References of "Perception"
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See detailDo you sound or look as old as you are? A study of age estimation in young and older adults
Moyse, Evelyne ULg; Beaufort, Aline ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg

in Perception (2012), 41(supplement), 117

Studies on age estimation usually indicated that people are fairly accurate at estimating the age of a person from her/his face or from her/his voice (with an absolute difference of five and ten years ... [more ▼]

Studies on age estimation usually indicated that people are fairly accurate at estimating the age of a person from her/his face or from her/his voice (with an absolute difference of five and ten years respectively) [e.g. Amilon et al., 2000, in: Speaker Classification II. Lectures Notes in Artificial Intelligence, C Müller, Berlin, Springer-Verlag]. However studies showed also that performance depends on the age of participants and the age of stimuli [Rhodes, 2009, Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 1-12; Braun, 1996, Forensic Linguistics, 3, 65-73]. The aim of the present study is to compare age estimation performance from faces and voices by using an experimental design in which the age of participants (young vs older), the age of stimuli (young vs older) and the stimulus domain (face vs voice) were crossed. Overall, the age of faces was more accurately estimated than the age of voices. Moreover performance of age estimation was better for young stimuli than for older stimuli. Finally, young participants made smaller absolute errors than older participants. However there is no difference between young and older participants when estimating the age of older stimuli. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes delay release the verbal overshadowing effect in child and adult eyewitnesses?
Vanootighem, Valentine ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg; Dehon, Hedwige ULg

in Perception (2012), 41(supplement), 194

The verbal overshadowing effect (VO) (eg, Schooler and Engstler-Schooler, 1990 Cognitive Psychology 22(1) 36–71) suggests that the fact of generating a verbal description of a previously seen face may ... [more ▼]

The verbal overshadowing effect (VO) (eg, Schooler and Engstler-Schooler, 1990 Cognitive Psychology 22(1) 36–71) suggests that the fact of generating a verbal description of a previously seen face may impair subsequent performance on a lineup identification task in adults. Previous research has examined whether descriptions also impaired children’s identification abilities but no evidence of VO was found (Memon and Rose, 2002 Psychology, Crime and Law 8(3), 229–242). However, the method might not have been appropriate to observe this effect as, for instance, a 24-hour delay between the description and the identification tasks (associated with a release of the VO effect in adults) was used. Hence, in this current experiment, groups of children (7–8, 10–11, 13–14 years old) and adults were presented with a short video and then assigned to a description or a no description condition before the identification task. Participants were also assigned either to a “no delay”, a “24-hour post encoding delay” or a “24-hour post description delay” condition to determine the influence of delay on the VO effect. Results indicated that, compared to the control condition, the description decreased correct identification performance in both children and adults and no release of VO was found with delay. [less ▲]

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See detailDo all negative images similarly retain attention? Time course of attentional disengagement from disgust- and fear-evoking stimuli.
Devue, Christel ULg; Van Hooff, Johanna; Vieweg, Paula et al

in Perception (2012), 41(ECVP abstract suppl.), 133

While disgust and fear are both negative emotions, they are characterized by different physiology and action tendencies, which might in turn lead to different attentional biases. However, the potential ... [more ▼]

While disgust and fear are both negative emotions, they are characterized by different physiology and action tendencies, which might in turn lead to different attentional biases. However, the potential disgusting aspect of threatening stimuli has somehow been neglected which might contribute to discrepancies in the literature. The goal of this study was to examine whether fear- and disgust-evoking images produce different attentional disengagement patterns. We pre-selected IAPS images according to their disgusting, frightening, or neutral character and presented them as central cues while participants had to identify a target letter briefly appearing around them. To investigate the time course of disengagement from those central images, we used 4 different cue-target intervals (200, 500, 800 and 1100 ms). Reaction times were significantly longer with the disgust-evoking images than with neutral- and fear-evoking images at the 200 ms interval only. This suggests that only disgust- and not fear-related images hold participants'attention for longer. This might be related to the need to perform a more comprehensive risk-assessment of disgust-evoking pictures. These results have important implications for future emotion-attention research as they indicate that a more careful selection of stimulus materials that goes beyond the dimensions of valence and arousal is needed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of saliency and meaning in oculomotor capture by faces
Devue, Christel ULg; Belopolsky, Artem; Theeuwes, Jan

in Perception (2011), 40 ECVP abstract suppl

Long-lasting debates question whether faces are special stimuli treated preferentially by our visual system or whether prioritized processing of faces is simply due to increased salience of their ... [more ▼]

