Advanced search

Browse ORBi by ORBi project The Open Access movement
ORBi is a project of

 References of "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society"      in Complete repository Arts & humanities   Archaeology   Art & art history   Classical & oriental studies   History   Languages & linguistics   Literature   Performing arts   Philosophy & ethics   Religion & theology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Business & economic sciences   Accounting & auditing   Production, distribution & supply chain management   Finance   General management & organizational theory   Human resources management   Management information systems   Marketing   Strategy & innovation   Quantitative methods in economics & management   General economics & history of economic thought   International economics   Macroeconomics & monetary economics   Microeconomics   Economic systems & public economics   Social economics   Special economic topics (health, labor, transportation…)   Multidisciplinary, general & others Engineering, computing & technology   Aerospace & aeronautics engineering   Architecture   Chemical engineering   Civil engineering   Computer science   Electrical & electronics engineering   Energy   Geological, petroleum & mining engineering   Materials science & engineering   Mechanical engineering   Multidisciplinary, general & others Human health sciences   Alternative medicine   Anesthesia & intensive care   Cardiovascular & respiratory systems   Dentistry & oral medicine   Dermatology   Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition   Forensic medicine   Gastroenterology & hepatology   General & internal medicine   Geriatrics   Hematology   Immunology & infectious disease   Laboratory medicine & medical technology   Neurology   Oncology   Ophthalmology   Orthopedics, rehabilitation & sports medicine   Otolaryngology   Pediatrics   Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology   Psychiatry   Public health, health care sciences & services   Radiology, nuclear medicine & imaging   Reproductive medicine (gynecology, andrology, obstetrics)   Rheumatology   Surgery   Urology & nephrology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Law, criminology & political science   Civil law   Criminal law & procedure   Criminology   Economic & commercial law   European & international law   Judicial law   Metalaw, Roman law, history of law & comparative law   Political science, public administration & international relations   Public law   Social law   Tax law   Multidisciplinary, general & others Life sciences   Agriculture & agronomy   Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology   Animal production & animal husbandry   Aquatic sciences & oceanology   Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology   Biotechnology   Entomology & pest control   Environmental sciences & ecology   Food science   Genetics & genetic processes   Microbiology   Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)   Veterinary medicine & animal health   Zoology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences   Chemistry   Earth sciences & physical geography   Mathematics   Physics   Space science, astronomy & astrophysics   Multidisciplinary, general & others Social & behavioral sciences, psychology   Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology   Anthropology   Communication & mass media   Education & instruction   Human geography & demography   Library & information sciences   Neurosciences & behavior   Regional & inter-regional studies   Social work & social policy   Sociology & social sciences   Social, industrial & organizational psychology   Theoretical & cognitive psychology   Treatment & clinical psychology   Multidisciplinary, general & others     Showing results 1 to 20 of 216 1 2 3 4 5 6     H0LiCOW - I. H0 Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring: program overviewSuyu, S. H.; Bonvin, V.; Courbin, F. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 468Strong gravitational lens systems with time delays between the multiple images allow measurements of time-delay distances, which are primarily sensitive to the Hubble constant that is key to probing dark ... [more ▼]Strong gravitational lens systems with time delays between the multiple images allow measurements of time-delay distances, which are primarily sensitive to the Hubble constant that is key to probing dark energy, neutrino physics and the spatial curvature of the Universe, as well as discovering new physics. We present H0LiCOW (H[SUB]0[/SUB] Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring), a program that aims to measure H[SUB]0[/SUB] with <3.5 per cent uncertainty from five lens systems (B1608+656, RXJ1131-1231, HE 0435-1223, WFI2033-4723 and HE 1104-1805). We have been acquiring (1) time delays through COSMOGRAIL and Very Large Array monitoring, (2) high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging for the lens mass modelling, (3) wide-field imaging and spectroscopy to characterize the lens environment and (4) moderate-resolution spectroscopy to obtain the stellar velocity dispersion of the lenses for mass modelling. In cosmological models with one-parameter extension to flat Λ cold dark matter, we expect to measure H[SUB]0[/SUB] to <3.5 per cent in most models, spatial curvature Ω[SUB]k[/SUB] to 0.004, w to 0.14 and the effective number of neutrino species to 0.2 (1σ uncertainties) when combined with current cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. These are, respectively, a factor of ˜15, ˜2 and ˜1.5 tighter than CMB alone. Our data set will further enable us to study the stellar initial mass function of the lens galaxies, and the co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. This program will provide a foundation for extracting cosmological distances from the hundreds of time-delay lenses that are expected to be discovered in current and future surveys. