References of "Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior"
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See detailStimulant and motivational effects of alcohol: Lessons from rodent and primate models
Brabant, Christian ULg; Guarnieri, Douglas J.; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (2014), 122

In several animal species including humans, the acute administration of low doses of alcohol increasesmotor activity. Different theories have postulated that alcohol-induced hyperactivity is causally ... [more ▼]

In several animal species including humans, the acute administration of low doses of alcohol increasesmotor activity. Different theories have postulated that alcohol-induced hyperactivity is causally related to alcoholism.Moreover, a common biological mechanism in the mesolimbic dopamine system has been proposed to mediate the stimulant and motivational effects of alcohol. Numerous studies have examined whether alcohol-induced hyperactivity is related to alcoholism using a great variety of animal models and several animal species. However, there is no review that has summarized this extensive literature. In this article, we present the various experimental models that have been used to study the relationship between the stimulant and motivational effects of alcohol in rodents and primates. Furthermore, we discuss whether the theories hypothesizing a causal link between alcohol-induced hyperactivity and alcoholism are supported by published results. The reviewed findings indicate that animal species that are stimulated by alcohol also exhibit alcohol preference. Additionally, the role of dopamine in alcohol-induced hyperactivity is well established since blocking dopaminergic activity suppresses the stimulant effects of alcohol. However, dopamine transmission plays a much more complex function in the motivational properties of alcohol and the neuronal mechanisms involved in alcohol stimulation and reward are distinct. Overall, the current review provides mixed support for theories suggesting that the stimulant effects of alcohol are related to alcoholism and highlights the importance of animal models as a way to gain insight into alcoholism. [less ▲]

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See detailDeletion of Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Receptor-1 gene accentuates D-amphetamine-induced psychomotor activation but neither the subsequent development of sensitization nor the expression of conditioned activity in mice
Tyhon, Amélie ULg; Lakaye, Bernard ULg; Grisar, Thierry ULg et al

in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (2008), 88

The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that mice lacking the MCHR1 receptor (Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Receptor-1) present an elevated vulnerability towards the neurobehavioural effects of D ... [more ▼]

The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that mice lacking the MCHR1 receptor (Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Receptor-1) present an elevated vulnerability towards the neurobehavioural effects of D-amphetamine, presumably due to previously established up-regulations of dopamine D1 receptors in these mice. We examined the psychomotor effects of five once-daily injections of 1.5 and 3 mg/kg D-amphetamine (i.p.) or ten once-daily injections of 2.25 mg/kg D-amphetamine in knockout (KO) mice lacking the MCHR1 receptor. The first injection of Damphetamine induced a greater psychomotor response amongst the KO mice at 2.25 and 3.0 mg/kg. On all subsequent D-amphetamine injections, KO mice still showed greater levels of psychomotor activity than the WT mice, but with no between-genotype difference in the rate of development of sensitization (similar slopes of the curves). Furthermore, 24 h after the last injection of 2.25 mg/kg D-amphetamine both genotypes exhibited a significant post-sensitization conditioned activity. Thus, MCHR1 receptors are likely not deeply involved in the mechanisms of induction of sensitization and related conditioned activity induced by D-amphetamine, albeit our results confirm a contribution of these receptors to the mechanisms of the acute effects of that drug, possibly via an inhibitory action on the dopaminergic mesolimbic system. Our results do not support the hypothesis of a functional contribution of MCHR1 receptors to the addictive effects of D-amphetamine [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of the H-3-receptor inverse agonist thioperamide on the psychornotor effects induced by acutely and repeatedly given cocaine in C57BL/6J mice
Brabant, Christian ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (2006), 83(4), 561-569

Previous studies have shown that histamine H(3) blockers potentiate the psychomotor and rewarding effects of cocaine. The present study examined the influence of thioperamide, an inverse H(3) receptor ... [more ▼]