Long-lasting debates question whether faces are special stimuli treated preferentially by our visual system or whether prioritized processing of faces is simply due to increased salience of their constituting features. To examine this issue, we used a visual search task in which participants had to make a saccade to the circle with a unique color among a set of six circles. Critically, there was a task-irrelevant object located next to each circle. We examined how an upright face, an inverted face or a butterfly, presented near the target or non-target circles affected eye movements to the target. Upright (13.12%) and inverted faces (10.8%) located away from the target circle captured the eyes more than butterflies (8.5%), but upright faces captured the eyes more than inverted faces. Moreover, when faces were next to the target, upright faces, and to some extent inverted faces, facilitated the saccades towards the target. Faces are thus salient and capture attention. More importantly however above and beyond their raw salience based on low-level features, canonical upright faces capture attention stronger than inverted faces. Therefore, faces are ‘special’ and our visual system is tuned to their meaning and not only to low-level features making up a face. [less ▲]

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See detailAn own-age bias in age estimation of faces in children and adults.
Moyse, Evelyne ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg

in Perception (2010), 39(suppl), 93

The aim of the present study was to assess the occurence of an own-age bias on age estimation performance (better performance for faces from the same age range as that of the beholder) by using an ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to assess the occurence of an own-age bias on age estimation performance (better performance for faces from the same age range as that of the beholder) by using an experimental design inspired from research on the own-race effect. The age of participants (10 to 14 year old children and 20 to 30 year old adults) was an independent factor that was crossed with the age of the stimuli (faces of 10 to 14 year old children and faces of 20 to 30 year old adults), the dependent measure being the accuracy of age estimation. There were 30 participants in each age group. An interaction between the two factors was expected. A two-way 2 (age of the participants)x 2 (age of the stimuli) ANOVA with repeated measures on the last factor was carried out on the accuracy scores. This analysis revealed a main effect of age of participants and of age of stimuli, and an interaction between these two factors. Children's performance was less accurate when estimating the age of adults' faces compared with children's faces. However, in both age groups, accuracy was better for children's faces than for adults' faces. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of face and voice learning on access to semantic information from names.
Barsics, Catherine ULg

in Perception (2010), 39 supplement

Several studies showed that it is more difficult to retrieve semantic information from recognized voices than from recognized faces. However, earlier studies that investigated the recall of biographical ... [more ▼]

Several studies showed that it is more difficult to retrieve semantic information from recognized voices than from recognized faces. However, earlier studies that investigated the recall of biographical information following person recognition used stimuli that were pre-experimentally familiar to the participants, such as famous people’s voices and faces. The present study was designed in order to allow a stricter control of frequency exposure with both types of stimuli (voices and faces) and to ensure the absence of identity cues in the spoken extracts. In the present study, subjects had to associate lexical (i.e., name) and semantic information (i.e., occupation) with faces or voices. Interestingly, when asked later to recall semantic information being cued by the person’s names, participants provided significantly more occupations for the targets that had been previously associated with faces than with voices. Moreover, participants’ performance was not significantly different when names and occupation were associated with voices compared with dog’s faces, whose complexity is similar to that of human faces, but for which we have poorer discrimination abilities. These results and their implications for person recognition models, as well as the potential role of the relative distinctiveness of faces and voices, are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen do faces capture attention? Evidence from eye movements
Devue, Christel ULg; Belopolsky, Artem; Theeuwes, Jan

in Perception (2010), 39 Suppl.

