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See detailInhibition of protein phosphatase PP1 in GH3B6, but not in GH3 cells, activates the MEK/ERK/c-fos pathway and the human prolactin promoter, involving the coactivator CPB/p300
Manfroid, Isabelle ULg; Martial, Joseph ULg; Muller, Marc ULg

in Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) (2001), 15(4), 625-37

The human (hPRL) PRL gene proximal promoter (-164/+15) is the target for numerous signal transduction pathways involving protein kinases. The inhibitor of Ser/Thr-protein phosphatases okadaic acid (OA ... [more ▼]

The human (hPRL) PRL gene proximal promoter (-164/+15) is the target for numerous signal transduction pathways involving protein kinases. The inhibitor of Ser/Thr-protein phosphatases okadaic acid (OA) was shown to induce this promoter in rat pituitary GH3B6 through a synergism between increased amounts of the ubiquitous factor AP-1 and the pituitary-specific factor Pit-1. Here we show that this activation results mainly from transcriptional stimulation of the c-fos promoter leading to increased AP-1 activity. We report the surprising absence of the hPRL and c-fos promoter stimulation by OA in GH3 cells, closely related to GH3B6 cells, and we use this discrepancy to dissect the precise mechanism of action. c-fos gene activation involves the mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK)-ternary complex factor (TCF) pathway and can be obtained by expressing active V12ras in both cell lines. We show that OA acts by inhibiting protein phosphatase PP1, thereby protecting MAPK kinase (MEK)1/2 and/or a MEK1/2-kinase from dephosphorylation. PP1 inhibition of MEK activation by V12ras does not occur in GH3 cells, indicating that a distinct, PP1-sensitive phosphorylation site is used in GH3B6 cells to activate the TCF pathway in GH3B6 cells. Finally, we show that the synergistic OA activation of the hPRL promoter by Pit-1 and AP-1 is independent of the Pit-1 transactivation domain and is mediated by the general coactivator (CRE-binding protein)-binding protein (CBP)/p300. [less ▲]

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See detailSilencing subdomains of v-ErbA interact cooperatively with corepressors: involvement of helices 5/6
Busch, Kerstin; Martin, Bernd; Baniahmad, Aria et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) (2000), 14(2), 201-11

Members of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) family act on vertebrate development and homeostasis by activating or repressing transcription of specific target genes in a ligand-dependent way. Repression ... [more ▼]

Members of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) family act on vertebrate development and homeostasis by activating or repressing transcription of specific target genes in a ligand-dependent way. Repression by TR in the absence of ligand is mediated by an active silencing mechanism. The oncogene v-ErbA is a variant form of TR unable to bind hormone and thus acts as a constitutive repressor. Functional studies and mutation analysis revealed that the TR/v-ErbA silencing domain is composed of three silencing subdomains (SSD1-3) which, although nonfunctional individually, synergize such that silencing activity is restored when they are combined in a heteromeric complex. Here we demonstrate, using protein interaction assays in vitro and in vivo, that the inactive v-ErbA point mutant L489R within helix 5/6 in SSD2 fails to interact with the two corepressors N-CoR (nuclear receptor corepressor) or SMRT (silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor). Furthermore, mutants in SSD1 and SSD3 exhibit a reduced corepressor recruitment corresponding to their weak residual silencing activity. In mammalian two-hybrid assays, only the combination of all three silencing subdomains, SSD1-3, leads to a cooperative binding to the corepressors N-CoR or SMRT comparable to that of the full-length v-ErbA repression domain. In conclusion, full silencing activity requires corepressor interaction with all three silencing subdomains, SSD1-3. Among these, SSD2 is a new target for N-CoR and SMRT and is essential for corepressor binding and function. [less ▲]

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See detail16K Human Prolactin Inhibits Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Induced Activation of Ras in Capillary Endothelial Cells
D'Angelo, Gisela; Martini, Jean-François; Iiri, Taroh et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) (1999), 13(2), 692-704

Signaling pathways mediating the antiangiogenic action of 16K human (h)PRL include inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK ... [more ▼]

Signaling pathways mediating the antiangiogenic action of 16K human (h)PRL include inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). To determine at which step 16K hPRL acts to inhibit VEGF-induced MAPK activation, we assessed more proximal events in the signaling cascade. 16K hPRL treatment blocked VEGF-induced Raf-1 activation as well as its translocation to the plasma membrane. 16K hPRL indirectly increased cAMP levels; however, the blockade of Raf-1 activation was not dependent on the stimulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), but rather on the inhibition of the GTP-bound Ras. The VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the VEGF receptor, Flk-1, and its association with the Shc/Grb2/Ras-GAP (guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein) complex were unaffected by 16K hPRL treatment. In contrast, 16K hPRL prevented the VEGF-induced phosphorylation and dissociation of Sos from Grb2 at 5 min, consistent with inhibition by 16K hPRL of the MEK/MAPK feedback on Sos. The inhibition of Ras activation was paralleled by the increased phosphorylation of 120 kDa proteins comigrating with Ras-GAP. Taken together, these findings show that 16K hPRL inhibits the VEGF-induced Ras activation; this antagonism represents a novel and potentially important mechanism for the control of angiogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscription factor AP1 is involved in basal and okadaic acid-stimulated activity of the human PRL promoter
Caccavelli, Laure; Manfroid, Isabelle ULg; Martial, Joseph ULg et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) (1998), 12(8), 1215-27

