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See detailEffect of New Synthetic PEGylated Ferulic Acids in Comparison to Ferulic Acid and Commercial Surfactants on the Properties of Wheat Flour Dough and Bread
Nicks, Francois ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg; Dubrowski, Thomas ULg et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2013), 93(10), 2415-2420

BACKGROUND: Ferulic acid esterified with poly(ethylene glycol) with three different average molecular weights (200, 400 and 1000 g/mol) was studied in breadmaking. The effects of these antioxidants on the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Ferulic acid esterified with poly(ethylene glycol) with three different average molecular weights (200, 400 and 1000 g/mol) was studied in breadmaking. The effects of these antioxidants on the properties of wheat flour dough and bread were analyzed and compared with those obtained with ferulic acid and two commercial surfactants, diacetyl tartaric acid ester of mono- and diglycerides and sodium stearoyl lactylate. Farinographic and alveographic methods as well as weight, volume and bread firmness measurements were used for this purpose. <br /> <br />RESULTS: Such as ferulic acid, when the PEGylated derivatives were implemented in the dough (5000 ppm), it accelerated its breakdown and decreased its rheological properties. However, it allowed to avoid the important diminution of loaf volume observed when dough supplemented with ferulic acid was baked. That decrease in volume was related to the inhibition of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) by the unesterified ferulic acid. Moreover, two of the PEGylated ferulic acids even contributed to an increase of loaf volumes (5-6%) and demonstrated crumb softener properties. <br /> <br />CONCLUSION: The addition of ferulic acid in wheat flour dough caused the inhibition of the yeast, which resulted in decreased bread volume. That effect could be avoid by the esterification of ferulic acid with poly(ethylene glycol). [less ▲]

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See detailPOLYPHENOL VARIABILITY IN THE FRUITS AND JUICES OF A CIDER APPLE PROGENY
Verdu, Cindy ULg; Childebrand, Nicolas; Marnet, Nathalie et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2013)

BACKGROUND: Polyphenols have a favorable antioxidant potential on human health, suggesting that their high content in apple is responsible for the beneficial effects of apple consumption. They are also ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Polyphenols have a favorable antioxidant potential on human health, suggesting that their high content in apple is responsible for the beneficial effects of apple consumption. They are also linked to the quality of apple juices and ciders since they are predominantly responsible for astringency, bitterness, color and aroma. Major phenolic compounds were quantified by liquid chromatography in fruits and juices from a cider apple progeny harvested for three years. The total content of procyanidins and their average degree of polymerization (DPn) were also determined in fruits by phloroglucinolysis. Variability and extraction yield of these compounds were determined. RESULTS: The variability observed in the progeny was representative of the variability observed in many cider apple varieties. Hydroxycinnamic acids were the most extractable group, with an average extraction yield of 67%, whereas flavonols and anthocyanins were the least. CONCLUSION: This study is the first one to introduce variability and extraction yields of the main phenolic compounds in both fruits and juices of a cider apple progeny. This dataset will be used for an upcoming QTL mapping study, an original approach that has never been undertaken for cider apple. [less ▲]

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See detailAgronomical factors influencing the legumin/ vicilin ratio in pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds
Mertens, Cécile ULg; Dehon, Lydie; Bourgeois, Audrey et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2012)

BACKGROUND: Many research studies have investigated the impact of agronomical factors on the protein content of pea (Pisum sativum). This study aimed to establish if a correlation exists between protein ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Many research studies have investigated the impact of agronomical factors on the protein content of pea (Pisum sativum). This study aimed to establish if a correlation exists between protein content and legumin/vicilin (L/V) ratio in pea seeds and to identify agronomical factors that have an impact on this ratio. RESULTS: The L/V ratio was positively correlated with protein content (r = 0.58, P ≤ 0.01), but no linear regression was applicable (adjusted R² = 0.31). Both variety and cultivation year had a highly significant effect on the ratio (P < 0.001). The interaction between these two factors was also highly significant (P < 0.001), some varieties being less sensitive to climatic conditions than others. Cultivation location had a highly significant effect (P < 0.01). There was no interaction between variety and location. Seeding density had a highly significant effect on the ratio (P < 0.01),with a saturation effect above 60 seeds/m². CONCLUSION: Further studies should establish if a linear regression model can be applied to pea varieties independently. Varieties with a stable L/V ratio can prove to be useful in the food industry. Other agronomical factors (soil type and seeding density) should be considered for the production of pea seeds with a specific L/V ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of harvest time on seed oil and protein contents and compositions in the oleaginous gourd Lagenaria siceria (Molina) Standl
Loukou, Ahou; Lognay, Georges ULg; Barthelemy, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2011), 91(11), 2073-2080