Previous studies have shown that histamine H(3) blockers potentiate the psychomotor and rewarding effects of cocaine. The present study examined the influence of thioperamide, an inverse H(3) receptor agonist, on the development of psychomotor sensitization and stereotyped activity induced by acute or intermittent cocaine in C57BL/6J mice. In the first experiment, mice were injected i.p. with saline, 10 or 20mg/kg thioperamide and saline or 8mg/kg cocaine, 10min apart, before being tested for their locomotor activity (providing data on the acute effects of thioperamide on cocaine-induced activity). Subsequently, mice were treated in the same manner every other day over six additional sessions. Sensitization was assessed by the responsiveness to a cocaine challenge (8mg/kg, i.p.) given 2 and 14days following the intermittent treatment. In experiments 2 and 3, we tested the effects of thioperamide (10 or 20mg/kg, i.p.) on gnawing and sniffing induced or affected by relatively high doses of cocaine (24 or 32mg/kg, s.c.), the drugs being given 10min apart. In the first experiment, both doses of thioperamide amplified cocaine-induced psychomotor hyperactivity almost on all experimental sessions. However, the histamine inverse agonist did not affect the induction of a psychomotor sensitization. All cocaine-treated mice showed similar levels of sensitized activity 2 and 14days after the intermittent treatments, whether they received thioperamide or not. The second and the third experiments showed that thioperamide did not affect gnawing and sniffing induced by cocaine. Taken together, these results indicate that H(3) receptors clearly contribute to the neurobiological mechanisms of the locomotor component of cocaine-induced psychomotor activation, but less likely to those underlying the development of cocaine behavioral sensitization or the expression of cocaine-induced oro-facial stereotypies. [less ▲]

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See detailQuasi-asymptotic development of conditioned hyperactivity induced by intermittent injections of cocaine in C57BL/6J mice
Brabant, Christian ULg; Tambour, Sophie ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (2003), 75(2), 273-280

The emergence of a conditioned cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion was examined in C57BL/6J mice using a procedure that has not been used previously. Two days after a session of preexposure to the test ... [more ▼]

The emergence of a conditioned cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion was examined in C57BL/6J mice using a procedure that has not been used previously. Two days after a session of preexposure to the test chambers under saline, a first group of mice (cocaine-cued) received five once-daily injections of 10-mg/kg sc cocaine every other day (on the odd days of the chronic treatment period) and a saline injection on the 5 days following each cocaine injection day (on the even days of the treatment period), in all cases before being placed in the test chamber. Another group of mice (saline-cued) received 10 injections of saline on both the even and the odd days in the same context, and a third group of mice (cocaine-uncued) received five injections of saline on the even days in the test context and five injections of cocaine on the odd days in an alternative context. On the odd days sessions, the cocaine-cued group showed significant repeated increases in locomotion without behavioural sensitisation being induced, whereas the saline-cued levels of locomotion remained on baseline levels. On the first even session, the three groups did not differ from each other and showed lower levels of locomotion than on the preexposure session. During the two following even sessions, the cocaine-cued group showed an increase in locomotion that levelled off on the two remaining sessions, whereas the saline-cued and the cocame-uncued groups (which presented comparable values) exhibited significantly lower levels of locomotion. That pattern of successive placebo responses resembles the typical S-shaped development of a Pavlovian conditioned response, albeit the increase described here was quite rapid. The protocol used here may provide an additional method for the experimental analysis of stimulant-induced conditioned placebo activity. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailConditioned stimulus preference after acetaldehyde but not ethanol injections
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; De Witte, Philippe

in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (2001), 68

Acetaldehyde, the first ethanol metabolite, has been suggested to mediate some of the behavioral effects of ethanol and particularly its reinforcing properties, although this later hypothesis remains ... [more ▼]

