References of "Neuroimage"
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See detailA finite-element reciprocity solution for EEG forward modeling with realistic individual head models
Ziegler, Erik ULg; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Gaggioni, Giulia ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2014), 103

Highlights • Creates EEG forward models suitable for high-resolution source localization. • Automatic T1-based whole-head finite element meshing and leadfield computation. • Pipelines can incorporate ... [more ▼]

Highlights • Creates EEG forward models suitable for high-resolution source localization. • Automatic T1-based whole-head finite element meshing and leadfield computation. • Pipelines can incorporate conductivity tensors from diffusion-weighted images. • Open-source toolbox shared under a permissive software license. • Accuracy comparable to SimBio FEM and superior to OpenMEEG BEM solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping track density changes in nigrostriatal and extranigral pathways in Parkinson's disease
Ziegler, Erik ULg; Rouillard, Maud; André, Elodie et al

in NeuroImage (2014), 99

Highlights First whole-brain probabilistic tractography study in Parkinson's disease High quality diffusion-weighted images (120 gradient directions, b = 2500 s/mm2) Voxel-based group analysis comparing ... [more ▼]

Highlights First whole-brain probabilistic tractography study in Parkinson's disease High quality diffusion-weighted images (120 gradient directions, b = 2500 s/mm2) Voxel-based group analysis comparing early-stage patients and controls Abnormal reconstructed track density in the nigrostriatal pathway and brainstem Track density also increased in limbic and cognitive circuits. [less ▲]

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See detailFast and accurate modelling of longitudinal and repeated measures neuroimaging data.
Guillaume, Bryan ULg; Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul et al

in NeuroImage (2014), 94

Despite the growing importance of longitudinal data in neuroimaging, the standard analysis methods make restrictive or unrealistic assumptions (e.g., assumption of Compound Symmetry--the state of all ... [more ▼]

Despite the growing importance of longitudinal data in neuroimaging, the standard analysis methods make restrictive or unrealistic assumptions (e.g., assumption of Compound Symmetry--the state of all equal variances and equal correlations--or spatially homogeneous longitudinal correlations). While some new methods have been proposed to more accurately account for such data, these methods are based on iterative algorithms that are slow and failure-prone. In this article, we propose the use of the Sandwich Estimator method which first estimates the parameters of interest with a simple Ordinary Least Square model and second estimates variances/covariances with the "so-called" Sandwich Estimator (SwE) which accounts for the within-subject correlation existing in longitudinal data. Here, we introduce the SwE method in its classic form, and we review and propose several adjustments to improve its behaviour, specifically in small samples. We use intensive Monte Carlo simulations to compare all considered adjustments and isolate the best combination for neuroimaging data. We also compare the SwE method to other popular methods and demonstrate its strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we analyse a highly unbalanced longitudinal dataset from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and demonstrate the flexibility of the SwE method to fit within- and between-subject effects in a single model. Software implementing this SwE method has been made freely available at http://warwick.ac.uk/tenichols/SwE. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationships between brain metabolism decrease in normal aging and changes in structural and functional connectivity
Chételat, Gael; Landeau, Brigitte; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2013), 76

Normal aging is characterized by brain glucose metabolism decline predominantly in the prefrontal cortex. The goal of the present study was to assess whether this change was associated with age-related ... [more ▼]

Normal aging is characterized by brain glucose metabolism decline predominantly in the prefrontal cortex. The goal of the present study was to assess whether this change was associated with age-related alteration of white matter (WM) structural integrity and/or functional connectivity. FDG-PET data from 40 young and 57 elderly healthy participants from two research centres (n=49/48 in Centre 1/2) were analyzed. WM volume from T1-weighted MRI (Centre 1), fractional anisotropy from diffusion-tensor imaging (Centre 2), and resting-state fMRI data (Centre 1) were also obtained. Group comparisons were performed within each imaging modality. Then, positive correlations were assessed, within the elderly, between metabolism in the most affected region and the other neuroimaging modalities. Metabolism decline in the elderly predominated in the left inferior frontal junction (LIFJ). LIFJ hypometabolism was significantly associated with macrostructural and microstructural WM disturbances in long association fronto-temporo-occipital fibers, while no relationship was found with functional connectivity. The findings offer new perspectives to understand normal aging processes and open avenues for future studies to explore causality between age-related metabolism and connectivity changes. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolic and structural connectivity within the default mode network relates to working memory performance in young healthy adults
Yakushev, Igor; Chételat, Gael; Fischer F.U. et al

in NeuroImage (2013), 79

Studies of functional connectivity suggest that the default mode network (DMN) might be relevant for cognitive functions. Here, we examined metabolic and structural connectivity between major DMN nodes ... [more ▼]