The tumor promoter, okadaic acid (OA), an inhibitor of protein phosphatases, stimulates the activity of the human PRL (hPRL) proximal promoter. We analyzed in detail the effects of OA on transcription ... [more ▼]

The tumor promoter, okadaic acid (OA), an inhibitor of protein phosphatases, stimulates the activity of the human PRL (hPRL) proximal promoter. We analyzed in detail the effects of OA on transcription factor binding to elements P1 and P2 of this promoter, sequences known to contain at least one Pit-1 binding site each. OA treatment induces binding of an AP1-related transcription factor to the P1 site. This effect is specific, as protein binding to the P2 site is not altered by the treatment. Specific antibodies were used to confirm that the OA-induced complex is related to AP1 and to show that it contains JunD and c-fos, but not Pit-1. The increase in AP1 binding to P1 and to a canonical AP1 site correlates to an increase in cellular JunD and c-fos content. Transient transfection experiments showed that both AP1 and Pit-1 are involved in the regulation of basal and OA-stimulated promoter activity. Our results demonstrate that a member of the AP1 family, containing JunD and c-fos, can bind to the proximal element P1 within the hPRL promoter. In addition, they show that AP1 is involved in both basal and OA-stimulated expression of the hPRL gene. [less ▲]

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See detailThyroid hormone inhibits the human prolactin gene promoter by interfering with activating protein-1 and estrogen stimulations
Pernasetti, Flavia; Caccavelli, L.; Van de Weerdt, Cécile ULg et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) (1997), 11(7), 986-96

Transcription of the human PRL (hPRL) gene in the pituitary is subject to tissue-specific and multihormonal regulation involving two main regulatory regions, a proximal promoter and a distal enhancer. In ... [more ▼]

Transcription of the human PRL (hPRL) gene in the pituitary is subject to tissue-specific and multihormonal regulation involving two main regulatory regions, a proximal promoter and a distal enhancer. In this report we show that thyroid hormone inhibits the expression of the hPRL gene in rat pituitary cells. Transient expression experiments show that thyroid hormone regulation involves a strong inhibitory element, located in the proximal (-164/-35) promoter, which is modulated by a more distal stimulatory response control region. Gel retardation experiments reveal that the thyroid hormone receptor does not bind to the proximal negative element. We show the existence of an activating protein-1 (AP-1) response element located at positions -61 to -54 of the proximal promoter, conferring AP-1 stimulation to the hPRL promoter. This AP-1 induction is abolished when hormone-bound thyroid hormone receptor is present, indicating that there is an interference between the thyroid hormone receptor and AP-1 regulatory pathways. Furthermore, using the complete hPRL upstream region, we show that estrogen induction is abolished by simultaneous thyroid hormone treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailA thyroid hormone receptor-dependent glucocorticoid induction.
Leers, Joerg; Steiner, Christoff; Renkawitz, Rainer et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) (1994), 8(4), 440-7

Glucocorticoid and thyroid hormones exert their effects in many body tissues by binding to their respective receptors. The search for possible cross-talking mechanisms in overlapping target cells led to ... [more ▼]

Glucocorticoid and thyroid hormones exert their effects in many body tissues by binding to their respective receptors. The search for possible cross-talking mechanisms in overlapping target cells led to the discovery of synergism between a thyroid hormone receptor-binding site and a cryptic glucocorticoid-responsive element. Glucocorticoid responsiveness could only be detected in the presence of thyroid hormone and its receptor. This synergism requires the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) DNA-binding domain and is mediated by the transactivation domains. We found that synergism also occurs when the thyroid hormone receptor is replaced by the retinoic acid receptor or the GR is replaced by the progesterone receptor. Synergism is qualitatively independent of the type of thyroid hormone receptor-binding site and promoter. In several combinations of promoter and response elements, including a retinoic acid response element, T3 induction was only seen in the presence of the cryptic glucocorticoid-responsive element, GR, and glucocorticoids. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple domains of the glucocorticoid receptor involved in synergism with the CACCC box factor(s).
Muller, Marc ULg; Baniahmad, C.; Kaltschmidt, C. et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) (1991), 5(10), 1498-503

Steroid induction of responsive genes functions through the synergistic activity of steroid receptor-binding sequences with adjacent transcription factor-binding sites. To analyze the mechanism of synergy ... [more ▼]

Steroid induction of responsive genes functions through the synergistic activity of steroid receptor-binding sequences with adjacent transcription factor-binding sites. To analyze the mechanism of synergy we tested different human glucocorticoid receptor mutants for synergistic function with another transcription factor in comparison with intrinsic trans-activation obtained with a single receptor binding site (glucocorticoid response element). Multiple domains were found to be involved in synergistic activity of the glucocorticoid receptor with the CACCC box factor. Deletions within the N-terminal receptor half affected simultaneously intrinsic trans-activation and synergism. However, deletion of the hormone-binding domain mainly impaired synergism rather than intrinsic trans-activation, clearly showing that this domain synergizes by a mechanism independent of intrinsic activation. A chimeric protein where the DNA-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor was replaced by that of the yeast GAL4 protein also showed functional synergism. These data suggest that some of the receptor domains outside the DNA-binding domain synergize by their intrinsic trans-activating property, but the hormone-binding domain contributes to synergism by a different mechanism. [less ▲]

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