References of "Neurorehabilitation and neural repair"
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See detailPreserved Covert Cognition in Noncommunicative Patients With Severe Brain Injury?
schnakers, caroline; Giacino, Joseph T; Løvstad, Marianne et al

in Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair (2014)

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See detailPreserved Covert Cognition in Noncommunicative Patients With Severe Brain Injury?
Schnackers, caroline; Giacino, Joseph T.; Løvstad, Marianne et al

in Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair (2014)

Background. Despite recent evidence suggesting that some severely brain-injured patients retain some capacity for topdown processing (covert cognition), the degree of sparing is unknown. Objective. Top ... [more ▼]

Background. Despite recent evidence suggesting that some severely brain-injured patients retain some capacity for topdown processing (covert cognition), the degree of sparing is unknown. Objective. Top-down attentional processing was assessed in patients in minimally conscious (MCS) and vegetative states (VS) using an active event-related potential (ERP) paradigm. Methods. A total of 26 patients were included (38 ± 12 years old, 9 traumatic, 21 patients >1 year postonset): 8 MCS+, 8 MCS−, and 10 VS patients. There were 14 healthy controls (30 ± 8 years old). The ERP paradigm included (1) a passive condition and (2) an active condition, wherein the participant was instructed to voluntarily focus attention on his/her own name. In each condition, the participant’s own name was presented 100 times (ie, 4 blocks of 25 stimuli). Results. In 5 MCS+ patients as well as in 3 MCS− patients and 1 VS patient, an enhanced P3 amplitude was observed in the active versus passive condition. Relative to controls, patients showed a response that was (1) widely distributed over frontoparietal areas and (2) not present in all blocks (3 of 4). In patients with covert cognition, the amplitude of the response was lower in frontocentral electrodes compared with controls but did not differ from that in the MCS+ group. Conclusion. The results indicate that volitional top-down attention is impaired in patients with covert cognition. Further investigation is crucially needed to better understand top-down cognitive functioning in this population because this may help refine brain-computer interface–based communication strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailNociception coma scale-revised scores correlate with metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex.
Chatelle, Camille ULg; Thibaut, Aurore ULg; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie et al

in Neurorehabilitation and neural repair (2014), 28(2), 149-52

BACKGROUND: . The Nociception Coma Scale-Revised (NCS-R) was recently validated to assess possible pain perception in patients with disorders of consciousness. OBJECTIVE: . To identify correlations ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: . The Nociception Coma Scale-Revised (NCS-R) was recently validated to assess possible pain perception in patients with disorders of consciousness. OBJECTIVE: . To identify correlations between cerebral glucose metabolism and NCS-R total scores. METHODS: . [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, NCS-R, and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised assessments were performed in 49 patients with disorders of consciousness. RESULTS: . We identified a significant positive correlation between NCS-R total scores and metabolism in the posterior part of the anterior cingulate cortex, known to be involved in pain processing. No other cluster reached significance. No significant effect of clinical diagnosis (vegetative/unresponsive vs minimally conscious states), etiology or interval since insult was observed. CONCLUSIONS: . Our data support the hypothesis that the NCS-R total scores are related to cortical processing of nociception and may constitute an appropriate behavioral tool to assess, monitor, and treat possible pain in brain-damaged noncommunicative patients with disorders of consciousness. Future studies using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging should investigate the correlation between NCS-R scores and brain activation in response to noxious stimulation at the single-subject level. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the Timed 25-Foot and the 100-Meter Walk as Performance Measures in Multiple Sclerosis
Phan-Ba, Rémy ULg; Pace, Amy; CALAY, Philippe ULg et al

in Neurorehabilitation and neural repair (2011), 25(7), 672-9

BACKGROUND: Ambulation impairment is a major component of physical disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) and a major target of rehabilitation programs. Outcome measures commonly used to evaluate walking ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Ambulation impairment is a major component of physical disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) and a major target of rehabilitation programs. Outcome measures commonly used to evaluate walking capacities suffer from several limitations. OBJECTIVES: To define and validate a new test that would overcome the limitations of current gait evaluations in MS and ultimately better correlate with the maximum walking distance (MWD). METHODS: The authors developed the Timed 100-Meter Walk Test (T100MW), which was compared with the Timed 25-Foot Walk Test (T25FW). For the T100MW, the subject is invited to walk 100 m as fast as he/she can. In MS patients and healthy control volunteers, the authors measured the test-retest and interrater intraclass correlation coefficient. Spearman rank correlations were obtained between the T25FW, the T100MW, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and the MWD. The coefficient of variation, Bland-Altman plots, the coefficient of determination, and the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve were measured. The mean walking speed (MWS) was compared between the 2 tests. RESULTS: A total of 141 MS patients and 104 healthy control volunteers were assessed. Minor differences favoring the T100MW over the T25FW were observed. Interestingly, the authors demonstrated a paradoxically higher MWS on a long (T100MW) rather than on a short distance walk test (T25FW). CONCLUSION: The T25FW and T100MW displayed subtle differences of reproducibility, variability, and correlation with MWD favoring the T100MW. The maximum walking speed of MS patients may be poorly estimated by the T25FW since MS patients were shown to walk faster over a longer distance. [less ▲]

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