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg) Probing the atmosphere of a sub-Jovian planet orbiting a cool dwarfSedaghati, Elyar; Boffin, Henri M. J.; Delrez, Laetitia et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 468We derive the 0.01 $\mu$m binned transmission spectrum, between 0.74 and 1.0 $\mu$m, of WASP-80b from low resolution spectra obtained with the FORS2 instrument attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope. The ... [more ▼]We derive the 0.01 $\mu$m binned transmission spectrum, between 0.74 and 1.0 $\mu$m, of WASP-80b from low resolution spectra obtained with the FORS2 instrument attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope. The combination of the fact that WASP-80 is an active star, together with instrumental and telluric factors, introduces correlated noise in the observed transit light curves, which we treat quantitatively using Gaussian Processes. Comparison of our results together with those from previous studies, to theoretically calculated models reveals an equilibrium temperature in agreement with the previously measured value of 825K, and a sub-solar metallicity, as well as an atmosphere depleted of molecular species with absorption bands in the IR ($\gg 5\sigma$). Our transmission spectrum alone shows evidence for additional absorption from the potassium core and wing, whereby its presence is detected from analysis of narrow 0.003 $\mu$m bin light curves ($\gg 5\sigma$). Further observations with visible and near-UV filters will be required to expand this spectrum and provide more in-depth knowledge of the atmosphere. These detections are only made possible through an instrument-dependent baseline model and a careful analysis of systematics in the data. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg) H0LiCOW - III. Quantifying the effect of mass along the line of sight to the gravitational lens HE 0435-1223 through weighted galaxy counts★Rusu, Cristian E.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Sluse, Dominique et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 467Based on spectroscopy and multiband wide-field observations of the gravitationally lensed quasar HE 0435-1223, we determine the probability distribution function of the external convergence κ[SUB]ext[/SUB ... [more ▼]Based on spectroscopy and multiband wide-field observations of the gravitationally lensed quasar HE 0435-1223, we determine the probability distribution function of the external convergence κ[SUB]ext[/SUB] for this system. We measure the under/overdensity of the line of sight towards the lens system and compare it to the average line of sight throughout the Universe, determined by using the CFHTLenS (The Canada France Hawaii Lensing Survey) as a control field. Aiming to constrain κ[SUB]ext[/SUB] as tightly as possible, we determine under/overdensities using various combinations of relevant informative weighting schemes for the galaxy counts, such as projected distance to the lens, redshift and stellar mass. We then convert the measured under/overdensities into a κ[SUB]ext[/SUB] distribution, using ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation. We explore several limiting magnitudes and apertures, and account for systematic and statistical uncertainties relevant to the quality of the observational data, which we further test through simulations. Our most robust estimate of κ[SUB]ext[/SUB] has a median value κ^med_ext = 0.004 and a standard deviation σ[SUB]κ[/SUB] = 0.025. The measured σ[SUB]κ[/SUB] corresponds to 2.5 per cent relative uncertainty on the time delay distance, and hence the Hubble constant H[SUB]0[/SUB] inferred from this system. The median κ^med_ext value varies by ˜0.005 with the adopted aperture radius, limiting magnitude and weighting scheme, as long as the latter incorporates galaxy number counts, the projected distance to the main lens and a prior on the external shear obtained from mass modelling. This corresponds to just ˜0.5 per cent systematic impact on H[SUB]0[/SUB]. The availability of a well-constrained κ[SUB]ext[/SUB] makes HE 0435-1223 a valuable system for measuring cosmological parameters using strong gravitational lens time delays. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg) Period–luminosity relations of fast-rotating B-type stars in the young open cluster NGC 3766Saio, H.; Ekström, S.; Mowlavi, N. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 467(4), 3864-3873We study the pulsational properties of rapidly rotating main-sequence B-type stars using linear non-adiabatic analysis of non-radial low-frequency modes taking into account the effect of rotation. We ... [more ▼]We study the pulsational properties of rapidly rotating main-sequence B-type stars using linear non-adiabatic analysis of non-radial low-frequency modes taking into account the effect of rotation. We compare the properties of prograde sectoral g and retrograde r modes excited by the κ mechanism at the Fe opacity peak with the newly discovered period–luminosity relation that is obeyed by a group of fast-rotating B-type stars in the young open cluster NGC 3766. The observed relation consists of two sequences in the period versus magnitude diagram, at periods shorter than 0.5 d. We find that this property is consistent with similar period–luminosity relations predicted for excited sectoral prograde g modes of azimuthal orders m = −1 and −2 in fast-rotating stars along an isochrone. We further show that some of the rapidly rotating stars that have photometric variability with periods longer than a day may be caused by r-mode pulsation predicted to be excited in these stars. One fast-rotating star, in particular, shows both short and long periods that can be explained by the simultaneous excitation of g- and r-mode pulsations in models of fast-rotating stars. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (3 ULg) How unique is Plaskett's star? A search for organized magnetic fields in short period, interacting or post-interaction massive binary systems★Nazé, Yaël ; Neiner, Coralie; Grunhut, Jason et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 467Amongst O-type stars with detected magnetic fields, the fast rotator in the close binary called Plaskett's star shows a variety of unusual properties. Since strong binary interactions are believed to have ... [more ▼]Amongst O-type stars with detected magnetic fields, the fast rotator in the close binary called Plaskett's star shows a variety of unusual properties. Since strong binary interactions are believed to have occurred in this system, one may wonder about their potential role in generating magnetic fields. Stokes V spectra collected with the low-resolution FORS2 and high-resolution ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimeters were therefore used to search for magnetic fields in 15 interacting or post-interaction massive binaries. No magnetic field was detected in any of them, with 0 G always being within 2σ of the derived values. For 17 out of 25 stars in the systems observed at high resolution, the 90 per cent upper limit on the individual dipolar fields is below the dipolar field strength of Plaskett's secondary; a similar result is found for five out of six systems observed at low resolution. If our sample is considered to form a group of stars sharing similar magnetic properties, a global statistical analysis results in a stringent upper limit of ∼200 G on the dipolar field strength. Moreover, the magnetic incidence rate in the full sample of interacting or post-interaction systems (our targets + Plaskett's star) is compatible with that measured from large surveys, showing that they are not significantly different from the general O-star population. These results suggest that binary interactions play no systematic role in the magnetism of such massive systems. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg) Peculiar architectures for the WASP-53 and WASP-81 planet-hosting systems★Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Neveu-VanMalle, Marion; Lendl, Monika et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 467We report the detection of two new systems containing transiting planets. Both were identified by WASP as worthy transiting planet candidates. Radial velocity observations quickly verified that the ... [more ▼]We report the detection of two new systems containing transiting planets. Both were identified by WASP as worthy transiting planet candidates. Radial velocity observations quickly verified that the photometric signals were indeed produced by two transiting hot Jupiters. Our observations also show the presence of additional Doppler signals. In addition to short-period hot Jupiters, we find that the WASP-53 and WASP-81 systems also host brown dwarfs, on fairly eccentric orbits with semimajor axes of a few astronomical units. WASP-53c is over 16 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB]sin i[SUB]c[/SUB] and WASP-81c is 57 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB]sin i[SUB]c[/SUB]. The presence of these tight, massive companions restricts theories of how the inner planets were assembled. We propose two alternative interpretations: the formation of the hot Jupiters within the snow line or the late dynamical arrival of the brown dwarfs after disc dispersal. We also attempted to measure the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for both hot Jupiters. In the case of WASP-81b, we fail to detect a signal. For WASP-53b, we find that the planet is aligned with respect to the stellar spin axis. In addition we explore the prospect of transit-timing variations, and of using Gaia's astrometry to measure the true masses of both brown dwarfs and also their relative inclination with respect to the inner transiting hot Jupiters. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULg) WASP-South transiting exoplanets: WASP-130b, WASP-131b, WASP-132b, WASP-139b, WASP-140b, WASP-141b & WASP-142bHellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465We describe seven new exoplanets transiting stars of V = 10.1 to 12.4. WASP-130b is a "warm Jupiter" having an orbital period of 11.6 d, the longest yet found by WASP. It transits a V = 11.1, G6 star with ... [more ▼]We describe seven new exoplanets transiting stars of V = 10.1 to 12.4. WASP-130b is a "warm Jupiter" having an orbital period of 11.6 d, the longest yet found by WASP. It transits a V = 11.1, G6 star with [Fe/H] = +0.26. Warm Jupiters tend to have smaller radii than hot Jupiters, and WASP-130b is in line with this trend (1.23 Mjup; 0.89 Rjup). WASP-131b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.27 Mjup; 1.22 Rjup). Its large scale height coupled with the V = 10.1 brightness of its host star make the planet a good target for atmospheric characterisation. WASP-132b is among the least irradiated and coolest of WASP planets, being in a 7.1-d orbit around a K4 star. It has a low mass and a modest radius (0.41 Mjup; 0.87 Rjup). The V = 12.4, [Fe/H] = +0.22 star shows a possible rotational modulation at 33 d. WASP-139b is the lowest-mass planet yet found by WASP, at 0.12 Mjup and 0.80 Rjup. It is a "super-Neptune" akin to HATS-7b and HATS-8b. It orbits a V = 12.4, [Fe/H] = +0.20, K0 star. The star appears to be anomalously dense, akin to HAT-P-11. WASP-140b is a 2.4-Mjup planet in a 2.2-d orbit that is both eccentric (e = 0.047) and with a grazing transit (b = 0.93) The timescale for tidal circularisation is likely to be the lowest of all known eccentric hot Jupiters. The planet's radius is large (1.4 Rjup), but uncertain owing to the grazing transit. The host star is a V = 11.1, [Fe/H] = +0.12, K0 dwarf showing a prominent 10.4-d rotational modulation. The dynamics of this system are worthy of further investigation. WASP-141b is a typical hot Jupiter, being a 2.7 Mjup, 1.2 Rjup planet in a 3.3-d orbit around a V = 12.4, [Fe/H] = +0.29, F9 star. WASP-142b is a typical bloated hot Jupiter (0.84 Mjup, 1.53 Rjup) in a 2.1-d orbit around a V = 12.3, [Fe/H] = +0.26, F8 star. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 130 (6 ULg) H0LiCOW. VI. Testing the fidelity of lensed quasar host galaxy reconstructionDing, Xuheng; Liao, Kai; Treu, Tommaso et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465The empirical correlation between the mass of a supermassive black hole (M_BH) and its host galaxy properties is widely considered to be an evidence of their co-evolution. A powerful way to test the co ... [more ▼]The empirical correlation between the mass of a supermassive black hole (M_BH) and its host galaxy properties is widely considered to be an evidence of their co-evolution. A powerful way to test the co-evolution scenario and learn about the feedback processes linking galaxies and nuclear activity is to measure these correlations as a function of redshift. Unfortunately, currently M_BH can only be estimated in active galaxies at cosmological distances. At these distances, bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can outshine the host galaxy, making it extremely difficult to measure the host's luminosity. Strongly lensed AGNs provide in principle a great opportunity to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the host galaxy luminosity measurements as the host galaxy is magnified and more easily separated from the point source, provided the lens model is sufficiently accurate. In order to measure the M_BH-L correlation with strong lensing, it is necessary to ensure that the lens modelling is accurate, and that the host galaxy luminosity can be recovered to at least a precision and accuracy better than that of the typical M_BH measurement. We carry out extensive and realistic simulations of deep Hubble Space Telescope observations of lensed AGNs obtained by our collaboration. We show that the host galaxy luminosity can be recovered with better accuracy and precision than the typical uncertainty in M_BH(˜0.5 dex) for hosts as faint as 2-4 mag dimmer than the AGN itself. Our simulations will be used to estimate bias and uncertainties in the actual measurements to be presented in a future paper. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (0 ULg) H0LiCOW - V. New COSMOGRAIL time delays of HE 0435-1223: H0 to 3.8 per cent precision from strong lensing in a flat ΛCDM modelBonvin, V.; Courbin, F.; Suyu, S. H. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465We present a new measurement of the Hubble Constant H[SUB]0[/SUB] and other cosmological parameters based on the joint analysis of three multiply imaged quasar systems with measured gravitational time ... [more ▼]We present a new measurement of the Hubble Constant H[SUB]0[/SUB] and other cosmological parameters based on the joint analysis of three multiply imaged quasar systems with measured gravitational time delays. First, we measure the time delay of HE 0435-1223 from 13-yr light curves obtained as part of the COSMOGRAIL project. Companion papers detail the modelling of the main deflectors and line-of-sight effects, and how these data are combined to determine the time-delay distance of HE 0435-1223. Crucially, the measurements are carried out blindly with respect to cosmological parameters in order to avoid confirmation bias. We then combine the time-delay