RNAi inhibition of feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase reduces scopoletin biosynthesis and post-harvest physiological deterioration in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage roots.
; ; Vanderschuren, Hervé et al
in Plant Molecular Biology (2017)
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major world crop, whose storage roots provide food for over 800 million throughout the humid tropics. Despite many advantages as a crop, the development of cassava ... [more ▼]
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major world crop, whose storage roots provide food for over 800 million throughout the humid tropics. Despite many advantages as a crop, the development of cassava is seriously constrained by the rapid post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of its roots that occurs within 24-72 h of harvest, rendering the roots unpalatable and unmarketable. PPD limits cassava's marketing possibilities in countries that are undergoing increased development and urbanisation due to growing distances between farms and consumers. The inevitable wounding of the roots caused by harvesting triggers an oxidative burst that spreads throughout the cassava root, together with the accumulation of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, of which the coumarin scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) is the most abundant. Scopoletin oxidation yields a blue-black colour, which suggests its involvement in the discoloration observed during PPD. Feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase is a controlling enzyme in the biosynthesis of scopoletin. The cassava genome contains a seven membered family of feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase genes, four of which are expressed in the storage root and, of these, three were capable of functionally complementing Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants in this gene. A RNA interference construct, designed to a highly conserved region of these genes, was used to transform cassava, where it significantly reduced feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase gene expression, scopoletin accumulation and PPD symptom development. Collectively, our results provide evidence that scopoletin plays a major functional role in the development of PPD symptoms, rather than merely paralleling symptom development in the cassava storage root. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg)
Metal binding to the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the PIB ATPase HMA4 is required for metal transport in Arabidopsis.
Laurent, Clémentine ; Lekeux, Gilles ; et al
in Plant Molecular Biology (2016), 90
PIB ATPases are metal cation pumps that transport metals across membranes. These proteins possess N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic extensions that contain Cys- and His-rich high affinity metal binding ... [more ▼]
PIB ATPases are metal cation pumps that transport metals across membranes. These proteins possess N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic extensions that contain Cys- and His-rich high affinity metal binding domains, which may be involved in metal sensing, metal ion selectivity and/or in regulation of the pump activity. The PIB ATPase HMA4 (Heavy Metal ATPase 4) plays a central role in metal homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana and has a key function in zinc and cadmium hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation in the extremophile plant species Arabidopsis halleri. <br />Here, we examined the function and structure of the N-terminal cytoplasmic metal-binding domain of HMA4. We mutagenized a conserved CCTSE metal-binding motif in the domain and assessed the impact of the mutations on protein function and localization in planta, on metal-binding properties in vitro and on protein structure by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. <br />The two Cys residues of the motif are essential for the function, but not for localization, of HMA4 in planta, whereas the Glu residue is important but not essential. These residues also determine zinc coordination and affinity. Zinc binding to the N-terminal domain is thus crucial for HMA4 protein function, whereas it is not required to maintain the protein structure. <br />Altogether, combining in vivo and in vitro approaches in our study provides insights towards the molecular understanding of metal transport and specificity of metal P-type ATPases. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 132 (29 ULg)
Reprogramming of fatty acid and oxylipin synthesis in rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance in tomato
; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ; Ongena, Marc et al
in Plant Molecular Biology (2014), 84(4-5), 455-476
The rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida BTP1 stimulates induced systemic resistance (ISR) in tomato. A previous work showed that the resistance is associated in leaves with the induction of the first enzyme ... [more ▼]
The rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida BTP1 stimulates induced systemic resistance (ISR) in tomato. A previous work showed that the resistance is associated in leaves with the induction of the first enzyme of the oxylipin pathway, the lipoxygenase (LOX), leading to a faster accumulation of its product, the free 13-hydroperoxy octadecatrienoic acid (13-HPOT), 2 days after Botrytis cinerea inoculation. In the present study, we further investigated the stimulation of the oxylipin pathway: metabolites and enzymes of the pathway were analyzed to understand the fate of the 13-HPOT in ISR. Actually the stimulation began upstream the LOX: free linolenic acid accumulated faster in P. putida BTP1-treated plants than in control. Downstream, the LOX products 13-fatty acid hydroperoxides esterified to galactolipids and phospholipids were more abundant in bacterized plants than in control before infection. These metabolites could constitute a pool that will be used after pathogen attack to produce free fungitoxic metabolites through the action of phospholipase A2, which is enhanced in bacterized plants upon infection. Enzymatic branches which can use as substrate the fatty acid hydroperoxides were differentially regulated in bacterized plants in comparison to control plants, so as to lead to the accumulation of the most fungitoxic compounds against B. cinerea. Our study, which is the first to demonstrate the accumulation of an esterified defense metabolite during rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance, showed that the oxylipin pathway is differentially regulated. It suggests that this allows the plant to prepare to a future infection, and to respond faster and in a more effective way to B. cinerea invasion. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 110 (29 ULg)
