References of "Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent)"
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See detailLessons from the year 2001 Mycosphaerella graminicola epidemic on winter wheat in Belgium
Calay, F.; Coquillart, L.; Lucas, C. et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2002, May 07), 67(2), 197-204

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See detailThe use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for studies of genetic variation in populations of Coccinella septempunctata in Belgium.
Haubruge, Eric ULg; Vanlerberghe-Masutti, Flavie; Collignon, Pierre et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2002), 67(3), 557-61

The movement and dispersion of Coccinella septempunctata and its efficacy as aphid control agent over large areas is not really understood because of the difficulty in identifying the origins of predators ... [more ▼]

The movement and dispersion of Coccinella septempunctata and its efficacy as aphid control agent over large areas is not really understood because of the difficulty in identifying the origins of predators. To quantify the genetic diversity within the species and monitor the spatial foraging, populations were sampled from Belgium and analysed for RAPD DNA variation. Twenty decamer primers generated more than hundred polymorphic RAPD bands and pairwise distances were calculated between populations according to Nei and Li, then used to construct a radial neighbour-joining dendrogram and examine intra- and inter-population variance coefficients, by analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA). This study shows that while a number of factors can complicate the use and interpretation of RAPD fragments as genetic markers, RAPD analysis can be a valuable technique for studies of intra-specific genetic variation in C. septempunctata. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of close habitat on the entomological diversity and abundance in carrot open fields.
Colignon, P.; Gaspar, Charles ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2002), 67(3), 481-6

Vegetable open fields areas have been increasing for the last decade in Wallonia (South part of Belgium), mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agrochemical ... [more ▼]

Vegetable open fields areas have been increasing for the last decade in Wallonia (South part of Belgium), mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agrochemical residues (R.M.L.), biological pest control was developed and reduces the insecticide use, leading to have safer fresh products. Carrot represents an important cultivated species in Wallonia. To asses the impact of close habitat on both pest (mainly aphids) and beneficial insects, carrot fields were investigated during all the production duration in 2000. Twelve fields between Waremme and Hannut were visited weekly from June to October. Insects were caught using yellow traps and determined to the family level. Approximately 90,000 insects belonging to 109 families were identified. Significant differences linked to field closed habitat were observed on 31 families. An increase of biodiversity in term of family number near set-asides and woody borders was observed. Evaluation of pest and beneficial diversity and density in vegetable crops was discussed to promote future IPM program. [less ▲]

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See detailAphid prey suitability as environmental effect on Adalia bipunctata reproduction.
Vanhaelen, Nicolas; Gaspar, Charles ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2002), 67(3), 563-8

Secondary plant metabolites (allelochemicals) play a major role in plant-insect interactions. Glucosinolates (GLS) and their degradation products from Brassica species are attractants and feeding ... [more ▼]

Secondary plant metabolites (allelochemicals) play a major role in plant-insect interactions. Glucosinolates (GLS) and their degradation products from Brassica species are attractants and feeding stimulants for Brassicaceae specialist insects but are generally repellent and toxic for generalist herbivores. The impact of these compounds on crucifer specialist insects are well known but their effect on generalist predators is still not well documented. Prey host plant influence on reproduction of an aphidophagous beneficial, the two spot ladybird, was determined using the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae reared on a crucifer plant, namely Brassica napus containing low GLS levels. As ladybird developmental and reproductive parameters were already shown to be strongly affected by the allelochemical presence in its preys, the unsuitable aphid and host plant combination was only momentary used to feed the A. bipunctata adults. A strong impact of the diet was observed on the beetle fecundity and the emerging offspring. Changing B. brassicae aphid to a suitable prey slowly improved the temporary negative effect of the former diet. These results enhance the food environmental effect and the importance of tritrophic relations in pest management strategies by predators. Indeed, more than the choice of the beneficial species, the prey host plant has a major influence on the potential efficacy of biological agent to control herbivore species such as aphids. [less ▲]

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See detailInsecticide activity of surfactins and iturins from a biopesticide Bacillus subtilis Cohn (S499 strain)
Assié, Lazar; Deleu, Magali ULg; Arnaud, Ludovic et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2002), 67(3), 647-655