BACKGROUND: The stage of fruit ripeness at the time of harvest determines the final quality of ripe fruit. In this study, changes in the chemical composition of seed kernels from the oleaginous gourd ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The stage of fruit ripeness at the time of harvest determines the final quality of ripe fruit. In this study, changes in the chemical composition of seed kernels from the oleaginous gourd Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. during maturation were evaluated to determine the best time to harvest the berries. Two cultivars (round and oval berry) were studied at three maturation stages (30 and 50 days after fruit set (DAFS) and complete plant whiteness (CPW)). [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of enzymatic extraction of ferulic acid from wheat bran, using response surface methodology, and characterization of the resulting fractions
Barberousse, Helene; Kamoun, Amel; Chaabouni, Moncef et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2009), 89(10), 1634-1641

BACKGROUND: The agro-industries generate thousands of tons of by-products, such as bran or pulps, each year. They are, at best, used for cattle feeding. Through biocracking, this biomass may constitute a ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The agro-industries generate thousands of tons of by-products, such as bran or pulps, each year. They are, at best, used for cattle feeding. Through biocracking, this biomass may constitute a renewable source for various molecules of interest for the industry. For instance, ferulic acid, a compound showing antioxidant ability, is found in abundance in cereal bran. Its release depends mainly on the breaking of its ester linkage to other constitutive elements of the cell wall, such as arabinoxylans. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effects of ferulic acid esterase (FAE) and xylanase activities, as well as incubation time and temperature, on ferulic acid extraction yield from wheat bran. Under optimized conditions, the composition of the hydrolysate and of residual bran were compared to native bran. RESULTS: Experiments carried out under the predicted optimal conditions (FAE amount, 27 U g(-1); xylanase amount, 304 U g(-1); incubation time, 2 h; and temperature, 65 degrees C) led to an extraction yield of 52.8%, agreeing with the expected value (51.0%). The crude ferulic acid fraction was purified with Amberlite XAD16, leading to a final concentration of 125 mu g mL(-1) of ferulic acid in ethanol. The antioxidant capacity of this purified fraction was evaluated by the DPPH. scavenging method: it exhibited better efficiency (EC50 = 10.6 mu mol L-1 in ferulic acid) than the ferulic acid standard (EC50 = 13.7 mu mol L-1). CONCLUSION: These results confirm the potential of wheat bran valorization in the field of natural antioxidant extraction, possibly viable in an industrial scheme. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytical methodologies for quantification of ferulic acid and its oligomers
Barberousse, Helene; Roiseux, Olivier; Robert, Christelle et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2008), 88(9), 1494-1511

Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is the most widespread hydroxycinnamic acid in the plant world, where it is a key molecule in cell wall architecture. Owing to its high antioxidant ... [more ▼]

Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is the most widespread hydroxycinnamic acid in the plant world, where it is a key molecule in cell wall architecture. Owing to its high antioxidant properties, ferulic acid shows large potential applications in food industry as well as in the health and cosmetic markets. There is thus a high interest in extracting this high-value compound from waste materials of the agricultural industry, which requires the selection of an appropriate quantification method. This paper therefore gives an overview of analytical methodologies developed over past decades for quantification of ferulic acid and its oligomers. (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy on the effects of laminarin, a polysaccharide from seaweed, on gut characteristics
Deville, Christelle ULg; Gharbi, Myriam ULg; Dandrifosse, Guy ULg et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2007), 87(9), 1717-1725

This study investigates whether laminarin (beta 1-3,beta 1-6-glucan), a polysaccharide from seaweed, exhibits beneficial properties for human health by analysing its effects on intestinal parameters ... [more ▼]