Acetaldehyde, the first ethanol metabolite, has been suggested to mediate some of the behavioral effects of ethanol and particularly its reinforcing properties, although this later hypothesis remains extremely controversial. While several studies demonstrated the reinforcing effects of brain acetaldehyde, blood acetaldehyde accumulation is believed to be primarily aversive. In the present study, a conditioned reinforcement procedure has been used to investigate the reinforcing and/or aversive effects of intraperitoneal injections of both acetaldehyde and ethanol in Wistar rats. An olfactory stimulus was paired with daily injections of either ethanol (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg) or acetaldehyde (0, 10, 20, 100 and 150 mg/kg). After eight conditioning sessions, all rats were tested for their stimulus preference or aversion. The results show that conditioning with small, 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg, ethanol doses induced neither preference nor aversion for the olfactory cue. In contrast, higher ethanol doses (1.0 and 2.0 g/kg) resulted in significant stimulus aversions. Acetaldehyde conditioning led to a biphasic stimulus preference, with a maximal preference around 20 mg/kg acetaldehyde. No evidence of aversive effects was found with increasing doses of acetaldehyde, even with concentrations close to the lethal limit. The present study clearly shows that systemic acetaldehyde injections induced significant stimulus preferences. This suggests that acetaldehyde may be, at least in part, responsible for the reinforcing effects of alcohol intake. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Dopamine Agonists on Appetitive and Consummatory Male Sexual Behavior in Japanese Quail
Castagna, C.; Ball, G. F.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (1997), 58(2), 403-14

The effects of pharmacological manipulations of dopaminergic transmission on appetitive and consummatory aspects of male sexual behavior were investigated in castrated male Japanese quail treated with ... [more ▼]

The effects of pharmacological manipulations of dopaminergic transmission on appetitive and consummatory aspects of male sexual behavior were investigated in castrated male Japanese quail treated with exogenous testosterone. Appetitive male sexual behavior was assessed by measuring a learned social proximity response and consummatory behavior was assessed by measuring copulatory behavior per se. The nonselective dopamine receptor agonist, apomorphine, inhibited in a dose-dependent manner both components of male sexual behavior. Two indirect dopamine agonists were also tested. Nomifensine, a dopamine re-uptake inhibitor, decreased appetitive sexual behavior but increased the frequency of mount attempts, a measure of consummatory sexual behavior. Amfonelic acid, a compound that enhances dopaminergic tone by a complex mechanism, increased aspects of both appetitive and consummatory behaviors. These data suggest that, in quail, as in rodents, increases in dopaminergic tone facilitate both appetitive and consummatory aspects of male sexual behavior. Apomorphine may be inhibitory in quail because it acts primarily on D2-like receptors, unlike in rats, where it stimulates sexual behavior and acts primarily on D1-like receptors at low doses but interacts with D2-like receptors at higher doses. This is supported by the observation that stereotyped pecking, a behavior stimulated selectively in quail by D2 agonists, was increased by apomorphine but not by the two indirect agonists. The observed partial dissociation between the effects of these dopaminergic agonists on appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors suggests that these two components of male sexual behavior may be controlled by the action of dopamine through different neuronal systems. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmacological characterization of the enhancement of apomorphine-induced gnawing in mice by cocaine
Tirelli, Ezio ULg; Witkin, J. M.

in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (1996), 55(1), 135-140

Characterized the behavioral and pharmacological mechanisms associated with cocaine potentiation of apomorphine (AP)-induced gnawing (AIG) in male C57BL/6J mice. Results showed that (-)-cocaine enhanced ... [more ▼]

Characterized the behavioral and pharmacological mechanisms associated with cocaine potentiation of apomorphine (AP)-induced gnawing (AIG) in male C57BL/6J mice. Results showed that (-)-cocaine enhanced AIG at doses devoid of effects on gnawing when given alone; (+)-cocaine or (-)-cocaine methiodide were also devoid of effects. Lidocaine, a local anesthetic without prominent dopaminergic actions, augmented the gnawing response to AP without increasing climbing or gnawing when given alone. (+)-Amphetamine enhanced AIG gnawing but only at a high dose that increased gnawing by itself. The selective dopamine (DA) uptake blocker, GBR 12909, augmented AIG by itself; however, it increased climbing at doses that augmented the gnawing response. These data indicate that the cocaine-augmented gnawing response to AP may be due to blockade of DA uptake and or the local anesthetic actions of cocaine. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved) [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Apomorphine on Sexual Behavior in Male Quail
Absil, Philippe ULg; Das, S.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (1994), 47(1), 77-88

In the rat, dopamine (DA) facilitates male copulatory behavior. Indirect evidence based largely on neuroanatomical data suggest that in quail DA is also implicated in the control of male reproductive ... [more ▼]

In the rat, dopamine (DA) facilitates male copulatory behavior. Indirect evidence based largely on neuroanatomical data suggest that in quail DA is also implicated in the control of male reproductive behavior but there is no pharmacological evidence to support this conclusion. To test this idea, castrated testosterone (T)-treated male quail were injected with various doses of the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine (APO) in the range 1-10,000 micrograms/kg. The sexual behavior of birds was recorded starting 15 min after APO injection for a duration of 30 min. A dose-dependent inhibition of male reproductive behavior that lasted for the entire duration of the test was observed. In a second experiment, gonadectomized T-treated male Japanese quail were injected daily with APO (0, 10, or 1,000 micrograms/kg) during 8 days. Their sexual interactions with a partner were quantified either 24 h or 15 min after the last injection. No influence of the treatment on copulatory behavior was observed 24 h after the last injection, but a strong inhibition was present when the test was performed 15 min after. To research whether the inhibitory effects of APO were due to a preferential action on D2 presynaptic autoreceptors, male quail were pretreated with two different D2 antagonists (spiperone or pimozide; 0.5 or 2 mg/kg) before being injected with APO (100 micrograms or 1 mg/kg). Spiperone facilitated male sexual behavior but did not suppress the inhibitory effect of APO. No significant effect of pimozide was observed. These results support the notion that DA modulates male sexual activity in the Japanese quail. The specific role of the different dopaminergic receptor subtypes remains, however, to be elucidated. [less ▲]

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See detailBehavioral sensitization and tolerance to the D-sub-2 agonist RU 24213 : dissociation between several patterns in mice
Tirelli, Ezio ULg; Jodogne, C.

in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (1993), 44(3), 627-632

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See detailOxytocin blocks the environmentally conditioned compensatory response present after tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia in mice
Tirelli, Ezio ULg; Jodogne, C.; Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (1992), 43(4), 1263-1267

The present study tested the hypothesis that the attenuation by oxytocin of tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia relies upon an impairment of the putative conditioning processes underlying environment ... [more ▼]

The present study tested the hypothesis that the attenuation by oxytocin of tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia relies upon an impairment of the putative conditioning processes underlying environment-specific tolerance. According to the conditioning model of tolerance, such tolerance occurs because an opposite compensatory response conditioned to ethanol-paired cues attenuates ethanol's effects. Tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia was established to a particular environment over 4 days by injecting mice (daily) with oxytocin 2 h before ethanol, outside the colony room. As controls, other mice were injected similarly but following testing in the animal room. We found that oxytocin suppressed the conditioned compensatory response, revealed by injecting saline to every group in the tolerance-associated environment. These results suggest that oxytocin acted, at least partly, via an inhibition of the associative learning processes that facilitate tolerance development. [less ▲]

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See detailOxytocin attenuates tolerance not only to the hypothermic but also to the myorelaxant and akinesic effects of ethanol in mice
Jodogne, C.; Tirelli, Ezio ULg; Klingbiel, P. et al

in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (1991), 40(2), 261-265

Inhibition of ethanol tolerance by oxytocin has been demonstrated previously using the hypothermic effect only. The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of oxytocin on the ... [more ▼]

