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See detailAlpha-fetoprotein controls female fertility and prenatal development of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone pathway through an antiestrogenic action
De Mees, Christelle; Laes, Jean-François; Bakker, Julie ULg et al

in Molecular and Cellular Biology (2006), 26(5), 2012-2018

It has been shown previously that female mice homozygous for an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) null allele are sterile as a result of anovulation, probably due to a defect in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis ... [more ▼]

It has been shown previously that female mice homozygous for an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) null allele are sterile as a result of anovulation, probably due to a defect in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Here we show that these female mice exhibit specific anomalies in the expression of numerous genes in the pituitary, including genes involved in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone pathway, which are underexpressed. In the hypothalamus, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene, Gnrh1, was also found to be down-regulated. However, pituitary gene expression could be normalized and fertility could be rescued by blocking prenatal estrogen synthesis using an aromatase inhibitor. These results show that AFP protects the developing female brain from the adverse effects of prenatal estrogen exposure and clarify a long-running debate on the role of this fetal protein in brain sexual differentiation. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Role For Hpar-1 Kinases Emk And C-Tak1 In Regulating Localization And Activity Of Class Iia Histone Deacetylases
Dequiedt, Franck ULg; Martin, Maud ULg; Von Blume, Julia et al

in Molecular and Cellular Biology (2006), 26(19), 7086-102

Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are found both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus where they repress genes involved in several major developmental programs. In response to specific signals, the ... [more ▼]

Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are found both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus where they repress genes involved in several major developmental programs. In response to specific signals, the repressive activity of class IIa HDACs is neutralized through their phosphorylation on multiple N-terminal serine residues and 14-3-3-mediated nuclear exclusion. Here, we demonstrate that class IIa HDACs are subjected to signal-independent nuclear export that relies on their constitutive phosphorylation. We identify EMK and C-TAK1, two members of the microtubule affinity-regulating kinase (MARK)/Par-1 family, as regulators of this process. We further show that EMK and C-TAK1 phosphorylate class IIa HDACs on one of their multiple 14-3-3 binding sites and alter their subcellular localization and repressive function. Using HDAC7 as a paradigm, we extend these findings by demonstrating that signal-independent phosphorylation of the most N-terminal serine residue by the MARK/Par-1 kinases, i.e., Ser155, is a prerequisite for the phosphorylation of the nearby 14-3-3 site, Ser181. We propose that this multisite hierarchical phosphorylation by a variety of kinases allows for sophisticated regulation of class IIa HDACs function. [less ▲]

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See detailRemoval of C-terminal Src kinase from the immune synapse by a new binding protein
Rahmouni, Souad ULg; Vang, Torkel; Alonso, Andres et al

in Molecular and Cellular Biology (2005), 25(6), 2227-2241

The Csk tyrosine kinase negatively regulates the Src family kinases Lek and Fyn in T cells. Engagement of the T-cell antigen receptor results in a removal of Csk from the lipid raft-associated ... [more ▼]

The Csk tyrosine kinase negatively regulates the Src family kinases Lek and Fyn in T cells. Engagement of the T-cell antigen receptor results in a removal of Csk from the lipid raft-associated transmembrane protein PAG/Cbp. Instead, Csk becomes associated with an similar to72-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, which we identify here as G3BP, a phosphoprotein reported to bind the SH3 domain of Ras GTPase-activating protein. G3BP reduced the ability of Csk to phosphorylate Lek at Y505 by decreasing the amount of Csk in lipid rafts. As a consequence, G3BP augmented T-cell activation as measured by interleukin-2 gene activation. Conversely, elimination of endogenous G3BP by RNA interference increased Lek Y505 phosphorylation and reduced TCR signaling. In antigen-specific T cells, endogenous G3BP moved into a intracellular location adjacent to the immune synapse, but deeper inside the cell, upon antigen recognition. Csk colocalization with G3BP occurred in this "parasynaptic" location. We conclude that G3BP is a new player in T-cell-antigen receptor signaling and acts to reduce the amount of Csk in the immune synapse. [less ▲]

