; Zaaria, Myriam; Pasleau, Françoise ULiege et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(1), 0169548

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review to assess the short-, middle- and long-term consequences of sarcopenia. METHODS: Prospective studies assessing the consequences of ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review to assess the short-, middle- and long-term consequences of sarcopenia. METHODS: Prospective studies assessing the consequences of sarcopenia were searched across different electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EBM Reviews ACP Journal Club, EBM Reviews DARE and AMED). Only studies that used the definition of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People to diagnose sarcopenia were included. Study selection and data extraction were performed by two independent reviewers. For outcomes reported by three or more studies, a meta-analysis was performed. The study results are expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI. RESULTS: Of the 772 references identified through the database search, 17 were included in this systematic review. The number of participants in the included studies ranged from 99 to 6658, and the duration of follow-up varied from 3 months to 9.8 years. Eleven out of 12 studies assessed the impact of sarcopenia on mortality. The results showed a higher rate of mortality among sarcopenic subjects (pooled OR of 3.596 (95% CI 2.96-4.37)). The effect was higher in people aged 79 years or older compared with younger subjects (p = 0.02). Sarcopenia is also associated with functional decline (pooled OR of 6 studies 3.03 (95% CI 1.80-5.12)), a higher rate of falls (2/2 studies found a significant association) and a higher incidence of hospitalizations (1/1 study). The impact of sarcopenia on the incidence of fractures and the length of hospital stay was less clear (only 1/2 studies showed an association for both outcomes). CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia is associated with several harmful outcomes, making this geriatric syndrome a real public health burden. [less ▲]

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See detailSofosbuvir in Combination with Simeprevir +/- Ribavirin in Genotype 4 Hepatitis C Patients with Advanced Fibrosis or Cirrhosis: A Real-World Experience from Belgium
Degré, D; Sersté, T; Lasser, L et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(1), 0170933

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See detailGenomics of a revived breed: Case study of the Belgian campine cattle.
Francois, Liesbeth; Wijnrocx, Katrien; Colinet, Frédéric ULiege et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(4), 0175916

Through centuries of both natural and artificial selection, a variety of local cattle populations arose with highly specific phenotypes. However, the intensification and expansion of scale in animal ... [more ▼]

Through centuries of both natural and artificial selection, a variety of local cattle populations arose with highly specific phenotypes. However, the intensification and expansion of scale in animal production systems led to the predominance of a few highly productive cattle breeds. The loss of local populations is often considered irreversible and with them specific qualities and rare variants could be lost as well. Over these last years, the interest in these local breeds has increased again leading to increasing efforts to conserve these breeds or even revive lost populations, e.g. through the use of crosses with similar breeds. However, the remaining populations are expected to contain crossbred individuals resulting from introgressions. They are likely to carry exogenous genes that affect the breed's authenticity on a genomic level. Using the revived Campine breed as a case study, 289 individuals registered as purebreds were genotyped on the Illumina BovineSNP50. In addition, genomic information on the Illumina BovineHD and Illumina BovineSNP50 of ten breeds was available to assess the current population structure, genetic diversity, and introgression with phenotypically similar and/or historically related breeds. Introgression with Holstein and beef cattle genotypes was limited to only a few farms. While the current population shows a substantial amount of within-breed variation, the majority of genotypes can be separated from other breeds in the study, supporting the re-establishment of the Campine breed. The majority of the population is genetically close to the Deep Red (NL), Improved Red (NL) and Eastern Belgium Red and White (BE) cattle, breeds known for their historical ties to the Campine breed. This would support an open herdbook policy, thereby increasing the population size and consequently providing a more secure future for the breed. [less ▲]

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See detailImpaired bone formation in ovariectomized mice reduces implant integration as indicated by longitudinal in vivo micro-computed tomography
Li, Zihui; Kuhn, Gisela; Schirmer, Michael et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(9), 1-22

Although osteoporotic bone, with low bone mass and deteriorated bone architecture, provides a less favorable mechanical environment than healthy bone for implant fixation, there is no general agreement on ... [more ▼]

Although osteoporotic bone, with low bone mass and deteriorated bone architecture, provides a less favorable mechanical environment than healthy bone for implant fixation, there is no general agreement on the impact of osteoporosis on peri-implant bone (re)modeling, which is ultimately responsible for the long term stability of the bone-implant system. Here, we inserted an implant in a mouse model mimicking estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and we monitored with longitudinal in vivo micro-computed tomography the spatio-temporal changes in bone (re)modeling and architecture, considering the separate contributions of trabecular, endocortical and periosteal surfaces. Specifically, 12 week-old C57BL/6J mice underwent OVX/SHM surgery; 9 weeks after we inserted special metal-ceramics implants into the 6th caudal vertebra and we measured bone response with in vivo micro-CT weekly for the following 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ovariectomized mice showed a reduced ability to increase the thickness of the cortical shell close to the implant because of impaired peri-implant bone formation, especially at the periosteal surface. Moreover, we observed that healthy mice had a significantly higher loss of trabecular bone far from the implant than estrogen depleted animals. Such behavior suggests that, in healthy mice, the substantial increase in peri-implant bone formation which rapidly thickened the cortex to secure the implant may raise bone resorption elsewhere and, specifically, in the trabecular network of the same bone but far from the implant. Considering the already deteriorated bone structure of estrogen depleted mice, further bone loss seemed to be hindered. The obtained knowledge on the dynamic response of diseased bone following implant insertion should provide useful guidelines to develop advanced treatments for osteoporotic fracture fixation based on local and selective manipulation of bone turnover in the peri-implant region. [less ▲]

