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See detailApoptosis induction in human cancer cells by sungucine from Strychnos icaja root
Frederich, Michel ULg; Bentires-Ali, M.; Tits, Monique ULg et al

in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology (2003), 367(3), 260-265

Sungucine (SG) and isosungucine (ISG) are bisindole alkaloids characterized by a 5'-23 link between the two parts of the compounds, which are till now specific to Strychnos icaja. In this work, SG and ISG ... [more ▼]

Sungucine (SG) and isosungucine (ISG) are bisindole alkaloids characterized by a 5'-23 link between the two parts of the compounds, which are till now specific to Strychnos icaja. In this work, SG and ISG were submitted to the NCI's in vitro 60 human tumor cell line screen, where SG showed interesting selectivity (6X) against the tested leukemia cell lines. In HL60-treated cells, apoptosis was demonstrated by observation of apoptotic bodies formation, and phosphatidylserine exposition at cell surface. In HeLa-treated cells, the analysis of cellular cycle by flow cytometry showed G1 accumulation and a small sub-G1 peak that could be related to DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis. The eventual role of p53 was analyzed using wild-type HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Nevertheless, p53 and Bax expression were not modified in SG-treated cells. The cleavage of PARP by caspase-3 protease proved that apoptosis was also induced in this line. These results demonstrate that SG induces apoptosis, but also necrosis, in human cancer cell lines. [less ▲]

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See detailBisindole alkaloids from Strychnos guianensis are effective antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in cultured human TE671 cells
Wins, Pierre; Margineanu, Ilca; Penelle, Jacques et al

in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology (2003), 367(3), 253-259

Several mono- and bisindole quaternary alkaloids isolated from the stem bark of Strychnos guianensis have recently been shown to be effective blockers of neuromuscular transmission in mice. In this study ... [more ▼]

Several mono- and bisindole quaternary alkaloids isolated from the stem bark of Strychnos guianensis have recently been shown to be effective blockers of neuromuscular transmission in mice. In this study, we used a human clonal cell line (TE671) expressing muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The agonist carbamylcholine activated a receptor-mediated Rb-86(+) efflux and this activation was antagonized by the indole alkaloids, the most active being bisindole bisquaternary compounds. The most effective antagonist, guiachrysine, had an IC50 around 0.43 muM in the presence of 0.5 mM carbamylcholine, compared to 0.16 muM for d-tubocurarine, the most potent curarizing alkaloid. Guiaflavine and 5',6'-dehydroguiaflavine were slightly less effective. Monoindole compounds were 10 to 100 times less potent than bisindole alkaloids. Kinetic analysis showed that the inhibition of the carbamylcholine-dependent Rb-86(+) efflux by guiaflavine was of mixed competitive and uncompetitive type. The competitive component (K-I = 0.21 muM) is presumably due to binding at the acetylcholine site, while the uncompetitive component (K'(I) = 0.92 muM) may be due to open channel block. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of prodelphinidins isolated from Ribes nigrum on chondrocyte metabolism and COX activity
Garbacki, Nancy ULg; Angenot, Luc ULg; Bassleer, C. et al

in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology (2002), 365(6), 434-441

Articular diseases. such as osteoarthritis, is the clinical expression of the loss of cartilage function. COX inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of such pathologies for their beneficial effects ... [more ▼]