This study investigates whether laminarin (beta 1-3,beta 1-6-glucan), a polysaccharide from seaweed, exhibits beneficial properties for human health by analysing its effects on intestinal parameters. Anaerobic batch culture fermenters were used for the screening of the in vitro utilization of laminarin by the human gut microflora through the monitoring of biochemical and microbiological parameters. Additionally, the influence of laminarin ingestion on the composition of intestinal mucus (neutral mucins, sialomucins and sulphomucins) was studied in rats. Laminarin was almost totally (more than 90% used) fermented after 24 h of incubation with human intestinal bacteria. It was not selectively used by bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, but increased the production of propionate and butyrate. Variations of mucus composition were observed in jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, both in lumen content and in intestinal wall, of rats after ingestion of this polysaccharide. Due to its effects on mucus composition, laminarin could influence the adherence and the translocation of bacteria across the epithelial wall. In conclusion, laminarin seems to be a modulator of the intestinal metabolism by its effects on mucus composition, intestinal pH and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, especially butyrate. (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the performances of different fermentation strategies on cell growth and bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28
Ghalfi, Hakim; Benkerroum, Noreddine; Doguiet, Dalié et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2007), 87

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See detailInsight in variability of apparent endoxylanase and endoxylanase inhibitor levels in wheat kernels
Dornez, Emmie; Joye, Iris J.; Gebeurs, Kurt et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2006), 86(11), 1610-1617

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See detailLaminarin in the dietary fibre concept
Deville, Christelle ULg; Damas, Jacques ULg; Forget, Pierre et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2004), 84(9), 1030-1038

Dietary fibres consist of edible plant polysaccharides that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine but undergo complete or partial fermentation in the colon. Seaweeds ... [more ▼]

Dietary fibres consist of edible plant polysaccharides that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine but undergo complete or partial fermentation in the colon. Seaweeds, notably Laminaria spp, are particularly rich in polysaccharides resistant to hydrolysis in the upper gastrointestinal tract and are, in consequence, considered as dietary fibres. Most of the carbohydrates from Laminaria spp are thought to be indigestible by humans. The main storage polysaccharide of these algae is laminarin, a beta-polymer of glucose. The aims of this work were, on the one hand, to compare various methods of extraction of laminarin by partial characterisation of the product obtained and, on the other hand, to study the fate of this polysaccharide and its effects in the gastrointestinal tract in order to determine its potential as a dietary fibre in human nutrition. Among four methods tested to extract laminarin, the best appeared to be a hot HCl-based method. Human digestive enzymes did not hydrolyse laminarin, so this polysaccharide can be considered as a dietary fibre. After ingestion by rats, this polysaccharide was not found in faeces of these animals. It did not increase the intestinal transit and stool output in vivo, but it increased the contractile response of the stomach to acetylcholine in vitro. (C) 2004 Society of Chemical Industry. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucosinolates in isano (Tropaeolum tuberosum) tubers: qualitative and quantitative content and changes after maturity
Ramallo, R.; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg; Le Boulenge, E. et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2004), 84(7), 701-706

Six varieties of isano (Tropaeolum tuberosum), an Andean edible tuber, were analysed. The aim was to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively their content of glucosinolates and to determine ... [more ▼]

Six varieties of isano (Tropaeolum tuberosum), an Andean edible tuber, were analysed. The aim was to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively their content of glucosinolates and to determine concentration changes of these compounds upon delayed harvest. Additionally, exploratory assays were carried out on the effect of postharvest cold storage of the tubers as well as of a drying process imposed on blanched tuber slices. Only one glucosinolate (p-methoxybenzyl glucosinolate) was found in the six domestic varieties analysed. Its concentration varied between 36.5 and 90.0 mumolg(-1) dry matter. This range is relatively high when compared with other edible glucosinolate-containing vegetables. 'Dark' coloured tuber varieties showed higher levels than 'light' coloured tuber varieties at normal harvest time. Of the two varieties on which the effect of delayed harvest was studied, one showed increasing and then decreasing changes until 44 days after maturity, while the other did not show any significant change with time. Postharvest cold stored samples showed similar changes to tubers kept in soil, and glucosinolate levels in dried blanched tubers did not differ significantly from those in fresh samples. Taken together, the data indicate that the glucosinolate content of isano is highly dependent on both the variety and the time of harvest. These parameters should be taken into account when considering isano as a promising food source with medicinal properties for humans and animals, but also with possible adverse biological effects, all related to the presence of glucosinolates. (C) 2004 Society of Chemical Industry. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect Of Oral And Parenteral N Nutrition Vs N-Free Nutrition On The Endogenous Amino Acid Flow At The Ileum Of The Pig
Leterme, Pascal; Monmart, Thierry; Thewis, André ULg et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (1996), 71(2), 265-271