Studies of functional connectivity suggest that the default mode network (DMN) might be relevant for cognitive functions. Here, we examined metabolic and structural connectivity between major DMN nodes, the posterior cingulate (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), in relation to normal working memory (WM). DMN was captured using independent component analysis of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data from 35 young healthy adults (27.1±5.1 years). Metabolic connectivity, a correlation between FDG uptake in PCC and MPFC, was examined in groups of subjects with (relative to median) low (n=18) and high (n=17) performance on digit span backward test as an index of verbal WM. In addition, fiber tractography based on PCC and MPFC nodes as way points was performed in a subset of subjects. FDG uptake in the DMN nodes did not differ between high and low performers. However, significantly (p=0.01) lower metabolic connectivity was found in the group of low performers. Furthermore, as compared to high performers, low performers showed lower density of the left superior cingulate bundle. Verbal WM performance is related to metabolic and structural connectivity within the DMN in young healthy adults. Metabolic connectivity as quantified with FDG-PET might be a sensitive marker of the normal variability in some cognitive functions. [less ▲]

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See detailBinary classification of (1)(8)F-flutemetamol PET using machine learning: comparison with visual reads and structural MRI
Vandenberghe, R.; Nelissen, N.; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2013), 64

(18)F-flutemetamol is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for in vivo amyloid imaging. The ability to classify amyloid scans in a binary manner as 'normal' versus 'Alzheimer-like', is of high ... [more ▼]

(18)F-flutemetamol is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for in vivo amyloid imaging. The ability to classify amyloid scans in a binary manner as 'normal' versus 'Alzheimer-like', is of high clinical relevance. We evaluated whether a supervised machine learning technique, support vector machines (SVM), can replicate the assignments made by visual readers blind to the clinical diagnosis, which image components have highest diagnostic value according to SVM and how (18)F-flutemetamol-based classification using SVM relates to structural MRI-based classification using SVM within the same subjects. By means of SVM with a linear kernel, we analyzed (18)F-flutemetamol scans and volumetric MRI scans from 72 cases from the (18)F-flutemetamol phase 2 study (27 clinically probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), 20 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 25 controls). In a leave-one-out approach, we trained the (18)F-flutemetamol based classifier by means of the visual reads and tested whether the classifier was able to reproduce the assignment based on visual reads and which voxels had the highest feature weights. The (18)F-flutemetamol based classifier was able to replicate the assignments obtained by visual reads with 100% accuracy. The voxels with highest feature weights were in the striatum, precuneus, cingulate and middle frontal gyrus. Second, to determine concordance between the gray matter volume- and the (18)F-flutemetamol-based classification, we trained the classifier with the clinical diagnosis as gold standard. Overall sensitivity of the (18)F-flutemetamol- and the gray matter volume-based classifiers were identical (85.2%), albeit with discordant classification in three cases. Specificity of the (18)F-flutemetamol based classifier was 92% compared to 68% for MRI. In the MCI group, the (18)F-flutemetamol based classifier distinguished more reliably between converters and non-converters than the gray matter-based classifier. The visual read-based binary classification of (18)F-flutemetamol scans can be replicated using SVM. In this sample the specificity of (18)F-flutemetamol based SVM for distinguishing AD from controls is higher than that of gray matter volume-based SVM. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural Correlates of Performance Variabilty during Motor Sequence Acquisition
Albouy, Geneviève ULg; Sterpenich, V.; Vandewalle, Gilles ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2012), 60(1), 324-331

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See detailComa and consciousness: Paradigms (re)framed by neuroimaging.
Laureys, Steven ULg; Schiff, N.

in NeuroImage (2012)

The past 15years has provided an unprecedented collection of discoveries that bear upon our scientific understanding of recovery of consciousness in the human brain following severe brain damage ... [more ▼]