Articular diseases. such as osteoarthritis, is the clinical expression of the loss of cartilage function. COX inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of such pathologies for their beneficial effects on inflammation but often produce a negative activity on cartilage synthesis. In this study, we determined the effect of different prodelphinidins, the major compounds isolated from Ribes nigrum leaves, on the proteoglycans (PGs), type II collagen (coll. II) and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) production by differentiated human chondrocytes cultivated in long term (12 days) and in clusters as well as their inhibition potential on COX-1 and COX-2 in vitro. Gallocatechin trimer (GC-GC-GC) showed the higher stimulation of PGs and coll. II production (1 mug ml(-1)) and the synthesis of PGE(2) was significantly reduced by gallocatechin dimer (GC-GC), gallocatechin-epigallocatechin (GC-EGC) and GC-GC-GC at 10 and 100 mug ml(-1). The inhibition of PGE(2) synthesis was confirmed by the in vitro test on purified COX enzymes, showing the selectivity of prodelphinidins on COX-2. However, the prodelphinidins had no effects on COX activity in the whole blood assay. Our studies suggest that the prodelphinidins fractions from R. nigrum may be useful as an additive agent in the prevention of osteoarthritis. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibition of Croton Oil-Induced Oedema in Mice Ear Skin by Capsular Polysaccharides from Cyanobacteria
Garbacki, Nancy ULg; Gloaguen, Vincent; Damas, Jacques ULg et al

in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology (2000), 361(4), 460-4

The anti-inflammatory properties of hydrophilic extracts of the capsular polymers of twelve cyanobacterial strains belonging to the genera Phormidium and Nostoc from marine and terrestrial habitats were ... [more ▼]

The anti-inflammatory properties of hydrophilic extracts of the capsular polymers of twelve cyanobacterial strains belonging to the genera Phormidium and Nostoc from marine and terrestrial habitats were tested topically on croton oil-induced oedema in mice ear skin. The screening program identified several strains as producers of anti-inflammatory products (up to 56% inhibition of the oedema). The inhibition response was dose-dependent. The application of trichloroacetic acid-treated extracts reduced the oedema by about 60%. On the other hand, one of the strains enhanced the inflammatory response. Analysis of five of the extracts showed the presence of neutral sugars (from 34.3% to 47.1%, w/w), uronic acids (from 7.1% to 26.7%, w/w) and proteins (from 30.1% to 57.0%, w/w) in the crude polymer. Rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, galactose, galacturonic acid and glucuronic acid were detected as well as sulphate groups (from 9.6% to 21.5%, w/w of sugars). The main components found were glucose and mannose. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Inflammatory Reaction Induced by Formalin in the Rat Paw
Damas, Jacques ULg; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg

in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology (1999), 359(3), 220-7

The involvement of bradykinin and some other inflammatory mediators in formalin-induced oedema and plasma extravasation was examined. Formalin was injected in rat paws at two doses, 1.75% or 5%. The lower ... [more ▼]

The involvement of bradykinin and some other inflammatory mediators in formalin-induced oedema and plasma extravasation was examined. Formalin was injected in rat paws at two doses, 1.75% or 5%. The lower dose induced the development of an immediate oedema associated with a progressive accumulation of 125I-labelled albumin in the paws. These changes were suppressed by pretreatment with capsaicin or xylocaine. They were abolished by RP67580, a NK1 receptor antagonist, and increased by phosphoramidon or diprotin A. They were not affected by HOE140, a bradykinin B2 antagonist, captopril, methysergide, mepyramine, indomethacin, ketoprofen or L-N(G)-nitroarginine. The higher dose of formalin induced a swelling of the paws which took place in two phases associated with two periods of increase in vascular permeability. This oedema was reduced by pretreatment with capsaicin but not with xylocaine. It was reduced by RP67580 injected before or 30 min after formalin. It was inhibited by mepyramine, methysergide, indomethacin and NS-398, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. It was not modified by HOE140. Its development was similar in normal and kininogen-deficient rats. We concluded that formalin administered at a low dose induces an oedema which mainly results from a neurogenic inflammation mediated by neuropeptides such as substance P. At higher doses, formalin induces an oedema which mainly depends on the release of substance P, prostanoids, 5-hydroxytryptamine and histamine. Bradykinin plays no significant role in the vascular changes whereas this peptide has been reported to participate in the stimulation of nociceptive afferent neurons. This discrepancy could be explained by a difference in the threshold of stimulation of the nociceptive neurons and that of the cells of the vascular walls, or by a formation of kinins in close contact of the neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of mechanisms involved in the acute airway toxicity induced by parathion.
Segura, P.; Chavez, J.; Montano, L. M. et al

in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology (1999), 360(6), 699-710