distance of HE 0435-1223 with previous measurements from systems B1608+656 and RXJ1131-1231 to create a Time Delay Strong Lensing probe (TDSL). In flat Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) with free matter and energy density, we find H[SUB]0[/SUB] =71.9^{+2.4}_{-3.0} {km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}} and Ω _{Λ }=0.62^{+0.24}_{-0.35}. This measurement is completely independent of, and in agreement with, the local distance ladder measurements of H[SUB]0[/SUB]. We explore more general cosmological models combining TDSL with other probes, illustrating its power to break degeneracies inherent to other methods. The joint constraints from TDSL and Planck are H[SUB]0[/SUB] = 69.2_{-2.2}^{+1.4} {km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}}, Ω _{Λ }=0.70_{-0.01}^{+0.01} and Ω _k=0.003_{-0.006}^{+0.004} in open ΛCDM and H[SUB]0[/SUB] =79.0_{-4.2}^{+4.4} {km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}}, Ω _de=0.77_{-0.03}^{+0.02} and w=-1.38_{-0.16}^{+0.14} in flat wCDM. In combination with Planck and baryon acoustic oscillation data, when relaxing the constraints on the numbers of relativistic species we find N[SUB]eff[/SUB] = 3.34_{-0.21}^{+0.21} in N[SUB]eff[/SUB]ΛCDM and when relaxing the total mass of neutrinos we find Σm[SUB]ν[/SUB] ≤ 0.182 eV in m[SUB]ν[/SUB]ΛCDM. Finally, in an open wCDM in combination with Planck and cosmic microwave background lensing, we find H[SUB]0[/SUB] =77.9_{-4.2}^{+5.0} {km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}}, Ω _de=0.77_{-0.03}^{+0.03}, Ω _k=-0.003_{-0.004}^{+0.004} and w=-1.37_{-0.23}^{+0.18}. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) H0LiCOW - IV. Lens mass model of HE 0435-1223 and blind measurement of its time-delay distance for cosmologyWong, Kenneth C.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Auger, Matthew W. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465Strong gravitational lenses with measured time delays between the multiple images allow a direct measurement of the time-delay distance to the lens, and thus a measure of cosmological parameters ... [more ▼]Strong gravitational lenses with measured time delays between the multiple images allow a direct measurement of the time-delay distance to the lens, and thus a measure of cosmological parameters, particularly the Hubble constant, H[SUB]0[/SUB]. We present a blind lens model analysis of the quadruply imaged quasar lens HE 0435-1223 using deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging, updated time-delay measurements from the COSmological MOnitoring of GRAvItational Lenses (COSMOGRAIL), a measurement of the velocity dispersion of the lens galaxy based on Keck data, and a characterization of the mass distribution along the line of sight. HE 0435-1223 is the third lens analysed as a part of the H[SUB]0[/SUB] Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring (H0LiCOW) project. We account for various sources of systematic uncertainty, including the detailed treatment of nearby perturbers, the parametrization of the galaxy light and mass profile, and the regions used for lens modelling. We constrain the effective time-delay distance to be D_{Δ t}= 2612_{-191}^{+208} Mpc, a precision of 7.6 per cent. From HE 0435-1223 alone, we infer a Hubble constant of H[SUB]0[/SUB] = 73.1_{-6.0}^{+5.7} km s^{-1 Mpc^{-1}} assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology. The cosmographic inference based on the three lenses analysed by H0LiCOW to date is presented in a companion paper (H0LiCOW Paper V). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg) A new asteroseismic diagnostic for internal rotation in γ Doradus starsOuazzani, Rhita-Maria; Salmon, Sébastien ; Antoci, V. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465With four years of nearly-continuous photometry from Kepler, we are finally in a good position to apply asteroseismology to $\gamma$ Doradus stars. In particular several analyses have demonstrated the ... [more ▼]With four years of nearly-continuous photometry from Kepler, we are finally in a good position to apply asteroseismology to $\gamma$ Doradus stars. In particular several analyses have demonstrated the possibility to detect non-uniform period spacings, which have been predicted to be directly related to rotation. In the present work, we define a new seismic diagnostic for rotation in $\gamma$ Doradus stars that are too rapidly rotating to present rotational splittings. Based on the non uniformity of their period spacings, we define the observable $\Sigma$ as the slope of the period spacing when plotted as a function of period. We provide a one-to-one relation between this observable $\Sigma$ and the internal rotation, which applies widely in the instability strip of $\gamma$ Doradus stars. We apply the diagnostic to a handful of stars observed by Kepler. Thanks to g-modes in $\gamma$ Doradus stars, we are now able to determine the internal rotation of stars on the lower main sequence, which is still not possible for Sun-like stars. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (4 ULg) Strong XUV irradiation of the Earth-sized exoplanets orbiting the ultracool dwarf TRAPPIST-1Wheatley, Peter J.; Louden, Tom; Bourrier, Vincent et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465We present an XMM-Newton X-ray observation of TRAPPIST-1, which is an ultracool dwarf star recently discovered to host three transiting and temperate Earth-sized planets. We find the star is a relatively ... [more ▼]We present an XMM-Newton X-ray observation of TRAPPIST-1, which is an ultracool dwarf star recently discovered to host three transiting and temperate Earth-sized planets. We find the star is a relatively strong and variable coronal X-ray source with an X-ray luminosity similar to that of the quiet Sun, despite its much lower bolometric luminosity. We find L_x/L_bol=2-4x10^-4, with the total XUV emission in the range L_xuv/L_bol=6-9x10^-4. Using a simple energy-limited model we show that the relatively close-in Earth-sized planets, which span the classical habitable zone of the star, are subject to sufficient X-ray and EUV irradiation to significantly alter their primary and perhaps secondary atmospheres. Understanding whether this high-energy irradiation makes the planets more or less habitable is a complex question, but our measured fluxes will be an important input to the necessary models of atmospheric evolution. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 69 (1 ULg) Water loss from terrestrial planets orbiting ultracool dwarfs: implications for the planets of TRAPPIST-1Bolmont, E.; Selsis, F.; Owen, J. E. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 464Ultracool dwarfs (UCD; $T_{\rm eff}<\sim3000~$K) cool to settle on the main sequence after $\sim$1 Gyr. For brown dwarfs, this cooling never stops. Their habitable zone (HZ) thus sweeps inward at least ... [more ▼]Ultracool dwarfs (UCD; $T_{\rm eff}<\sim3000~$K) cool to settle on the main sequence after $\sim$1 Gyr. For brown dwarfs, this cooling never stops. Their habitable zone (HZ) thus sweeps inward at least during the first Gyr of their lives. Assuming they possess water, planets found in the HZ of UCDs have experienced a runaway greenhouse phase too hot for liquid water prior to entering the HZ. It has been proposed that such planets are desiccated by this hot early phase and enter the HZ as dry worlds. Here we model the water loss during this pre-HZ hot phase taking into account recent upper limits on the XUV emission of UCDs and using 1D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. We address the whole range of UCDs but also focus on the planets recently found around the $0.08~M_\odot$ dwarf TRAPPIST-1. Despite assumptions maximizing the FUV-photolysis of water and the XUV-driven escape of hydrogen, we find that planets can retain significant amounts of water in the HZ of UCDs, with a sweet spot in the $0.04$-$0.06~M_\odot$ range. We also studied the TRAPPIST-1 system using observed constraints on the XUV-flux. We find that TRAPPIST-1b and c may have lost as much as 15 Earth Oceans and planet d -- which might be inside the HZ -- may have lost less than 1 Earth Ocean. Depending on their initial water contents, they could have enough water to remain habitable. TRAPPIST-1 planets are key targets for atmospheric characterization and could provide strong constraints on the water erosion around UCDs. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (0 ULg) Rossiter-McLaughlin models and their effect on estimates of stellar rotation, illustrated using six WASP systemsBrown, D. J. A.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Doyle, A. P. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 464We present new measurements of the projected spin--orbit angle $\lambda$ for six WASP hot Jupiters, four of which are new to the literature (WASP-61, -62, -76, and -78), and two of which are new analyses ... [more ▼]We present new measurements of the projected spin--orbit angle $\lambda$ for six WASP hot Jupiters, four of which are new to the literature (WASP-61, -62, -76, and -78), and two of which are new analyses of previously measured systems using new data (WASP-71, and -79). We use three different models based on two different techniques: radial velocity measurements of the Rossiter--McLaughlin effect, and Doppler tomography. Our comparison of the different models reveals that they produce projected stellar rotation velocities ($v \sin I_{\rm s}$) measurements often in disagreement with each other and with estimates obtained from spectral line broadening. The Bou\'e model for the Rossiter--McLaughlin effect consistently underestimates the value of $v\sin I_{\rm s}$ compared to the Hirano model. Although $v \sin I_s$ differed, the effect on $\lambda$ was small for our sample, with all three methods producing values in agreement with each other. Using Doppler tomography, we find that WASP-61\,b ($\lambda=4^\circ.0^{+17.1}_{-18.4}$), WASP-71\,b ($\lambda=-1^\circ.9^{+7.1}_{-7.5}$), and WASP-78\,b ($\lambda=-6^\circ.4\pm5.9$) are aligned. WASP-62\,b ($\lambda=19^\circ.4^{+5.1}_{-4.9}$) is found to be slightly misaligned, while WASP-79\,b ($\lambda=-95^\circ.2^{+0.9}_{-1.0}$) is confirmed to be strongly misaligned and has a retrograde orbit. We explore a range of possibilities for the orbit of WASP-76\,b, finding that the orbit is likely to be strongly misaligned in the positive $\lambda$ direction. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 ULg) First limits on the occurrence rate of short-period planets orbiting brown dwarfsHe, Matthias Y.; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Gillon, Michaël in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 464Planet formation theories predict a large but still undetected population of short-period terrestrial planets orbiting brown dwarfs. Should specimens of this population be discovered transiting relatively ... [more ▼]Planet formation theories predict a large but still undetected population of short-period terrestrial planets orbiting brown dwarfs. Should specimens of this population be discovered transiting relatively bright and nearby brown dwarfs, the Jupiter-size and the low luminosity of their hosts would make them exquisite targets for detailed atmospheric characterisation with JWST and future ground-based facilities. The eventual discovery and detailed study of a significant sample of transiting terrestrial planets orbiting nearby brown dwarfs could prove to be useful not only for comparative exoplanetology but also for astrobiology, by bringing us key information on the physical requirements and timescale for the emergence of life. In this context, we present a search for transit-signals in archival time-series photometry acquired by the Spitzer Space Telescope for a sample of 44 nearby brown dwarfs. While these 44 targets were not particularly selected for their brightness, the high precision of their Spitzer light curves allows us to reach sensitivities below Earth-sized planets for 75% of the sample and down to Europa-sized planets on the brighter targets. We could not identify any unambiguous planetary signal. Instead, we could compute the first limits on the presence of planets on close-in orbits. We find that within a 1.28 day orbit, the occurrence rate of planets with a radius between 0.75 and 3.25 R$_\oplus$ is {\eta} < 67 $\pm$ 1%. For planets with radii between 0.75 and 1.25 R$_\oplus$, we place a 95% confident upper limit of {\eta} < 87 $\pm$ 3%. If we assume an occurrence rate of {\eta} = 27% for these planets with radii between 0.75 and 1.25 R$_\oplus$, as the discoveries of the Kepler-42b and TRAPPIST-1b systems would suggest, we estimate that 175 brown dwarfs need to be monitored in order to guarantee (95%) at least one detection. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 43 (1 ULg) WASP-92b, WASP-93b and WASP-118b: Three new transiting close-in giant planetsHay, K. L.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 463We present the discovery of three new transiting giant planets, first detected with the WASP telescopes, and establish their planetary nature with follow up spectroscopy and ground-based photometric ... [more ▼]We present the discovery of three new transiting giant planets, first detected with the WASP telescopes, and establish their planetary nature with follow up spectroscopy and ground-based photometric lightcurves. WASP-92 is an F7 star, with a moderately inflated planet orbiting with a period of 2.17 days, which has R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.461 ± 0.077R[SUB]J[/SUB] and M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 0.805 ± 0.068M[SUB]J[/SUB]. WASP-93b orbits its F4 host star every 2.73 days and has R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.597 ± 0.077R[SUB]J[/SUB] and M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.47 ± 0.029M[SUB]J[/SUB]. WASP-118b also has a hot host star (F6) and is moderately inflated, where R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.440 ± 0.036R[SUB]J[/SUB] and M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 0.514 ± 0.020M[SUB]J[/SUB] and the planet has an orbital period of 4.05 days. They are bright targets (V = 13.18, 10.97 and 11.07 respectively) ideal for further characterisation work, particularly WASP-118b, which is being observed by K2 as part of campaign 8. The WASP-93 system has sufficient angular momentum to be tidally migrating outwards if the system is near spin-orbit alignment, which is divergent from the tidal behaviour of the majority of hot Jupiters discovered. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (6 ULg) Nitrogen isotopic ratios of NH 2 in comets: implication for 15 N-fractionation in cometary ammoniaShinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Jehin, Emmanuel et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 462The isotopic ratios are diagnostics for the physico-chemical conditions governing molecular formation. In comets, 14N/15N ratios have been measured from HCN in three comets and from CN in more than 20 ... [more ▼]The isotopic ratios are diagnostics for the physico-chemical conditions governing molecular formation. In comets, 14N/15N ratios have been measured from HCN in three comets and from CN in more than 20 comets. Those ratios are enriched in 15N compared to the Sun by a factor of ∼3, have a small diversity and do not depend on the dynamical type of the comets. The origin of this high 15N-fractionation is still in debate because CN probably comes not only from HCN, but also from other materials (such as polymers or organic dusts) in the coma. Consequently, an interpretation of the isotopic ratios in cometary CN is quite complicated due to the multiple possible parents of CN. In contrast with CN, the isotopic ratios of nitrogen in NH3 give us a much clearer interpretation than in CN because NH3 is directly incorporated in the nuclear ices. To estimate the 14N/15N ratios in NH3, 14N/15N ratios have been determined from high-resolution spectra of NH2 in the optical wavelength region. NH2 is indeed a dominant photodissociation product of NH3. Those ratios were also found to be enriched in 15N compared to the Sun by a factor of ∼3. In this paper, we present 14N/15N ratios in NH2 for an additional sample of 16 comets. Our sample includes short-period comets as well as long-period comets. We found that the 14N/15N ratios in cometary NH2 also show a small dispersion and do not depend on the dynamical origin of the comets. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (4 ULg) Ortho-to-para abundance ratios of NH2in 26 comets: implications for the real meaning of OPRsShinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Jehin, Emmanuel et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 462Abundance ratios of nuclear-spin isomers for cometary molecules having identical protons, such as water and ammonia, have been measured and discussed from the viewpoint that they are primordial characters ... [more ▼]Abundance ratios of nuclear-spin isomers for cometary molecules having identical protons, such as water and ammonia, have been measured and discussed from the viewpoint that they are primordial characters in comet. In the case of ammonia, its ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) is usually estimated from OPRs of NH2 because of difficulty in measuring OPR of ammonia directly. We report our survey for OPRs of NH2 in 26 comets. A weighted mean of ammonia OPRs for the comets is 1.12 ± 0.01 and no significant difference is found between the Oort Cloud comets and the Jupiter-family comets. These values correspond to ∼30 K as nuclear-spin temperatures. The OPRs of ammonia in comets probably reflect the physicochemical conditions in coma, rather than the conditions for the molecular formation or condensation in the pre-solar molecular cloud/the solar nebula, based on comparison of OPRs (and nuclear-spin temperatures) of ammonia with those of water, 14N/15N ratios in ammonia, and D/H ratios in water. The OPRs could be reset to a nuclear-spin weights ratio in solid phase and modified by interactions with protonated ions like H3O+, water clusters (H2O)n, ice grains, and paramagnetic impurities (such as O2 molecules and grains) in the inner coma gas. Relationship between the OPRs of ammonia and water is a clue to understanding the real meaning of the OPRs. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (3 ULg) The Gaia-ESO Survey: revisiting the Li-rich giant problemCasey, A. R.; Ruchti, G.; Masseron, T. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 461The discovery of lithium-rich giants contradicts expectations from canonical stellar evolution. Here we report on the serendipitous discovery of 20 Li-rich giants observed during the Gaia-ESO Survey ... [more ▼]The discovery of lithium-rich giants contradicts expectations from canonical stellar evolution. Here we report on the serendipitous discovery of 20 Li-rich giants observed during the Gaia-ESO Survey, which includes the first nine Li-rich giant stars known towards the CoRoT fields. Most of our Li-rich giants have near-solar metallicities and stellar parameters consistent with being before the luminosity bump. This is difficult to reconcile with deep mixing models proposed to explain lithium enrichment, because these models can only operate at later evolutionary stages: at or past the luminosity bump. In an effort to shed light on the Li-rich phenomenon, we highlight recent evidence of the tidal destruction of close-in hot Jupiters at the sub-giant phase. We note that when coupled with models of planet accretion, the observed destruction of hot Jupiters actually predicts the existence of Li-rich giant stars, and suggests that Li-rich stars should be found early on the giant branch and occur more frequently with increasing metallicity. A comprehensive review of all known Li-rich giant stars reveals that this scenario is consistent with the data. However, more evolved or metal-poor stars are less likely to host close-in giant planets, implying that their Li-rich origin requires an alternative explanation, likely related to mixing scenarios rather than external phenomena. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (2 ULg) LOTUS: a low-cost, ultraviolet spectrographSteele, I. A.; Marchant, J. M.; Jermak, H. E. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 460We describe the design, construction and commissioning of a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all ... [more ▼]We describe the design, construction and commissioning of a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5 × 95 arcsec) and wide (5 × 25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration, respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Å with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependent spectral resolution of R = 225-430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg, we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is <2 Å rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its current post-perihelion apparition. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg)