References of "Memory"
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See detailRecalling semantic information about newly learned faces and voices
Barsics, Catherine ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg

in Memory (2012), 20(5), 527-534

Several findings showed that semantic information is more likely to be retrieved from recognised faces than from recognised voices. Earlier experiments, which investigated the recall of biographical ... [more ▼]

Several findings showed that semantic information is more likely to be retrieved from recognised faces than from recognised voices. Earlier experiments, which investigated the recall of biographical information following person recognition, used stimuli that were pre-experimentally familiar to the participants, such as famous people’s voices and faces. We propose an alternative method to compare the participants’ ability to associate semantic information with faces and voices. The present experiments allowed a very strict control of frequency of exposure to pre-experimentally unfamiliar faces and voices and ensured the absence of identity clues in the spoken extracts. In Experiment 1 semantic information was retrieved from the presentation of a name. In Experiment 2 semantic and lexical information was retrieved from faces and/or voices. A memory advantage for faces over voices was again observed. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-defining future projections: exploring the identity function of thinking about the future
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Lardi, Claudia; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Memory (2012), 20

The act of projecting oneself into meaningful future events may significantly contribute to a person’s sense of self and identity. Yet, if the role of memories, in particular self-defining memories (SDMs ... [more ▼]

The act of projecting oneself into meaningful future events may significantly contribute to a person’s sense of self and identity. Yet, if the role of memories, in particular self-defining memories (SDMs), in grounding the self is now well established, the identity function of anticipated future events has received comparatively little attention. This article introduces the construct of self-defining future projection (SDFP) to address this issue. Two studies show that people can readily identify significant future events that they frequently think about and that convey core information about who they are as individuals. Furthermore, a person’s particular style of constructing SDMs is similarly manifested in SDFPs, suggesting that both types of events can be used to ground the self. Notably, people who display a stronger tendency to extract meaning from their past experiences also reflect more about the potential implications of imagined future events. The results further demonstrate that SDMs and SDFPs both give rise to a strong sense of personal continuity over time and are meaningfully related to self-esteem. Together, these findings lend support to the idea that a person’s sense of self and identity is in part nourished by the anticipation of significant future events. [less ▲]

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See detailSKOOL versus ZOOL: Effects of orthographic and phonological long term memory on nonword immediate serial recall
Tree, Jeremy; Longmore, Chris; Majerus, Steve ULg

in Memory (2011), 19

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See detailNo evidence of age-related increases in unconscious plagiarism during free recall.
Perfect, Timothy J.; Defeldre, Anne-Catherine; Elliman, Rachel et al

in Memory (2011)

In 3 experiments younger and older participants took part in a group generation task prior to a delayed recall task. In each, participants were required to recall the ideas that they had generated ... [more ▼]

In 3 experiments younger and older participants took part in a group generation task prior to a delayed recall task. In each, participants were required to recall the ideas that they had generated, avoiding plagiarism errors. All studies showed the same pattern: older adults did not plagiarise their partners any more than younger adults did. However, older adults were more likely than younger adults to intrude with entirely novel items not previously generated by anyone. These findings stand in opposition to the single previous demonstration of age-related increases in plagiarism during recall. [less ▲]

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See detailFurther characterisation of self-defining memories in young adults: a study of a Swiss sample.
Lardi, Claudia; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Chanal, Julien et al

in Memory (2010), 18(3), 293-309

Several individual differences affecting four dimensions of self-defining memories (SDMs)--structure, content, affect, and autobiographical reasoning (Blagov & Singer, 2004; McLean & Fournier, 2008 ... [more ▼]

Several individual differences affecting four dimensions of self-defining memories (SDMs)--structure, content, affect, and autobiographical reasoning (Blagov & Singer, 2004; McLean & Fournier, 2008; Singer & Salovey, 1993)--have been observed in young adults (principally in North America). In this study we aimed to investigate the relationships between the different dimensions of SDMs, providing further evidence of the content validity of the Self-Defining Memory task. It was possible to discern two specific profiles from the three SDMs collected from each participant. Almost half the participants retrieved specific SDMs with little autobiographical reasoning and tension; the other participants retrieved an opposite profile, suggesting that there are individual differences in the cognitive and affective processes related to the construction of SDMs. The second aim of the study was to conduct across-cultural extension of research on SDMs, using a sample of Swiss young adults. The results were similar to those obtained by previous studies, suggesting a certain cultural invariability. The only difference observed concerned the number of SDMs containing meaning making. Swiss young adults attribute more explicit meanings to their memories than North American young adults, suggesting that they are more engaged in autobiographical reasoning. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibitory control of memory in normal ageing: Dissociation between impaired intentional and preserved unintentional processes.
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Germain, Sophie ULg; Hogge, Michaël et al

in Memory (2009), 17(1), 104-122

The aim of this study was to compare the performance of elderly and young participants on a series of memory tasks involving either intentional or unintentional inhibitory control of memory content ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to compare the performance of elderly and young participants on a series of memory tasks involving either intentional or unintentional inhibitory control of memory content. Intentional inhibition processes in working and episodic memory were explored with directed forgetting tasks and in semantic memory with the Hayling task. Unintentional inhibitory processes in working memory, long-term memory, and semantic memory were explored with an interference resolution task, the retrieval practice paradigm, and the flanker task, respectively. The results indicate that elderly participants' performance on the two directed forgetting tasks and the Hayling task is lower than that of young ones, and that this impairment is not related to their initial memory capacity. This suggests that there is a specific dysfunction affecting intentional inhibitory control of memory contents in normal ageing. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring self-defining memories in schizophrenia.
Raffard, Stephane; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Lardi, Claudia et al

in Memory (2009), 17(1), 26-38

Previous studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in recalling specific events from their personal past. However, the relationship between autobiographical memory impairments and ... [more ▼]

Previous studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in recalling specific events from their personal past. However, the relationship between autobiographical memory impairments and disturbance of the sense of identity in schizophrenia has not been investigated in detail. In this study the authors investigated schizophrenic patients' ability to recall self-defining memories; that is, memories that play an important role in building and maintaining the self-concept. Results showed that patients recalled as many specific self-defining memories as healthy participants. However, patients with schizophrenia exhibited an abnormal reminiscence bump and reported different types of thematic content (i.e., they recalled less memories about past achievements and more memories regarding hospitalisation and stigmatisation of illness). Furthermore, the findings suggest that impairments in extracting meaning from personal memories could represent a core disturbance of autobiographical memory in patients with schizophrenia. [less ▲]

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See detailRemembering pride and shame: Self-enhancement and the phenomenology of autobiographical memory
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Memory (2008), 16(5), 538-547

People's self-images are grounded in autobiographical memories and, in particular, in the phenomenological experience associated with remembering. The desire to increase or maintain the positivity of the ... [more ▼]

People's self-images are grounded in autobiographical memories and, in particular, in the phenomenological experience associated with remembering. The desire to increase or maintain the positivity of the self-image (i.e., the self-enhancement motive) might thus play an important role in shaping memory phenomenology. This study examined this hypothesis by asking participants to recall positive and negative events that involve self-evaluations (i.e., pride and shame) and positive and negative events that involve evaluations about others (i.e., admiration and contempt); various phenomenological characteristics (e.g., sensory details, feeling of re-experiencing) were assessed using rating scales. The results show a positivity bias (i.e., subjectively remembering positive events with more details than negative events) for events that involve self-evaluations but not for events that involve evaluations of others. In addition, this bias was stronger for people high in self-esteem. It is concluded that biases affecting the phenomenology of autobiographical memory are part of the arsenal of psychological mechanisms people use to maintain a positive self-image. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentity recognition and happy and sad facial expression recall: Influence of depressive symptoms
Jermann, Françoise; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Memory (2008), 16(4), 364-373

Relatively few studies have examined memory bias for social stimuli in depression or dysphoria. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of depressive symptoms on memory for facial ... [more ▼]

Relatively few studies have examined memory bias for social stimuli in depression or dysphoria. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of depressive symptoms on memory for facial information. A total of 234 participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory II and a task examining memory for facial identity and expression of happy and sad faces. For both facial identity and expression, the recollective experience was measured with the Remember/Know/Guess procedure (Gardiner Richardson-Klavehn, 2000). The results show no major association between depressive symptoms and memory for identities. However, dysphoric individuals consciously recalled (Remember responses) more sad facial expressions than non-dysphoric individuals. These findings suggest that sad facial expressions led to more elaborate encoding, and thereby better recollection, in dysphoric individuals. [less ▲]

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See detailVariations in processing resources and resistance to false memories in younger and older adults
Dehon, Hedwige ULg

in Memory (2006), 14(6), 692-711

The influence of available processing resources on the resistance to false memories (FMs) for lists of semantically related items associated with a non-presented critical lure was examined in younger and ... [more ▼]

The influence of available processing resources on the resistance to false memories (FMs) for lists of semantically related items associated with a non-presented critical lure was examined in younger and older adults. Reducing the available resources at encoding in younger adults (Experiments 1 and 2) led to a performance similar to that of older adults (i.e., higher rates of FMs in addition to reduced rates of correct recall). However, increasing the available resources (Experiments 2 and 3) led to improvements in the rates of correct recall in both age groups and decreased the probability of FMs in younger adults, although warnings had to be added in older adults to obtain similar effects on FMs. Parallel influences on a post-recall test asking participants to report items that they had thought of but did not recall were also found. The influence of available cognitive resources for memory accuracy is also discussed with respect to activation-monitoring (e.g., McDermott [less ▲]