The past 15years has provided an unprecedented collection of discoveries that bear upon our scientific understanding of recovery of consciousness in the human brain following severe brain damage. Highlighted among these discoveries are unique demonstrations that patients with little or no behavioral evidence of conscious awareness may retain critical cognitive capacities and the first scientific demonstrations that some patients, with severely injured brains and very longstanding conditions of limited behavioral responsiveness, may nonetheless harbor latent capacities for significant recovery. Included among such capacities are particularly human functions of language and higher-level cognition that either spontaneously or through direct interventions may reemerge even at long time intervals or remain unrecognized. Collectively, these observations have reframed scientific inquiry and further led to important new insights into mechanisms underlying consciousness in the human brain. These studies support a model of consciousness as the emergent property of the collective behavior of widespread frontoparietal network connectivity modulated by specific forebrain circuit mechanisms. We here review these advances in measurement and the scientific and broader implications of this rapidly progressing field of research. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive reserve impacts on inter-individual variability in resting-state cerebral metabolism in normal aging
Bastin, Christine ULg; Yakushev, Igor; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2012), 63

There is a great deal of heterogeneity in the impact of aging on cognition and cerebral functioning. One potential factor contributing to individual differences among the elders is the cognitive reserve ... [more ▼]

There is a great deal of heterogeneity in the impact of aging on cognition and cerebral functioning. One potential factor contributing to individual differences among the elders is the cognitive reserve, which designates the partial protection from the deleterious effects of aging that lifetime experience provides. Neuroimaging studies examining task-related activation in elderly people suggested that cognitive reserve takes the form of more efficient use of brain networks and/or greater ability to recruit alternative networks to compensate for age-related cerebral changes. In this multi-centre study, we examined the relationships between cognitive reserve, as measured by education and verbal intelligence, and cerebral metabolism at rest (FDG-PET) in a sample of 74 healthy older participants. Higher degree of education and verbal intelligence was associated with less metabolic activity in the right posterior temporoparietal cortex and the left anterior intraparietal sulcus. Functional connectivity analyses of resting-state fMRI images in a subset of 41 participants indicated that these regions belong to the default mode network and the dorsal attention network respectively. Lower metabolism in the temporoparietal cortex was also associated with better memory abilities. The findings provide evidence for an inverse relationship between cognitive reserve and resting-state activity in key regions of two functional networks respectively involved in internal mentation and goal-directed attention. [less ▲]

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See detail"Relevance vector machine" consciousness classifier applied to cerebral metabolism of vegetative and locked-in patients.
Phillips, Christophe ULg; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg; Maquet, Pierre ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2011), 56(2), 797808

The vegetative state is a devastating condition where patients awaken from their coma (i.e., open their eyes) but fail to show any behavioural sign of conscious awareness. Locked-in syndrome patients also ... [more ▼]

The vegetative state is a devastating condition where patients awaken from their coma (i.e., open their eyes) but fail to show any behavioural sign of conscious awareness. Locked-in syndrome patients also awaken from their coma and are unable to show any motor response to command (except for small eye movements or blinks) but recover full conscious awareness of self and environment. Bedside evaluation of residual cognitive function in coma survivors often is difficult because motor responses may be very limited or inconsistent. We here aimed to disentangle vegetative from "locked-in" patients by an automatic procedure based on machine learning using fluorodeoxyglucose PET data obtained in 37 healthy controls and in 13 patients in a vegetative state. Next, the trained machine was tested on brain scans obtained in 8 patients with locked-in syndrome. We used a sparse probabilistic Bayesian learning framework called "relevance vector machine" (RVM) to classify the scans. The trained RVM classifier, applied on an input scan, returns a probability value (p-value) of being in one class or the other, here being "conscious" or not. Training on the control and vegetative state groups was assessed with a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure, leading to 100% classification accuracy. When applied on the locked-in patients, all scans were classified as "conscious" with a mean p-value of .95 (min .85). In conclusion, even with this relatively limited data set, we could train a classifier distinguishing between normal consciousness (i.e., wakeful conscious awareness) and the vegetative state (i.e., wakeful unawareness). Cross-validation also indicated that the clinical classification and the one predicted by the automatic RVM classifier were in accordance. Moreover, when applied on a third group of "locked-in" consciously aware patients, they all had a strong probability of being similar to the normal controls, as expected. Therefore, RVM classification of cerebral metabolic images obtained in coma survivors could become a useful tool for the automated PET-based diagnosis of altered states of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailDepression alters "top-down" visual attention: a dynamic causal modeling comparison between depressed and healthy subjects.
Desseilles, Martin ULg; Schwartz, Sophie; Dang Vu, Thien Thanh ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2011), 54(2), 1662-8