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See detailHow does the cladoceran Daphnia pulex affectt he fate of Escherichia coli in water?
Burnet, Jean-Baptiste; Faraj, Tarek; Cauchie, Henry-Michel et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(2), 16

The faecal indicator Escherichia coli plays a central role in water quality assessment and monitoring. It is therefore essential to understand its fate under various environmental constraints such as ... [more ▼]

The faecal indicator Escherichia coli plays a central role in water quality assessment and monitoring. It is therefore essential to understand its fate under various environmental constraints such as predation by bacterivorous zooplankton. Whereas most studies have examined how protozooplankton communities (heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates) affect the fate of E. coli in water, the capacity of metazooplankton to control the faecal indicator remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how the common filter-feeding cladoceran, Daphnia pulex, affects the fate of E. coli under different experimental conditions. Daphnia ingested E. coli and increased its loss rates in water, but the latter rates decreased from 1.65 d-1 to 0.62 d-1 after a 1,000-fold reduction in E. coli initial concentrations, due to lower probability of encounter between Daphnia and E. coli. The combined use of culture and PMA qPCR (viability-qPCR) demonstrated that exposure to Daphnia did not result into the formation of viable but non-culturable E. coli cells. In lake water, a significant part of E. coli population loss was associated with matrix-related factors, most likely due to predation by other bacterivorous biota and/or bacterial competition. However, when exposing E. coli to a D. pulex gradient (from 0 to 65 ind.L-1), we observed an increasing impact of Daphnia on E. coli loss rates, which reached 0.47 d-1 in presence of 65 ind.L-1. Our results suggest that the filter-feeder can exert a non-negligible predation pressure on E. coli, especially during seasonal Daphnia population peaks. Similar trials using other Daphnia species as well as stressed E. coli cells will increase our knowledge on the capacity of this widespread zooplankter to control E. coli in freshwater resources. Based on our results, we strongly advocate the use of natural matrices to study these biotic interactions in order to avoid overestimation of Daphnia impact. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of short-term memory and visuo-spatial skills in numerical magnitude processing: evidence from Turner syndrome
Attout, Lucie ULiege; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(2), 0171454

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See detailStudies of HVC Plasticity in Adult Canaries Reveal Social Effects and Sex Differences as Well as Limitations of Multiple Markers Available to Assess Adult Neurogenesis.
Shevchouk, Olesya ULiege; Ball, G.F.; Cornil, Charlotte ULiege et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(1), 0170938

In songbirds, neurogenesis in the song control nucleus HVC is sensitive to the hormonal and social environment but the dynamics of this process is difficult to assess with a single exogenous marker of new ... [more ▼]

In songbirds, neurogenesis in the song control nucleus HVC is sensitive to the hormonal and social environment but the dynamics of this process is difficult to assess with a single exogenous marker of new neurons. We simultaneously used three independent markers to investigate HVC neurogenesis in male and female canaries. Males were castrated, implanted with testosterone and housed either alone (M), with a female (M-F) or with another male (M-M) while females were implanted with 17β- estradiol and housed with a male (F-M). All subjects received injections of the two thymidine analogues, BrdU and of EdU, respectively 21 and 10 days before brain collection. Cells containing BrdU or EdU or expressing doublecortin (DCX), which labels newborn neurons, were quantified. Social context and sex differentially affected total BrdU+, EdU+, BrdU+EdU- and DCX+ populations. M-M males had a higher density of BrdU+ cells in the ventricular zone adjacent to HVC and of EdU+ in HVC than M-F males. M birds had a higher ratio of BrdU+EdU- to EdU+ cells than M-F subjects suggesting higher survival of newer neurons in the former group. Total number of HVC DCX+ cells was lower in M-F than in M-M males. Sex differences were also dependent of the type of marker used. Several technical limitations associated with the use of these multiple markers were also identified. These results indicate that proliferation, recruitment and survival of new neurons can be independently affected by environmental conditions and effects can only be fully discerned through the use of multiple neurogenesis markers. [less ▲]

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See detailMinimally invasive estimation of ventricular dead space volume through use of Frank-Starling curves.
Davidson, Shaun; Pretty, Chris; Pironet, Antoine et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(4), 0176302

This paper develops a means of more easily and less invasively estimating ventricular dead space volume (Vd), an important, but difficult to measure physiological parameter. Vd represents a subject and ... [more ▼]