Surfactin C14, surfactin C15, and iturin C15 are lipopeptides purified from Bacillus subtilis (S499 strain). They were incorporated into the artificial diet of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to ... [more ▼]

Surfactin C14, surfactin C15, and iturin C15 are lipopeptides purified from Bacillus subtilis (S499 strain). They were incorporated into the artificial diet of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to assess their potential insecticidal activities. Surfactins with long fatty acid chains (C14 and C15) had an insecticidal effect on the fruit fly, D. melanogaster. On the contrary, iturin was not toxic to D. melanogaster. At 100 ppm, surfactin C14 and C15 caused 85.4 and 92.6% adult mortality, respectively, after a one-day exposure. F1 progeny fly emergence inhibition by C14 and C15 were 79.8 and 91.3%, respectively. To check whether the biocide activity of lipopeptides was due to their surface-active properties, detergent Triton X100, SDS, CTAB, and Tween 80 were tested. No adult mortality was recorded with the detergents but Triton X100 and SDS showed F1 progeny emergence inhibition similar to that of surfactins. We showed that there was a dose-response activity with surfactin C15 [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution of aphidophagous ladybird populations in a vegetable crop and implications as biological agents.
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Colignon, P.; Hastir, P. et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2001), 66(2a), 333-40

Aphidophagous predators such as hoverfly and ladybird beetles are effective biological agents to control aphid pests in perennial and annual cultivated species. Introduction and conservation of beneficial ... [more ▼]

Aphidophagous predators such as hoverfly and ladybird beetles are effective biological agents to control aphid pests in perennial and annual cultivated species. Introduction and conservation of beneficial insects are two ways to increase natural control of pests. Whether massive releases of entomophagous insects are expensive and time consuming, the preservation of predator natural populations can be expected by reducing and by adapting chemical treatments in crop fields. Vegetable cultivated areas increased in Belgium for several years, mainly Fabaceae species such as peas and beans. In this work, the evolution of ladybird species population was assessed from May to June in broad bean fields (Vicia faba L.) between Waremme and Hannut, in Hesbaye. Weekly, the aphid and aphidophagous beetle populations were collected from yellow traps and determined on plants by visual observations. Even if five ladybird species were identified, three of them represented more than 95% of the collected insects (Coccinella septempunctata L., Propylea quatuor-decimpunctata L. and Psyllobora vingintiduopunctata L.). Evolution of coccinellid populations during the cultivation season was discussed in relation to the presence of potential aphid preys and the agrochemical treatments which were applied. Integrated pest management in vegetable fields constitute a reliable way to increase the quality level of fresh vegetables in terms of pesticide residue limitations. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of insecticide treatments on insect density and diversity in vegetable open fields.
Colignon, P.; Hastir, Pierre; Gaspar, Charles ULg et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2001), 66(2a), 403-411

Vegetable open field areas increased for 15 years in Wallonia, mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agro-chimical residues (R.M.L.), biological pest ... [more ▼]

Vegetable open field areas increased for 15 years in Wallonia, mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agro-chimical residues (R.M.L.), biological pest control was developed and allowed to reduce the insecticide use, leading to have safer fresh products. Among cultivated species in Wallonia, leguminous crops represent more than 85% of the vegetable production. To assess the impact of insecticide treatment on both pests (mainly aphids) and beneficial insects (predators and parasitoids), broad bean (Vicia faba L.) fields were investigated during all the production duration. Twelve fields between Waremme and Hannut were visited weakly from May to July. In each field, control untreated and treated plots were investigated. Insects were caught using yellow traps and determined until the family level. Approximately 90.000 insects belonging to 59 major families (99% of captures) and 64 minor families were identified. These results showed that biodiversity in terms of family numbers was significantly higher in unsprayed plots. In addition, biodiversity and biomass (insect density) increased gradually during the season. Evaluation of pest and beneficial diversity and density was discussed in relation to aphicid (lambda-cyhalothrin, pirimicarb) treatments and the development of I.P.M. program in vegetable crops. [less ▲]

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See detailOviposition preferences of Episyrphus balteatus.
Vanhaelen, Nicolas; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Gaspar, Charles ULg et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2001), 66(2a), 269-75