A recent visual search study showed that the presence of an upright distractor face slows the search for a butterfly target while a butterfly distractor does not affect the search for a target face ... [more ▼]

A recent visual search study showed that the presence of an upright distractor face slows the search for a butterfly target while a butterfly distractor does not affect the search for a target face, suggesting that faces capture attention automatically (Langton et al, 2008 Cognition 107 330-342). To further test this hypothesis, we recorded eye movements during a cued target search task. When the search target alternated between a face and a butterfly (Experiment 1), faces were found faster and with less saccades than butterflies. The presence of the opposite distractor (eg a face during a search for a butterfly) slowed down the search but to a greater extent when the distractor was a face. Moreover, faces captured the eyes more frequently than butterflies. Inverted face targets were also found more efficiently than inverted butterfly targets and captured the eyes more than butterflies when presented as distractors (Experiment 2). However, when upright or inverted faces consistently appeared as irrelevant distractors during a butterfly or a flower target search (Experiment 3), they did not cause significant disruption. These results challenge the view that faces capture attention automatically and suggest that faces only attract attention when their processing is relevant during a search task. [less ▲]

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See detailPerceptual memory for highly familiar people's body shape: Manipulation of images of the self and friend
Daury, Noémy ULg; Brooks, Kevin; Brédart, Serge ULg

in Perception (2009), 38(2), 261-270

Previous studies have shown that people's ability to detect, from memory, alterations in highly familiar faces is excellent. Indeed, just noticeable differences for the detection of small alterations in a ... [more ▼]

Previous studies have shown that people's ability to detect, from memory, alterations in highly familiar faces is excellent. Indeed, just noticeable differences for the detection of small alterations in a recognition-memory task were not significantly different from the corresponding measures in a perceptual-discrimination task (Brédart and Devue, 2006 Perception 35 101 - 106; Ge et al, 2003 Perception 32 601 - 614). The object of the present study was to evaluate whether people's perceptual memory for body shapes of very familiar persons reaches the high level of precision that was reported for face memory. For one group of participants, the task was to detect body shape alterations (an increase or a decrease of 2% to 10% of the waist-to-hip ratio) on photographs depicting either themselves or a friend. For another group of participants who did not know the target persons, the task was to discriminate whether two photographs presented side by side were the same or not. Results showed that the detection of alterations was significantly better in the perceptual-discrimination task than in the recognition-memory tasks (for the participant's own body as well as for the friend's body). In conclusion, the high fidelity of perceptual memory for very familiar faces does not extend to familiar body shapes. [less ▲]

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See detailDo pictures of faces, and which ones, capture attention in the inattentional blindness paradigm?
Devue, Christel ULg; Laloyaux, Cédric ULg; Feyers, Dorothée ULg et al

in Perception (2009), 38(4), 552568

Faces and self-referential materials (eg the own name) are more likely to capture attention in the inattentional blindness (IB) paradigm than others stimuli. This effect is presumably due to the meaning ... [more ▼]

Faces and self-referential materials (eg the own name) are more likely to capture attention in the inattentional blindness (IB) paradigm than others stimuli. This effect is presumably due to the meaning of these stimuli rather than to their familiarity (Mack and Rock 1998). IB has mostly been investigated with schematic stimuli in previous work. In the present study, the generalisability of this finding was tested using photographic stimuli. In support to the view that faces constitute a special category of stimuli, it was found that pictures of faces resisted more to IB than pictures of common objects (Experiment 1) or than pictures of inverted faces (Experiment 2). In a third experiment, the influence of face familiarity and identity (ie the participant’s own face, a friend’s face and an unknown face) on IB rates was evaluated. Unexpectedly, no differential resistance to blindness across these three kinds of faces was found. In conclusion, picture of faces attracted attention more than pictures of objects or inverted faces in the IB paradigm. However, this effect was not dependent on face familiarity or identity. [less ▲]

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See detailSpiders capture attention especially when you are afraid of them
Devue, Christel ULg; Belopolsky, Artem; Theeuwes, Jan

in Perception (2009), 38 Suppl.