Knock-down of the COX3 and COX17 gene expression of cytochrome c oxidase in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
Remacle, Claire ; Coosemans, Nadine ; Jans, Frédéric et al
in Plant Molecular Biology (2010), 74(3), 223-2363
The COX3 gene encodes a core subunit of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) whereas the COX17 gene encodes a chaperone delivering copper to the enzyme. Mutants of these two genes were isolated ... [more ▼]
The COX3 gene encodes a core subunit of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) whereas the COX17 gene encodes a chaperone delivering copper to the enzyme. Mutants of these two genes were isolated by RNA interference in the microalga Chlamydomonas. The COX3 mRNA was completely lacking in the cox3-RNAi mutant and no activity and assembly of complex IV were detected. The cox17-RNAi mutant presented a reduced level of COX17 mRNA, a reduced activity of the cytochrome c oxidase but no modification of its amount. The cox3-RNAi mutant had only 40% of the wild-type rate of dark respiration which was cyanide-insensitive. The mutant presented a 60% decrease of H(2)O(2) production in the dark compared to wild type, which probably accounts for a reduced electron leakage by respiratory complexes III and IV. In contrast, the cox17-RNAi mutant showed no modification of respiration and of H(2)O(2) production in the dark but a two to threefold increase of H(2)O(2) in the light compared to wild type and the cox3-RNAi mutant. The cox17-RNAi mutant was more sensitive to cadmium than the wild-type and cox3-RNAi strains. This suggested that besides its role in complex IV assembly, Cox17 could have additional functions in the cell such as metal detoxification or Reactive Oxygen Species protection or signaling. Concerning Cox3, its role in Chlamydomonas complex IV is similar to that of other eukaryotes although this subunit is encoded in the nuclear genome in the alga contrary to the situation found in all other organisms. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 56 (12 ULg)
Dose-dependent RNAi-mediated geminivirus resistance in the tropical root crop cassava.
Vanderschuren, Hervé ; ; et al
in Plant molecular biology (2009), 70(3), 265-72
Cassava mosaic disease is a major constraint for cassava production in Africa, resulting in significant economic losses. We have engineered transgenic cassava with resistance to African cassava mosaic ... [more ▼]
Cassava mosaic disease is a major constraint for cassava production in Africa, resulting in significant economic losses. We have engineered transgenic cassava with resistance to African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), by expressing ACMV AC1-homologous hairpin double-strand RNAs. Transgenic cassava lines with high levels of AC1-homologous small RNAs have ACMV immunity with increasing viral load and different inoculation methods. We report a correlation between the expression of the AC1-homologous small RNAs and the ACMV resistance of the transgenic cassava lines. Characterization of the small RNAs revealed that only some of the hairpin-derived small RNAs fall into currently known small interfering RNA classes in plants. The method is scalable to stacking by targeting multiple virus isolates with additional hairpins. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (0 ULg)
Transgenic cassava resistance to African cassava mosaic virus is enhanced by viral DNA-A bidirectional promoter-derived siRNAs.
Vanderschuren, Hervé ; ; et al
in Plant molecular biology (2007), 64(5), 549-57
Expression of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) homologous to virus sequences can effectively interfere with RNA virus infection in plant cells by triggering RNA silencing. Here we applied this approach against ... [more ▼]
Expression of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) homologous to virus sequences can effectively interfere with RNA virus infection in plant cells by triggering RNA silencing. Here we applied this approach against a DNA virus, African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), in its natural host cassava. Transgenic cassava plants were developed to express small interfering RNAs (siRNA) from a CaMV 35S promoter-controlled, intron-containing dsRNA cognate to the common region-containing bidirectional promoter of ACMV DNA-A. In two of three independent transgenic lines, accelerated plant recovery from ACMV-NOg infection was observed, which correlates with the presence of transgene-derived siRNAs 21-24 nt in length. Overall, cassava mosaic disease symptoms were dramatically attenuated in these two lines and less viral DNA accumulation was detected in their leaves than in those of wild-type plants. In a transient replication assay using leaf disks from the two transgenic lines, strongly reduced accumulation of viral single-stranded DNA was observed. Our study suggests that a natural RNA silencing mechanism targeting DNA viruses through production of virus-derived siRNAs is turned on earlier and more efficiently in transgenic plants expressing dsRNA cognate to the viral promoter and common region. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (0 ULg)
Characterization of UDP-glucose : protein transglucosylase genes from potato.