A crucial aspect of predator oviposition behaviour is host plant choice, especially in hoverflies where the newly hatched offspring are unable to move a great distance to search for the appropriate prey ... [more ▼]

A crucial aspect of predator oviposition behaviour is host plant choice, especially in hoverflies where the newly hatched offspring are unable to move a great distance to search for the appropriate prey. Such offspring must generally feed on the host plant aphids previously selected by the mother. Some factors involved in the selection of the oviposition site of Episyrphus balteatus De Geer include aphids associated to chemical stimuli, aphid colony size and host plant characteristics. Here we tested the hypothesis that there will not only be a rank order hierarchy of preference for aphid prey species reared on the same host plant but that a similar hierarchy of different host plant of one aphid species could be established. Therefore we compared the number of eggs laid on different combinations of host plant and aphid species. Vicia faba L., secondary metabolites free, Brassica napus L. and Sinapis alba L., containing low and high levels of glucosinolates respectively were used. The latter compounds are well known allelochemicals from Brassicaceae having a strong influence on specialist and generalist insects from both phytophagous and entomophagous levels. These experiments enhance the importance of tritrophic interactions in biological control of pests by underlining the host plant influence on aphidophagous predators, either directly or through the odours emitted by the phytophagous prey. [less ▲]

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See detailA survey of wheat take-all in Belgium
Bodson, Bernard ULg; Pamart, M.; Daoust, Serge et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2000, May 09), 65(2a), 565-572

Take-all of wheat caused by the soil-borne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. Tritici (Ggt) is known world-wide as a major yield-limiting factor. In Belgium, the Take-all disease is not very well known ... [more ▼]

Take-all of wheat caused by the soil-borne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. Tritici (Ggt) is known world-wide as a major yield-limiting factor. In Belgium, the Take-all disease is not very well known. A take-all survey has been set up in 1999 in Belgium in collaboration between the Agricultural University of Gembloux and Monsanto where goals were to quantify the disease in the main cereal areas and to study the main factors influencing take-all development. [less ▲]

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See detailThree years of trials with trifloxystrobine fungicides in cereals in Belgium
Moreau, Jean-Marc; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2000, May 09), 65(2b), 749-760

Trifloxystrobine-based fungicides were tested for two years in winter barley and three years in winter wheat in Belgium. One or two applications were compared with other strobilurine based fungicides. The ... [more ▼]

Trifloxystrobine-based fungicides were tested for two years in winter barley and three years in winter wheat in Belgium. One or two applications were compared with other strobilurine based fungicides. The efficacy of the combinations of trifloxystrobine (125 g/ha) + propiconazole (125 g/ha) and trifloxystrobine (125 g/ha) + cyproconazole (80 g/ha) for disease control in winter barley and winter wheat, respectivvely, was confirmed. They allowed yield increases comparable to those obtained with kresoxim-methyl and azoxystrobine-based fungicides [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterising the spectra of spray droplets on three artificial targets using image analysis.
Degre, Aurore ULg; Mostade, Olivier; Huyghebaert, Bruno et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2000), 65(2b),

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See detailCharacterization of the erosive power of the suspension used within the framework of accelerated wear tests of spraying nozzles.
Loyen, S.; Huyghebaert, B.; Debouche, Charles ULg et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2000), 65(2b), 907-918

The study concerns the application techniques of agrochemical products and especially focuses on the wear of spraying nozzles. This one leads to a modification of the spraying characteristics and the ... [more ▼]

The study concerns the application techniques of agrochemical products and especially focuses on the wear of spraying nozzles. This one leads to a modification of the spraying characteristics and the homogeneity of distribution deteriorates. An accelerated wear process of nozzles is defined by the standard ISO 5682-1, which makes it possible to compare the wear resistance of the different nozzles available on the market. In order to accelerate the process, an erosive suspension is used in the test rig, but this suspension looses its characteristics during the utilisation time. This is the reason why a system measuring continuously the erosive power has been set up. This system is validated by different discontinuous measurement and the correlation observed have a coefficient of about 0,99. From the signal detected by the new device, two calculations have been carried out. A first one determining continuously the total wear quantity of the nozzles. A second one identifying continuously the erosive power of the suspension. On the one hand, we obtain a basis allowing to compare the wear resistance of nozzles and on the other hand, a parameter indicating the appropriate time to change the suspension. [less ▲]