Recent studies suggested that fear-related stimuli (such as spiders or snakes) are prioritized during visual selection. However, it remains unclear whether such stimuli capture attention in a bottom - up ... [more ▼]

Recent studies suggested that fear-related stimuli (such as spiders or snakes) are prioritized during visual selection. However, it remains unclear whether such stimuli capture attention in a bottom - up fashion when they are irrelevant for the search task. To investigate this issue we used the additional singleton paradigm (Theeuwes, 1992 Perception & Psychophysics 51(6) 599 - 606), in which participants had to search for a shape singleton (a circle among diamonds) while either a fear-related stimulus (a spider) or a fear-unrelated stimulus (a butterfly) was also present in the display. To determine whether the capture was modulated by the degree of actual fear evoked by the stimuli we compared performance of participants that scored high or low on the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (Szymanski and O'Donohue, 1995 Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 26 31 - 34). Results indicate that both task-irrelevant spiders and butterflies capture attention. More importantly, however, for high-fear participants the interference caused by spiders was larger than that caused by butterflies, signifying the role of fear as a factor in the capture of attention by fear-related objects. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes the self-face grab and/or retain attention? An eye movement study
Devue, Christel ULg; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Brédart, Serge ULg et al

in Perception (2008), 37(Suppl. S), 94

Previous studies that investigated the ability of high priority stimuli to grab attention reported contradictory results. In the present study, eye tracking was used to examine the effect of the presence ... [more ▼]

Previous studies that investigated the ability of high priority stimuli to grab attention reported contradictory results. In the present study, eye tracking was used to examine the effect of the presence of the self-face among unfamiliar faces in a visual search task in which face identity was task-irrelevant. We evaluated whether the self-face (i) received prioritized selection, (ii) retained attention, and (iii) whether its status as target or distractor had a differential effect. Another highly familiar face was included to control whether possible effects were specific to the self-face or could be explained by high familiarity. We found that the presence of the self-face affected performance on the search task. This was not due to a prioritized processing but rather to a difficulty to disengage attention. Crucially, this effect seemed due to self-face familiarity. Indeed, similar results were obtained with the other familiar face. Moreover, the effect of the self-face was stronger when it was presented as the target than when it was a distractor. [less ▲]

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See detailAttention to self-referential stimuli: Can I stop looking at myself?
Devue, Christel ULg; Jamaer, Nathalie; Brédart, Serge ULg

in Perception (2007), 36(Suppl. S),

Auto-referential materials (own name) have been described as particularly prone to capture attention. Some recent studies by Harris and Pashler (2004 Psychological Science 15 171 - 178) and Gronau et al ... [more ▼]

Auto-referential materials (own name) have been described as particularly prone to capture attention. Some recent studies by Harris and Pashler (2004 Psychological Science 15 171 - 178) and Gronau et al (2003 Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 132 512 - 529) have questioned this view and showed that these own-name effects are temporary and appear only in specific conditions: when enough resources are available or when the own name is a task-irrelevant stimulus presented in the focus of attention. In the present study, a stimulus that is unique to each individual was used: the self-face. In experiment 1, the self-face produced a temporary distraction when presented at fixation during a digit-parity task. However, this distraction was not different from that triggered by another highly familiar face. In experiment 2, familiar faces failed to produce interference when presented outside the focus of attention. Experiment 3, using a less demanding task, indicated that when few resources are required, the self-face may interfere even when presented peripherally. These results confirm recent findings showing that auto-referential materials are special only in specific conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailVisual memory for people's body shape
Daury, Noémy ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg

in Perception (2007), 36(2), 304

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See detailThe accuracy of memory for faces of personally known individuals
Brédart, Serge ULg; Devue, Christel ULg

in Perception (2006), 35(1), 101-106

The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the very high accuracy of memory for familiar faces, demonstrated by Ge et al (2003, Perception 32 601-614) with a very familiar famous person ... [more ▼]