This paper develops a means of more easily and less invasively estimating ventricular dead space volume (Vd), an important, but difficult to measure physiological parameter. Vd represents a subject and condition dependent portion of measured ventricular volume that is not actively participating in ventricular function. It is employed in models based on the time varying elastance concept, which see widespread use in haemodynamic studies, and may have direct diagnostic use. The proposed method involves linear extrapolation of a Frank-Starling curve (stroke volume vs end-diastolic volume) and its end-systolic equivalent (stroke volume vs end-systolic volume), developed across normal clinical procedures such as recruitment manoeuvres, to their point of intersection with the y-axis (where stroke volume is 0) to determine Vd. To demonstrate the broad applicability of the method, it was validated across a cohort of six sedated and anaesthetised male Pietrain pigs, encompassing a variety of cardiac states from healthy baseline behaviour to circulatory failure due to septic shock induced by endotoxin infusion. Linear extrapolation of the curves was supported by strong linear correlation coefficients of R = 0.78 and R = 0.80 average for pre- and post- endotoxin infusion respectively, as well as good agreement between the two linearly extrapolated y-intercepts (Vd) for each subject (no more than 7.8% variation). Method validity was further supported by the physiologically reasonable Vd values produced, equivalent to 44.3-53.1% and 49.3-82.6% of baseline end-systolic volume before and after endotoxin infusion respectively. This method has the potential to allow Vd to be estimated without a particularly demanding, specialised protocol in an experimental environment. Further, due to the common use of both mechanical ventilation and recruitment manoeuvres in intensive care, this method, subject to the availability of multi-beat echocardiography, has the potential to allow for estimation of Vd in a clinical environment. [less ▲]

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See detailMaternal Nutrition during Pregnancy Affects Testicular and Bone Development, Glucose Metabolism and Response to Overnutrition in Weaned Horses Up to Two Years.
Robles, M; Gauthier, C; Mendoza García, Luis ULiege et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(e0169295),

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant mares and post-weaning foals are often fed concentrates rich in soluble carbohydrates, together with forage. Recent studies suggest that the use of concentrates is linked to ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant mares and post-weaning foals are often fed concentrates rich in soluble carbohydrates, together with forage. Recent studies suggest that the use of concentrates is linked to alterations of metabolism and the development of osteochondrosis in foals. The aim of this study was to determine if broodmare diet during gestation affects metabolism, osteoarticular status and growth of yearlings overfed from 20 to 24 months of age and/or sexual maturity in prepubertal colts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four saddlebred mares were fed forage only (n = 12, group F) or cracked barley and forage (n = 12, group B) from mid-gestation until foaling. Colts were gelded at 12 months of age. Between 20 and 24 months of age, all yearlings were overfed (+140% of requirements) using an automatic concentrate feeder. Offspring were monitored for growth between 6 and 24 months of age, glucose homeostasis was evaluated via modified frequently sampled intra veinous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) at 19 and 24 months of age and osteoarticular status was investigated using radiographic examinations at 24 months of age. The structure and function of testicles from prepubertal colts were analyzed using stereology and RT-qPCR. RESULTS: Post-weaning weight growth was not different between groups. Testicular maturation was delayed in F colts compared to B colts at 12 months of age. From 19 months of age, the cannon bone was wider in B vs F yearlings. F yearlings were more insulin resistant at 19 months compared to B yearlings but B yearlings were affected more severely by overnutrition with reduced insulin sensitivity. The osteoarticular status at 24 months of age was not different between groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, nutritional management of the pregnant broodmare and the growing foal may affect sexual maturity of colts and the metabolism of foals until 24 months of age. These effects may be deleterious for reproductive and sportive performances in older horses. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and performance assessment of a luminex xMAP(R) direct hybridization assay for the detection and identification of indoor air fungal contamination.
Libert, Xavier; Packeu, Ann; Bureau, Fabrice ULiege et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(3), 0173390

Considered as a public health problem, indoor fungal contamination is generally monitored using classical protocols based on culturing. However, this culture dependency could influence the ... [more ▼]

Considered as a public health problem, indoor fungal contamination is generally monitored using classical protocols based on culturing. However, this culture dependency could influence the representativeness of the fungal population detected in an analyzed sample as this includes the dead and uncultivable fraction. Moreover, culture-based protocols are often time-consuming. In this context, molecular tools are a powerful alternative, especially those allowing multiplexing. In this study a Luminex xMAP(R) assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of 10 fungal species which are most frequently in indoor air and that may cause health problems. This xMAP(R) assay was found to be sensitive, i.e. its limit of detection is ranging between 0.05 and 0.01 ng of gDNA. The assay was subsequently tested with environmental air samples which were also analyzed with a classical protocol. All the species identified with the classical method were also detected with the xMAP(R) assay, however in a shorter time frame. These results demonstrate that the Luminex xMAP(R) fungal assay developed in this study could contribute to the improvement of public health and specifically to the indoor fungal contamination treatment. [less ▲]

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