; ; du Jardin, Patrick et al
in Plant Molecular Biology (2003), 52Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
Identification Of Cystosolic Mg2+-Dependent Soluble Inorganic Pyrophosphatases In Potato And Phylogenetic Analysis
; Dubois, Françoise ; et al
in Plant Molecular Biology (1999), 39(3),Detailed reference viewed: 37 (5 ULg)
Characterization of the potato mitochondrial transcription unit containing 'native' trnS (GCU), trnF (GAA) and trnP (UGG)
Remacle, Claire ;
in Plant Molecular Biology (1996), 30(3), 553-563
In order to identify the sequences promoting the expression of plant mitochondrial tRNA genes, we have characterized the trnS (GCU), trnF (GAA) and trnP (UGG) transcription unit of the potato ... [more ▼]
In order to identify the sequences promoting the expression of plant mitochondrial tRNA genes, we have characterized the trnS (GCU), trnF (GAA) and trnP (UGG) transcription unit of the potato mitochondrial genome. These three tRNA genes were shown to be co-transcribed as a 1800 nt long primary transcript. The transcription initiation site located 305 to 312 nt upstream of trnS is surrounded by a purine-rich region but does not contain the consensus motif proposed as a promoter element in dicotyledonous plants. Differential labelling of potato mitochondrial RNA with either guanylyltransferase or T4 polynucleotide kinase suggests that this site corresponds to the unique functional region responsible for the transcription of these three tRNA genes. The initiation site recently found upstream of Oenothera mitochondrial rr trnF does not seem to be used in potato mitochondria, although a very similar sequence is present 317 nt upstream of the corresponding potato gene. Major processing sites were identified at the 3' end of each tRNA gene. Another processing site, surrounded by a double hairpin structure, is located 498 nt downstream of trnP in stretch of 10 A residues. As judged from northern experiments, this region is close to the determination site of this transcription unit. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Biochemical, genetic and molecular characterization of new respiratory-deficient mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
; ; et al
in Plant Molecular Biology (1992), 18
Eight respiratory-deficient mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have been isolated after mutagenic treatment with acriflavine or ethidium bromide. They are characterized by their inability to grow or ... [more ▼]
Eight respiratory-deficient mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have been isolated after mutagenic treatment with acriflavine or ethidium bromide. They are characterized by their inability to grow or their very reduced growth under heterotrophic conditions. One mutation (Class III) is of nuclear origin whereas the seven remaining mutants (Classes I and II) display a predominantly paternal mt- inheritance, typical of mutations residing in the mitochondrial DNA. Biochemical analysis has shown that all mutants are deficient in the cyanide-sensitive cytochrome pathway of the respiration whereas the alternative pathway is still functional. Measurements of complexes II + III (antimycin-sensitive succinate-cytochrome c oxido-reductase) and complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) activities allowed to conclude that six mutations have to be localized in the mitochondrial apocytochrome b (COB) gene, one in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and one in a nuclear gene encoding a component of the cytochrome oxidase complex. By using specific probes, we have moreover demonstrated that five mutants (Class II mutants) contain mitochondrial DNA molecules deleted in the terminal end containing the COB gene and the telomeric region; they also possess dimeric molecules resulting from end-to-end junctions of deleted monomers. The two other mitochondrial mutants (Class I) have no detectable gross alteration. Class I and Class II mutants can also be distinguished by the pattern of transmission of the mutation in crosses. An in vivo staining test has been developed to identify rapidly the mutants impaired in cyanide-sensitive respiration. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg)
Effect of abscisic and gibberellic acids on malate synthase transcripts in germinating castor bean seeds
; Dommes, Jacques ;
in Plant Molecular Biology (1987), 9Detailed reference viewed: 8 (3 ULg)