Two methods were tested for suppressing the depressive effect of N-free diets on the digestive secretions in pigs: the blood perfusion of amino acids (AA) or the peptide alimentation method. In the latter ... [more ▼]

Two methods were tested for suppressing the depressive effect of N-free diets on the digestive secretions in pigs: the blood perfusion of amino acids (AA) or the peptide alimentation method. In the latter, enzymically hydrolysed casein (EHC), composed of oligopeptides and free AA, was used as the source of nitrogen. The unabsorbed dietary N molecules were discarded from the ileal digesta by ultrafiltration or gel filtration, assuming that the endogenous fraction did not contain significant amounts of small molecules. The AA supply by blood perfusion had no effect on the ileal endogenous AA losses (8.0 g AA kg-' DM intake) in growing pigs (k 50 kg), compared with the N-free diet alone (8.3 g), whereas the EHC supplementation significantly increased them (18.0 8). The increase was due to both endogenous and dietary N. The presence of unabsorbed dietary AA in the ileal digesta was confirmed by the AA profile of the soluble molecules with a very low molecular mass (< 3 kDa), which was close to that of EHC. Both ultrafiltration (cut-offs of 3 or 10 kDa) and gel filtration methods, utilised to discard the remaining dietary molecules, also eliminated a significant proportion of endogenous AA. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical Composition Of Pea Fibre Isolates And Their Effect On The Endogenous Amino Acid Flow At The Ileum Of The Pig
Leterme, Pascal; Thewis, André ULg; Van leeuwen, Piet et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (1996), 72(1), 127-134

Pea starch, hulls and cotyledon inner fibres, isolated from pea seeds, were incorporated in N-free diets, on a NDF-content basis, in order to study their effect on the ileal endogenous amino acid (AA ... [more ▼]

Pea starch, hulls and cotyledon inner fibres, isolated from pea seeds, were incorporated in N-free diets, on a NDF-content basis, in order to study their effect on the ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) excretion in the growing pig. Maize starch and wood cellulose were selected as references. The inner fibrecontaining diet was also supplemented with enzymatically hydrolysed casein (EHC) in order to test the peptide alimentation method on a diet containing a fibre source with a high water-holding capacity (WHC = 10.9 g water g-' DM). The fibres were also analysed by different methods (crude fibre, NDF, ADF, enzymatic-gravimetric method, Englyst method). The fibre content of the inner fibre fraction varied widely from one method to another and ranged from 109 g crude fibre to 480 g AOAC fibre kg-' DM. Compared to the 'maize starch + wood cellulose' diet (11.0 g AA excreted kg-' DM intake), pea starch had no effect on ileal AA losses (9.6 g), whereas pea hulls slightly increased them (14.2 g). The AA excretion dramatically increased with the incorporation of inner fibres (28.0 g), because of their very high WHC. The addition of EHC increased the output (48.0 g) further, at a level that can hardly be explained only by an increase of the endogenous secretions. The results suggest that the NDF content of grain legume products is not indicative of their effect on the ileal endogenous AA losses in pigs and that the physiological effects of fibres along the gastrointestinal tract are due to both their chemical and physical properties. [less ▲]

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See detailApparent And True Ileal Digestibility Of Amino-Acids And Nitrogen-Balance Measured In Pigs With Ileorectal Anastomosis Or T-Cannulas, Given A Diet Containing Peas
Leterme, Pascal; Thewis, André ULg; Beckers, Yves ULg et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (1990), 52(4), 485-497

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