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See detailPhenomenal characteristics of autobiographical memories for social and non-social events in social phobia
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; d'Acremont, Mathieu et al

in Memory (2006), 14(5), 637-647

Previous studies failed to show clear differences between people with social phobia and non-anxious individuals regarding the specificity and affective intensity of their autobiographical memories for ... [more ▼]

Previous studies failed to show clear differences between people with social phobia and non-anxious individuals regarding the specificity and affective intensity of their autobiographical memories for social events. However, these studies did not assess the subjective experience associated with remembering. In this study, people with social phobia and non-anxious control participants recalled social and non-social events, and rated the phenomenal characteristics of their memories. The memories of people with social phobia for social events contained fewer sensorial details but more self-referential information than controls memories. In addition, people with social phobia remembered social situations from an observer perspective, viewing themselves as if from outside, to a greater extent than controls. By contrast, the two groups did not differ concerning their memories for non-social events. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive models of social phobia. [less ▲]

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See detailMemory for temporal context : Effects of aging, encoding instructions and retrieval strategies
Bastin, Christine ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Memory (2005), 13(1), 95-109

Young and older adults were compared on a list discrimination task. In Experiment 1, performance declined with aging after incidental and intentional encoding of the temporal context. Moreover, there was ... [more ▼]

Young and older adults were compared on a list discrimination task. In Experiment 1, performance declined with aging after incidental and intentional encoding of the temporal context. Moreover, there was no benefit for intentional encoding in either group. In Experiment 2, each list was associated with a different encoding context. There were age differences in performance when participants tried to retrieve the encoding context of the items as a cue for their list of occurrence, but not when participants evaluated temporal distance from the strength of the memory trace. This suggests that the age-related decrease in list discrimination could be at least partly due to a difficulty to infer strategically the temporal context of the items from information encoded in the same time. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of ageing on the recollection of emotional and neutral pictures
Comblain, Christine; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Memory (2004), 12(6), 673-684

This study investigated age-related differences in recognition memory for emotional and neutral pictures. Younger and older participants were asked to rate pictures according to their emotional valence ... [more ▼]

This study investigated age-related differences in recognition memory for emotional and neutral pictures. Younger and older participants were asked to rate pictures according to their emotional valence, arousal, and visual complexity. Two weeks later they had to recognise these pictures and the states of awareness associated with memory were assessed with the "remember/know/guess" paradigm. We found that, although the influence of emotion on recognition accuracy (as assessed by d') was similar in both age groups, the tendency for positive and negative pictures to create a rich recollective experience was weaker in older adults. In addition., "remember" responses were more often based on a recollection of emotional reactions in older than in younger participants. We suggest that the elderly tend to focus on their feelings when confronted with emotional pictures, which could have impaired their memory for the contextual information associated with these stimuli. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentity but not expression memory for unfamiliar faces is affected by ageing
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Memory (2004), 12(5), 644-654

We examined age-related differences in memory for identity and emotional expression of unfamiliar faces. Younger and older adults were presented with happy and angry faces and were later asked to ... [more ▼]

We examined age-related differences in memory for identity and emotional expression of unfamiliar faces. Younger and older adults were presented with happy and angry faces and were later asked to recognise the same faces displaying a neutral expression. When a face was recognised, they also had to remember what the initial expression of the face had been. In addition, states of awareness associated with both identity and expression memory were assessed with the remember/know/guess paradigm. Older adults showed less recollective experience than younger adults for identity but not for emotional expressions of the faces. This evidence indicates that age-related differences in memory may depend on the nature of the to-be-remembered information, with emotional/social information being remembered as well in older as in younger adults. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenomenal characteristics of cryptomnesia
Brédart, Serge ULg; Lampinen, J. M.; Defeldre, A. C.

in Memory (2003), 11(1), 1-11

Qualitative characteristics of cryptomnesia, or unintentional plagiarism were investigated. In Experiment I we compared accurate and inaccurate source attributions in terms of their level of confidence ... [more ▼]

Qualitative characteristics of cryptomnesia, or unintentional plagiarism were investigated. In Experiment I we compared accurate and inaccurate source attributions in terms of their level of confidence using instructions that did not require a fixed number of responses. Confidence was lower for plagiarised responses than for correct responses. Nevertheless, participants provided high ratings of certainty for a large proportion of their plagiarised responses. In Experiment 2 the phenomenological differences between plagiarised recall and veridical recall were compared by using an adaptation of the memory characteristics questionnaire (Johnson, Foley, Suengas, [less ▲]

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See detailContribution of Lexico-Semantic Processes to Verbal Short-Term Memory Tasks: A Pet Activation Study
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Memory (2001), 9(4-6), 249-259