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See detailExclusive Ubiquitination And Sumoylation On Overlapping Lysine Residues Mediate Nf-Kappa B Activation By The Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Tax Oncoprotein
Lamsoul, I.; Lodewick, J.; Lebrun, S. et al

in Molecular and Cellular Biology (2005), 25(23), 10391-406

The transcription factor NF-kappaB is critical for the induction of cancer, including adult T-cell leukemia, which is linked to infection by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and the expression of its ... [more ▼]

The transcription factor NF-kappaB is critical for the induction of cancer, including adult T-cell leukemia, which is linked to infection by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and the expression of its regulatory protein Tax. Although activation of the NF-kappaB pathway by Tax involves its interaction with the regulatory subunit of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex, NEMO/IKKgamma, the mechanism by which Tax activates specific cellular genes in the nucleus remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the attachment of SUMO-1 to Tax regulates its localization in nuclear bodies and the recruitment of both the RelA subunit of NF-kappaB and free IKKgamma in these nuclear structures. However, this sumoylation step is not sufficient for the activation of the NF-kappaB pathway by Tax. This activity requires the prior ubiquitination and colocalization of ubiquitinated Tax with IKK complexes in the cytoplasm and the subsequent migration of the RelA subunit of NF-kappaB to the nucleus. Thus, the ubiquitination and sumoylation of Tax function in concert to result in the migration of RelA to the nucleus and its accumulation with IKKgamma in nuclear bodies for activation of gene expression. These modifications may result in targets for the treatment of adult T-cell leukemia. [less ▲]

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See detailPotentiation of tumor necrosis factor-induced NF-kappa B activation by deacetylase inhibitors is associated with a delayed cytoplasmic reappearance of I kappa B alpha (vol 23, pg 6200, 2003)
Adam, Emmanuelle; Quivy, Vincent; Bex, Françoise et al

in Molecular and Cellular Biology (2004), 24(15), 6890

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See detailPotentiation of tumor necrosis factor-induced NF-kappa B activation by deacetylase inhibitors is associated with a delayed cytoplasmic reappearance of I kappa B alpha
Adam, Emmanuelle; Quivy, Vincent; Bex, Françoise et al

in Molecular and Cellular Biology (2003), 23(17), 6200-6209

Previous studies have implicated acetylases and deacetylases in regulating the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB. Here, we show that inhibitors of deacetylases such as trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium ... [more ▼]

Previous studies have implicated acetylases and deacetylases in regulating the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB. Here, we show that inhibitors of deacetylases such as trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaBut) potentiated TNF-induced expression of several natural NF-kappaB-driven promoters. This transcriptional synergism observed between TNF and TSA (or NaBut) required intact kappaB sites in all promoters tested and was biologically relevant as demonstrated by RNase protection on two instances of endogenous NF-kappaB-regulated gene transcription. Importantly, TSA prolonged both TNF-induced DNA-binding activity and the presence of NF-kappaKB in the nucleus. We showed that the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB was acetylated in vivo. However, this acetylation was weak, suggesting that other mechanisms could be implicated in the potentiated binding and transactivation activities of NF-kappaB after TNF plus TSA versus TNF treatment. Western blot and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy experiments revealed a delay in the cytoplasmic reappearance of the IkappaBalpha inhibitor that correlated temporally with the prolonged intranuclear binding and presence of NF-kappaB. This delay was due neither to a defect in IkappaBalpha mRNA production nor to a nuclear retention of IkappaBalpha but was rather due to a persistent proteasome-mediated degradation of IkappaBalpha. A prolongation of IkappaB kinase activity could explain, at least partially, the delayed IkappaBalpha cytoplasmic reappearance observed in presence of TNF plus TSA. [less ▲]

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