Organophosphates are still widely used worldwide and cause thousands of intoxications every year. In this work we investigated the mechanisms of parathion (Pth) airway toxicity, using biochemical and ... [more ▼]

Organophosphates are still widely used worldwide and cause thousands of intoxications every year. In this work we investigated the mechanisms of parathion (Pth) airway toxicity, using biochemical and functional approaches. A plethysmographic technique for unrestrained guinea pigs was used to analyze Pth-induced modifications of airway mechanics and responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh: 0.1-3.2 mg/ml, 2-min inhalation each dose). The isolated perfused rabbit lung preparation was used to study the acute effects of Pth on airway responsiveness to ACh (10(-8)-10(-3) M), histamine (10(-8)-10(-3) M) and substance P (10(-10)-10(-6) M), pulmonary acetylcholinesterase inhibition and cytochrome P450 (P450) activity, and their modifications with previous administration of Pth (1 mg/kg s.c. daily, 7 days). We found that: (1) In guinea pigs Pth (3.2-17 mg/kg i.p.) produced a dose-dependent increase in a lung resistance index (iRL), which was greatly reverted (approximately 50%) by salbutamol (2 mg/ml, 2-min inhalation, or 10 microg/kg i.p.). This salbutamol effect was transient (5-10 min), suggesting that this bronchodilator triggered additional obstructive mechanisms. (2) Pth increased the water content in lung parenchyma samples, but not in trachea or bronchi, and augmented the respiratory secretions measured through monosaccharide content in bronchoalveolar lavage. (3) The increase in iRL was greater in female animals, probably due to a higher P450 basal activity, and completely blocked by pharmacological inhibition of P450 with piperonyl butoxide (500 mg/kg i.p.). (4) In male guinea pigs a subclinical dose of Pth (10 mg/kg i.p.) induced airway hyperresponsiveness to ACh. In isolated perfused rabbit lung Pth (10(-6) M) produced airway hyperresponsiveness to ACh and histamine, the latter prevented by atropine (10(-5) M). (5) Repetitive exposure to subclinical doses (1 mg/kg s.c.) of Pth during 1 week caused approximately 80% inhibition of P450 activity in rabbits, which was not enough, however, to prevent the functional manifestation of Pth toxicity in the airways. [less ▲]

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See detailInvolvement of 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Bradykinin in the Hyperalgesia Induced in Rats by Collagenase from Clostridium Histolyticum
Damas, Jacques ULg; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg; Bourdon, V.

in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology (1997), 355(5), 566-70

The involvement of bradykinin, 5-hydroxytryptamine, substance P and prostanoids in the hyperalgesia elicited by collagenase in rat paw was investigated. Collagenase (100 micrograms) induced a slight ... [more ▼]

The involvement of bradykinin, 5-hydroxytryptamine, substance P and prostanoids in the hyperalgesia elicited by collagenase in rat paw was investigated. Collagenase (100 micrograms) induced a slight hyperalgesia in kininogen deficient rats in comparison with the behavioural response obtained in normal rats. Lisinopril (10(-5) M), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, increased the duration of the hyperalgesia elicited in normal rats. Ondansetron (0.5 to 5 mumol/kg), a 5-HT3 antagonist, suppressed the hyperalgesia as did methysergide (1.1 to 11 mumol/kg), a mixed 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist. However, the hyperalgesia was not modified by RP 67580 (1.8 to 18 mumol/kg), a NK1 receptor antagonist, and was only slightly delayed by indomethacin (2 mg/kg), a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor. The oedema-promoting effect of 5-HT (6 nmol) was inhibited by methysergide but not by ondansetron. The swelling induced by collagenase in rat paw was reduced by methysergide but not by ondansetron. We conclude that the behavioural response induced by collagenase depends on an interactions between bradykinin and 5-HT. Prostanoids play a minor role in the beginning of the reaction whereas substance P is not significantly involved in this hyperalgesia. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of Several Peptidase Inhibitors on the Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Substance P, Capsaicin and Collagenase
Damas, Jacques ULg; Bourdon, V.; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg et al

in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology (1996), 354(5), 662-9