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See detailApports de l'assistance technique ("Programmes de Stewardship") pour une utilisation plus rationnelle et une réduction des risques des pesticides au Sahel (Mali, Burkina Faso et Tchad)
Schiffers, Bruno ULg; Deuse, J.; Ashenaffi, T. et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2000)

L'assistance technique dite «programme de stewardship» a été initiée par les donateurs au Rwanda en 1998, avec l'aide du Consortium IPHYTROP, conformément aux «Lignes directrices sur l'aide et l ... [more ▼]

L'assistance technique dite «programme de stewardship» a été initiée par les donateurs au Rwanda en 1998, avec l'aide du Consortium IPHYTROP, conformément aux «Lignes directrices sur l'aide et l'environnement N"6" de l'OCDE (1995). Elle vise à accompagner les achats de pesticides et à responsabiliser tous les acteurs de la filière et en priorité les producteurs. Pour la première fois durant la campagne 1999/2000, au Mali, au Burkina Faso et au Tchad, un programme de stewardship complet destiné aux utilisateurs de pesticides a été réalisé dans le cadre des Appels d'Offres pour l'achat des produits phytosanitaires. Ce programme, financé par SENCHIM-AG, a été proposé afin d'apporter d'une part, un complément de formation technique en matière de lutte phytosanitaire et d'autre part, de communiquer sur le terrain aux encadreurs et aux agriculteurs les éléments essentiels sur les produits fournis et à les conscientiser quant aux risques liés à l'utilisation des produits phytosanitaires (insecticides, herbicides, fongicides). C'est l'intérêt de tous les acteurs d'accompagner désormais systématiquement les livraisons de produits phytosanitaires de tels programmes de formation. L'article se propose d'exposer le programme réalisé, les. contraintes rencontrées et les enseignements tirés de ces trois premières expériences. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmentally based maternal effect on reproduction of Adalia bipunctata : impact of aphid prey species.
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Defrance, Thibault; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2000), 65(2), 303-310

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See detailStudies of the glutathione S-transferases activities and their localisation in Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera : Coccinellidae).
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Broon, D.; Haubruge, Eric ULg

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (1999), 64(3a), 349-355

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See detailEffects of isothiocyanates on the glutathione S-transferases activity from Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera : Coccinellidae).
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Gaspar, Charles

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (1999), 64(3a), 297-303

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See detailInfluence of some experimental factors on the evaluation of the sensitivity of Aphidius rhopalosiphi De Stefani-Perez to phosalone.
Guelton, O.; Mahaut, T.; Deleu, R. et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (1999), 64(3a), 41-47

Mead-Briggs (1992) proposed a Iaborarory method to assess the contact toxicity of a pesticide on the cereal aphid parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi De Stefani-Perez. The influence of air moisture ... [more ▼]

Mead-Briggs (1992) proposed a Iaborarory method to assess the contact toxicity of a pesticide on the cereal aphid parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi De Stefani-Perez. The influence of air moisture, photoperiod, sex of insects and storage conditions on the sensitivity of this parasitoid to phosalone was studied. Results sbowed that insect sensitivity is the most influenced by air moisture. The storage conditions of mummies before use seems also to be an important factor. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimising strobilurine fungicide uses in a reasoned protection of winter wheat
Meeùs, Patrick; Bodson, Bernard ULg

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (1998, May 05), 63(3b), 1023-1027

For three years, strobilurine fungicides are applied at different growth stages of a winter wheat crop in a single application and in a programme of treatments. The trial results show the interest of ... [more ▼]

For three years, strobilurine fungicides are applied at different growth stages of a winter wheat crop in a single application and in a programme of treatments. The trial results show the interest of these recent products for the protection of the upper organs: flag leaf and ear. [less ▲]

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See detailIntérêt et positionnement d'un traitement fongicide avant le stade épiaison sur froment d'hiver dans les conditions culturales de la Belgique
Bodson, Bernard ULg; Meeùs; Falisse, André ULg

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (1998, May 05), 63(3b), 1033-1039

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See detailSpray-drying of different lactic acid species.
Desmons, S.; Zgoulli, S.; Evrard, P. et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (1998), 63(4a),

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