Recent studies have demonstrated the intervention of long-term memory processes in verbal STM tasks and several cognitive models have been proposed to explain these effects. A PET study was performed in ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have demonstrated the intervention of long-term memory processes in verbal STM tasks and several cognitive models have been proposed to explain these effects. A PET study was performed in order to determine whether supplementary cerebral areas are involved when subjects have to execute short-term memory tasks for items having representations in long-term memory (in comparison to items without such representations: words vs non-words). Results indicate that verbal STM for words specifically involves the left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21) and temporo-parietal junction (BA 39). These areas can be associated with lexical and semantic processes. These results are in agreement with cognitive models that postulate the simultaneous influence of lexical and semantic long-term representations on verbal STM processes and/or a lexico-semantic buffer. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen false memories do not occur : not thinking of the lure or remembering that it was not heard ?
Brédart, Serge ULg

in Memory (2000), 8(2), 123-128

The aim of the present study was to evaluate two explanations for the non-occurrence of false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. One explanation was that a critical lure is not ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to evaluate two explanations for the non-occurrence of false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. One explanation was that a critical lure is not recalled because the list failed to evoke it in the participant's mind. Another possible explanation was that the participant would identify the critical lure and would remember, at the time of recall, that the lure was not produced by an external source. In order to explore these two possible explanations for the non-occurrence of false memories, an experimental phase was added to the usual DRM paradigm: participants were asked to recall items they thought of but did not recall because these items were not members of the list presented by the experimenter. Among participants who did not recall the critical lure during the standard recall task, those who recalled the critical lure during the additional phase outnumbered those who did not recall it. This result is more consistent with the second explanation than with the first one. [less ▲]

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See detailThe neural correlates of updating information in verbal working memory
Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

in Memory (1999), 7(5-6), 549-560

The aim of the present study was to re-examine cerebral areas subserving the updating function of the central executive with a running span task requiring subjects to watch strings of consonants of ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to re-examine cerebral areas subserving the updating function of the central executive with a running span task requiring subjects to watch strings of consonants of unknown length and then to recall serially a specific number of recent items. In order to dissociate more precisely the updating process from the storage function, a four-item instead of a six-item memory load was used, contrary to our previous study (Salmon et al., 1996). In addition, a serial recall procedure was preferred to a recognition procedure in order to suppress the use of visuospatial strategies. The most significant increase of rCBF occurred in the left frontopolar cortex (Brodmann's area 10), spreading to the left middle frontal (Brodmann's area 46). Results suggest that frontopolar activation underlies an updating process in working memory. [less ▲]

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See detailDescriptiveness and proper name retrieval
Brédart, Serge ULg; Valentine, T.

in Memory (1998), 6(2), 199-206

Cohen (1990) hypothesised that the retrieval of proper names is particularly difficult because proper names convey little information about their bearers' attributes. In the present study, this hypothesis ... [more ▼]

Cohen (1990) hypothesised that the retrieval of proper names is particularly difficult because proper names convey little information about their bearers' attributes. In the present study, this hypothesis was evaluated by using a face naming task. Faces were those of cartoon and comic-strip characters bearing either arbitrary names or descriptive names. Results unequivocally showed that retrieval blocks occurred more often in naming characters bearing arbitrary names than in naming characters bearing descriptive names. Moreover, retrieving arbitrary names that were also common names was as difficult as retrieving arbitrary names that were not common names. These results support Cohen's claim that arbitrariness plays a significant role in the relative vulnerability of proper name retrieval. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrieval failures in face naming
Brédart, Serge ULg

in Memory (1993), 1(4), 351-366

Several authors have reported that the incidence of retrieval failures is higher for people's names than for object names. The first aim of the paper was to evaluate the role of one factor that might ... [more ▼]

Several authors have reported that the incidence of retrieval failures is higher for people's names than for object names. The first aim of the paper was to evaluate the role of one factor that might contribute to making face naming difficult. Face naming usually requires the retrieval of one specific label: the name of the seen individual. Object naming is less restricting. First, object names may have synonyms. Second, labels available from different levels of categorisation of an object may be appropriate to name that object (e.g. trousers, jeans, Levis). Such a degree of freedom does not exist in naming faces. The hypothesis that face naming is made difficult by the simple fact that people have only one name was tested by studying faces having the exceptional property of bearing two names: faces of actors playing nameable characters (e.g. Harrison Ford playing Indiana Jones). Consistent with the hypothesis, data from two experiments showed that when bypassing a block is possible by producing another name that is known for a face, the incidence of blocks falls dramatically. The other aim of the paper was to test the reversed frequency effect in person naming reported previously in several diary studies, in an experimental setting. A direct frequency effect rather than a reversed frequency effect was obtained in the present study. [less ▲]

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