Injection of substance P (SP) in a rat hindpaw induced extravasation of 125I-labelled albumin in both hindpaws and salivation. Intravenous injection of SP dose-dependently increased vascular permeability ... [more ▼]

Injection of substance P (SP) in a rat hindpaw induced extravasation of 125I-labelled albumin in both hindpaws and salivation. Intravenous injection of SP dose-dependently increased vascular permeability. This latter effect was increased in rat paws by captopril, an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), administered locally in combination with diprotin A, an inhibitor of an dipeptidyl(amino)peptidase IV (DAP IV) or phosphoramidon, an inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase (NEP). The increase in permeability induced by SP was inhibited by RP 67580, a NK-1-receptor antagonist. Intravenous injection of capsaicin induced labelled albumin extravasation in rat paws. This effect was increased by combination of captopril with diprotin A or phosphoramidon, but not by captopril associated with amastatin, an inhibitor of aminopeptidase M (AmM). It was suppressed by RP 67580. Injection of collagenase in rat paws triggered a swelling and a local plasma exudation. These responses were reduced by RP 67580 but not by RP 68651, its inactive enantiomer. They were increased by combination of captopril with diprotin A or phosphoramidon in normal rats. The potentiating effects of captopril and diprotin A were suppressed by RP 67580 in normal rats but did not develop in kininogen-deficient rats. The oedema induced by collagenase was also increased by lisinopril, another ACE inhibitor, administered locally in combination with apstatin, an inhibitor of aminopeptidase P (AmP). In rats pretreated by methysergide, collagenase-induced oedema was reduced and can be increased by captopril, by lisinopril, administered alone or by lisinopril associated with apstatin. It is concluded that SP is mainly inactivated in rat paws by ACE, DAP IV and NEP. In collagenase-induced oedema, a low amount of SP would be released from afferent nerve terminals by bradykinin formed in low amounts. Bradykinin is inactivated in rat paws by ACE and AmP. In collagenase-oedema, the pro-inflammatory effects of bradykinin are concealed by the effects of the other mediators. [less ▲]

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See detailPotentiation of the Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Bradykinin by Inhibition of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme and Aminopeptidase P in Rat Paws
Damas, Jacques ULg; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg; Simmons, W. H.

in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology (1996), 354(5), 670-6

The influence of some peptidase inhibitors on oedema and plasma extravasation induced by bradykinin and carrageenan in rat paw was evaluate. Bradykinin-induced oedema in normal rats was increased by o ... [more ▼]

The influence of some peptidase inhibitors on oedema and plasma extravasation induced by bradykinin and carrageenan in rat paw was evaluate. Bradykinin-induced oedema in normal rats was increased by o-phenanthroline (3.10(-2) M), by captopril (10(-6) M to 10(-4) M), by lisinopril (10(-6) M to 10(-4), or by lisinopril (10(-5) M) in combination with apstatin (8.10(-5) M or 1.4 10(-4) M). It was not modified by phosphoramidon (10(-6) M to 10(-5) M) and by diprotin A (10(-3) M). It was increased by mergepta at high concentrations (2.10(-4) M). Mergepta did not increase the potentiating effect of captopril. Carrageenan-oedema in normal rats was increased by captopril (10(-5) M), lisinopril (10(-5) M) and apstatin (1.4 10(-4) M. It was not modified by mergepta (10(-4) M), phosphoramidon (10 (-5) M) and diprotin A (109-3) M). Des-Arg1-bradykinin and Des-Arg9-bradykinin have low oedema-promoting effects. Captopril (10(-5) M) increased the effects of bradykinin but not those of carrageenan in kininogen-deficit Brown Norway rats. Angiotensin-converting enzyme and aminopeptidase P appear to be main kinin-inactivating enzymes in rat paws. Carboxypeptidase N, neutral endopeptidase 24.11 and dipeptidyl(amino)peptidase IV do not play a significant role in this inactivation. [less ▲]

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