The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the very high accuracy of memory for familiar faces, demonstrated by Ge et al (2003, Perception 32 601-614) with a very familiar famous person, generalises to faces of personally known individuals. The accuracy of participants' perceptual memory for a close colleague's face and for their own face was evaluated by presenting original and manipulated pictures of these two targets. The manipulation consisted of increasing or decreasing the interocular distance. As in Ge et al's study, results indicated that proportions of correct recognition of the original faces, and just noticeable differences for the detection of alterations in the recognition task, were not significantly different from the corresponding measures in a perceptual discrimination task performed by a sample of participants who did not know the target persons at all. High accuracy of memory generalises to faces of personally known individuals [less ▲]

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See detailThe accuracy of perceptual memory for personally known faces
Devue, Christel ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg

in Perception (2005), 34(Suppl. S), 166

Recently, Ge et al (2003 Perception 32 601 - 614) reported a very high accuracy of memory for a highly familiar face. Their Chinese participants had to identify the most veridical appearance of Mao's face ... [more ▼]

Recently, Ge et al (2003 Perception 32 601 - 614) reported a very high accuracy of memory for a highly familiar face. Their Chinese participants had to identify the most veridical appearance of Mao's face among unaltered and transformed (interocular distance was gradually increased or decreased) versions of his portrait. In the present experiment, the same facial transformations were applied to our participants' faces to evaluate whether this hyperfidelity for familiar faces is specific to famous individuals whose face is mainly known from a standard portrait, or if it could generalise to personally known faces (the own face and a close person's face). Results showed that performance was not different for the two familiar faces in the recognition task, or between the recognition task and a perceptual discrimination task. The high accuracy of memory previously shown for a very famous face generalises to personally known individuals for whom we have a varied visual experience. [less ▲]

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See detailRecognising the usual orientation of one's own face : the role of asymmetrically located details
Brédart, Serge ULg

in Perception (2003), 32(7), 805-811

Our ability to recognise the usual horizontal orientation Of Our own face (mirror orientation) as compared with another very familiar face (normal orientation) was examined in experiment 1. Participants ... [more ▼]

Our ability to recognise the usual horizontal orientation Of Our own face (mirror orientation) as compared with another very familiar face (normal orientation) was examined in experiment 1. Participants did not use the same kind of information in determining the orientation of their own face as in determining the orientation of the other familiar face. The proportion of participants who reported having based their judgment on the location of an asymmetric feature (eg a mole) was higher when determining the orientation of their own face than when determining that of the other familiar face. In experiment 2, participants were presented with pairs of manipulated images of their own face and of another familiar face showing conflicting asymmetric features and configural information. Each pair consisted of one picture showing asymmetric features of a given face in a mirror-reversed position, while the facial configuration was left unchanged; and one picture in which the location of the asymmetric features was left unchanged, while the facial configuration was mirror-reversed. As expected from the hypothesis that asymmetric local features are more frequently used for the judgment of one's own face, participants chose the picture showing mirror-reversed asymmetric features when determining the usual orientation of their own face significantly more often than they chose the picture showing normally oriented asymmetric features when determining the orientation of the other face. These results are explained in terms of competing forward and mirror-reversed representations of one's own face. [less ▲]

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See detailAn 'other-race' effect in age estimation from faces
Dehon, Hedwige ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg

in Perception (2001), 30(9), 1107-1113

Previous studies have shown that, in person-recognition tasks, people performance better for gaces belonging to their own race than for those belonging to another race. Recently, however, this 'other-race ... [more ▼]

Previous studies have shown that, in person-recognition tasks, people performance better for gaces belonging to their own race than for those belonging to another race. Recently, however, this 'other-race' effect has also been found in a sex-discrimination task (O'Toole et al, 1996, Perception 25, 669-676). In the present study, we investigated wheter this finding extends to age perception. Caucasian and African participants were asked to estimate the age of Caucasian and African faces. The main result of this experiment was a significant 'race of subject' x 'race of face' interaction showing that Caucasian participants performed better at evaluating Caucasian faces than African faces. However, African participants performed equally with both type of faces. This result is explained by the Africans' time of residence in Belgium. This implication of this 'older-race' effect for age estimation is discussed with respect to eyewitness reports. [less ▲]

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