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we recently demonstrated that nonmedicated patients with a first episode of unipolar major depression (MDD) compared to matched controls exhibited an ... [more ▼]

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we recently demonstrated that nonmedicated patients with a first episode of unipolar major depression (MDD) compared to matched controls exhibited an abnormal neural filtering of irrelevant visual information (Desseilles et al., 2009). During scanning, subjects performed a visual attention task imposing two different levels of attentional load at fixation (low or high), while task-irrelevant colored stimuli were presented in the periphery. In the present study, we focused on the visuo-attentional system and used "Dynamic Causal Modeling" (DCM) on the same dataset to assess how attention influences a network of three dynamically-interconnected brain regions (visual areas V1 and V4, and intraparietal sulcus (P), differentially in MDD patients and healthy controls. Bayesian model selection (BMS) and model space partitioning (MSP) were used to determine the best model in each population. The best model for the controls revealed that the increase of parietal activity by high attention load was selectively associated with a negative modulation of P on V4, consistent with high attention reducing the processing of irrelevant colored peripheral stimuli. The best model accounting for the data from the MDD patients showed that both low and high attention levels exerted modulatory effects on P. The present results document abnormal effective connectivity across visuo-attentional networks in MDD, which likely contributes to deficient attentional filtering of information. [less ▲]

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See detailCOMT Val158Met polymorphism, verbalizing of emotion and activation of affective brain systems
Swart, M.; Bruggeman, R.; Laroi, Frank ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2011), 55

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See detailBrain functional integration decreases during propofol-induced loss of consciousness.
Schrouff, Jessica ULg; Perlbarg, Vincent; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2011), 57(1), 198-205

Consciousness has been related to the amount of integrated information that the brain is able to generate. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the loss of consciousness caused by propofol ... [more ▼]

Consciousness has been related to the amount of integrated information that the brain is able to generate. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the loss of consciousness caused by propofol anesthesia is associated with a significant reduction in the capacity of the brain to integrate information. To assess the functional structure of the whole brain, functional integration and partial correlations were computed from fMRI data acquired from 18 healthy volunteers during resting wakefulness and propofol-induced deep sedation. Total integration was significantly reduced from wakefulness to deep sedation in the whole brain as well as within and between its constituent networks (or systems). Integration was systematically reduced within each system (i.e., brain or networks), as well as between networks. However, the ventral attentional network maintained interactions with most other networks during deep sedation. Partial correlations further suggested that functional connectivity was particularly affected between parietal areas and frontal or temporal regions during deep sedation. Our findings suggest that the breakdown in brain integration is the neural correlate of the loss of consciousness induced by propofol. They stress the important role played by parietal and frontal areas in the generation of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of blue light on non-visual brain functions changes with age
Daneault*; Vandewalle*, Gilles ULg; Hébert, M et al

in NeuroImage (2011), 56(Suppl. 1),

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See detailOptimal design of multi-subject blocked fMRI experiments.
Maus, Bärbel ULg; van Breukelen, Gerard J P; Goebel, Rainer et al

in NeuroImage (2011), 56(3), 1338-1352

The design of a multi-subject fMRI experiment needs specification of the number of subjects and scanning time per subject. For example, for a blocked design with conditions A or B, fixed block length and ... [more ▼]

The design of a multi-subject fMRI experiment needs specification of the number of subjects and scanning time per subject. For example, for a blocked design with conditions A or B, fixed block length and block order ABN, where N denotes a null block, the optimal number of cycles of ABN and the optimal number of subjects have to be determined. This paper presents a method to determine the optimal number of subjects and optimal number of cycles for a blocked design based on the A-optimality criterion and a linear cost function by which the number of cycles and the number of subjects are restricted. Estimation of individual stimulus effects and estimation of contrasts between stimulus effects are both considered. The mixed-effects model is applied and analytical results for the A-optimal number of subjects and A-optimal number of cycles are obtained under the assumption of uncorrelated errors. For correlated errors with a first-order autoregressive (AR1) error structure, numerical results are presented. Our results show how the optimal number of cycles and subjects depend on the within- to between-subject variance ratio. Our method is a new approach to determine the optimal scanning time and optimal number of subjects for a multi-subject fMRI experiment. In contrast to previous results based on power analyses, the optimal number of cycles and subjects can be described analytically and costs are considered. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural networks involved in self-judgement in young and elderly adults
Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2010)