Inhibition of ethanol tolerance by oxytocin has been demonstrated previously using the hypothermic effect only. The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of oxytocin on the development of tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia, myorelaxation and akinesia in mice. Four groups of mice received daily intraperitoneal injections of saline or oxytocin (0.005 mg) plus saline or ethanol (2 g/kg). The peptide was administered 2 hours before ethanol. For five consecutive days, temperature measurements were performed 20 minutes before and after ethanol injection. Myorelaxation and akinesia were evaluated following the second temperature measure. Oxytocin pretreatment, which had no intrinsic effects, resulted in a robust selective attenuation of tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia, myorelaxation and akinesia. These results suggest that the mechanisms for peptide modulation are common to these three typical effects of ethanol. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of specific dopaminergic agonists and antagonists in the open-field test.
Bruhwyler, J.; Chleide, E.; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg et al

in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (1991), 39(2), 367-71

It has been found that dopaminergic transmission could be involved in some aspects of anxiety. The present study aims to explore this hypothesis further, using specific DA1 (SKF 38393) and DA2 ... [more ▼]

It has been found that dopaminergic transmission could be involved in some aspects of anxiety. The present study aims to explore this hypothesis further, using specific DA1 (SKF 38393) and DA2 (bromocriptine) agonists or DA1 (SCH 23390), and DA2 (zetidoline) antagonists in the open-field test. The results confirm previous studies indicating that DA1 and DA2 agonists predominantly increase locomotor activity, while DA1 and DA2 antagonists predominantly decrease it. However, at low doses, the four drugs increase the peripheral ambulation score significantly and, with the exception of zetidoline, also increase the central ambulation score. The observations made with zetidoline confirm the hypothesis that a specific presynaptic DA2 antagonism could be determinant for the disinhibitory effects of low doses of neuroleptics. A collateral action on 5HT transmission is also suggested to explain an hypothetic anxiolytic action of DA agonists and SCH 23390 at lower doses. [less ▲]

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See detailAnxiolytic potential of sulpiride, clozapine and derivatives in the open-field test.
Bruhwyler, J.; Chleide, E.; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg et al

in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (1990), 36(1), 57-61

Recently acquired data question the sharp dichotomy between anxiolytics and neuroleptics, since disinhibitory effects have been measured in the rat with very low doses of haloperidol and higher doses of ... [more ▼]

Recently acquired data question the sharp dichotomy between anxiolytics and neuroleptics, since disinhibitory effects have been measured in the rat with very low doses of haloperidol and higher doses of atypical neuroleptics in FI and DRL schedules, but also in the open-field test. That the DA transmission in certain brain regions is involved in some aspects of anxiety has recently been suggested. The present study confirms this hypothesis particularly with high doses of sulpiride (80 mg/kg) and clozapine (24 mg/kg) when tested in the open-field test. Moreover, the results show how a slight chemical modification of clozapine can give a direction to pharmacological activity with one derivative still resembling clozapine and the second one resembling haloperidol. As neuroleptics do not seem to influence the synthesis and utilization of GABA, the higher entry score observed with them would seem to depend above all on DA antagonism in the mesolimbic system. [less ▲]

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See detailThe GABA-A agonist muscimol facilitates muscular twitches and locomotor movements in the neonatal mouse
Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (1989), 33(2), 497-500

The effects of nonsedative doses of muscimol, a postsynaptic GABA-A agonist, on neurobehavioral activities in 5- and 11-day-old newborn mice were assessed using an observational point sampling procedure ... [more ▼]

The effects of nonsedative doses of muscimol, a postsynaptic GABA-A agonist, on neurobehavioral activities in 5- and 11-day-old newborn mice were assessed using an observational point sampling procedure. Muscimol activated the emission of muscular twitches after injections of 0.025 or 0.050 mg/kg in 5-day-old pups, and 0.075 mg/kg in 11-day-old pups. At 0.075 mg/kg, the GABA agonist also produced an increase of locomotor movement levels in the younger age group. Given that muscimol at low dosages typically produces an increase of locomotion in mature mice, it is suggested that the GABAergic activity involved in locomotor behaviors is functional very early in life. Furthermore, since twitching behavior exhibited while lying presumably indicates paradoxical sleep early in life, it is speculated that muscimol may have activated this form of sleep in our newborn mice. [less ▲]

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