Recent studies have shown that both young and elderly subjects activate the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) when they make self-referential judgements. However, the VMPFC might interact with ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have shown that both young and elderly subjects activate the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) when they make self-referential judgements. However, the VMPFC might interact with different brain regions during self-referencing in the two groups. In this study, based on data from Ruby et al (2009), we have explored this issue using psychophysiological interaction analyses. Young and elderly participants had to judge adjectives describing personality traits in reference to the self versus a close friend or relative (the other), taking either a first-person or a third-person perspective. The physiological factor was the VMPFC activity observed in all participants during self judgement, and the psychological factor was the self versus other referential process. The main effect of first-person perspective in both groups revealed that the VMPFC was coactivated with the left parahippocampal gyrus and the precuneus for self versus other judgments. The main effect of age showed a stronger correlation between activity in the VMPFC and the lingual gyrus in young compared to elderly subjects. Finally, in the interaction, the VMPFC was specifically co-activated with the orbitofrontal gyrus and the precentral gyrus when elderly subjects took a first-person perspective for self judgements. No significant result was observed for the interaction in young subjects. These findings show that, although the VMPFC is engaged by both young and older adults when making self-referential judgements, this brain structure interacts differently with other brain regions as a function of age and perspective. These differences might reflect a tendency by older people to engage in more emotional/social processing than younger adults when making self-referential judgements with a first-person perspective [less ▲]

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See detailImproved shimming for fMRI specifically optimizing the local BOLD sensitivity
Balteau, Evelyne ULg; Hutton, Chloe; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

in NeuroImage (2010), 49

In functional MRI, magnetic field inhomogeneities due to air-tissue susceptibility differences may lead to severe signal dropouts and geometric distortions in echo-planar images. Therefore, the ... [more ▼]

In functional MRI, magnetic field inhomogeneities due to air-tissue susceptibility differences may lead to severe signal dropouts and geometric distortions in echo-planar images. Therefore, the inhomogeneities in the field are routinely minimized by shimming prior to imaging. However in fMRI, the Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) effect is the measure of interest, so the BOLD sensitivity (BS) should be optimized rather than the magnetic field homogeneity. The analytical expression for an estimate of the BOLD sensitivity has been recently developed, allowing for the computation of BOLD sensitivity maps from echo-planar images and field maps. This report describes a novel shimming procedure that optimizes the local BOLD sensitivity over a region of interest. The method is applied in vivo and compared to a standard global shimming procedure. A breath-holding experiment was carried out and demonstrated that the BS-based shimming significantly improved the detection of activation in a target region of interest, the medial orbitofrontal cortex. [less ▲]

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See detailSleep spindles and neural activity changes in the cortico-striatal system underlie motor sequence consolidation
Barakat, M; Carrier, J; Debas, K et al

in NeuroImage (2010), 51(Suppl. 1),

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See detailRobustness of optimal design of fMRI experiments with application of a genetic algorithm.
Maus, Bärbel ULg; van Breukelen, Gerard J P; Goebel, Rainer et al

in NeuroImage (2010), 49(3), 2433-2443

In this paper we apply the genetic algorithm developed by Kao et al. (2009) to find designs which are robust against misspecification of the error autocorrelation. Two common optimality criteria, the A ... [more ▼]

In this paper we apply the genetic algorithm developed by Kao et al. (2009) to find designs which are robust against misspecification of the error autocorrelation. Two common optimality criteria, the A-optimality criterion and the D-optimality criterion, based upon a general linear model are employed to obtain locally optimal designs for a given value of the autocorrelation. The maximin criterion is then used to obtain designs which are robust against misspecification of the autocorrelation. Furthermore, robustness depending on the choice of optimality criterion is evaluated. We show analytically and empirically that the A- and D-optimality criterion will result in different optimal designs, e.g. with different stimulus frequencies. Optimal stimulus frequency for the A-optimality criterion has been derived by Liu et al. (2004) whereas we derive here the optimal stimulus frequency for the D-optimality criterion. Conclusions about the robustness of an optimal design against misspecification of model parameters and choice of optimality criterion are drawn based upon our results. [less ▲]

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