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See detailEvaluation of serum osteocalcin and CTX-I in Ardenner horses with special reference to juvenile interphalangeal joint disease.
Pastoret, V.; Carstanjen, B.; Lejeune, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (2007), 54(9), 458-63

The first aim of this study was to establish a profile of age-related normal serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC) in Ardenner horses. For this first part, blood samples from 49 healthy Ardenner horses ... [more ▼]

The first aim of this study was to establish a profile of age-related normal serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC) in Ardenner horses. For this first part, blood samples from 49 healthy Ardenner horses were collected. The second aim was to study two biochemical markers of bone metabolism, OC and a carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), in 30 young Ardenner horses during 1 year. Amongst them, 17 showed lesions of juvenile degenerative joint disease in the distal forelimbs. A specific radioimmunoassay for equine OC was used to measure the serum concentration of the marker. The serum concentration of CTX-I was measured using a commercially available human assay validated for use in the horse. The effect of age, sex, season and health status (with or without lesions) was assessed. Levels of OC fall between birth and the adult stage: this decrease being most marked between birth and 1 year of age. This age-related decrease of OC was confirmed in the 30 young Ardenner horses, but CTX-I levels remained constant in this group. The Levels of the two markers changed significantly with the season with higher concentrations during the winter. No significant difference was shown either between the two sexes or between the two health statuses. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiographic evolution of the forelimb digit in Ardenner horses from weaning to 28 months of age and its clinical significance
Lejeune, Jean-Philippe ULg; Schneider, Nicole ULg; Caudron, Isabelle et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (2006), 53(7), 364-370

Ossification of collateral cartilages is a common radiographic finding in draught horses and indication of a high frequency of interphalangeal osteo-arthropathy have been found in Ardenner horses. This ... [more ▼]

Ossification of collateral cartilages is a common radiographic finding in draught horses and indication of a high frequency of interphalangeal osteo-arthropathy have been found in Ardenner horses. This study first aimed at following the evolution of the digits of the forelimbs on radiographic images in a group of 32 Ardenner horses from weaning to 852 +/- 19 days and, secondly, at evaluating the clinical significance of the observed radiographic changes. At 250 +/- 21 days, only 23% of the horses presented a small separate ossification centre of collateral cartilages above the level of the distal sesamoid bone or at the level of the proximal half of the middle phalanx. At 852 +/- 19 days, 100% of the horses presented an ossification of collateral cartilages but at different stages and grades. The presence and the extent of the ossification of the lateral cartilages were not significantly associated with lameness. Phalanges changes appeared at the average age of 1 year and they were represented by entheseophytes on the dorsal surface of the middle and distal phalanges. The frequency of affected horses increased with age as well as the size of the entheseophytes. This may reflect mechanical stresses applied to the interphalangeal joints. A significant association with the presence of lameness was pointed out. The presence and the severity of phalanges changes could be of importance, in combination with a clinical examination, in improving the selection of horses able to assume work and/or leisure activities. [less ▲]

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See detailSerum osteocalcin and CTX-MMP concentration in young exercising thoroughbred racehorses
Carstanjen, B.; Amory, Hélène ULg; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (2005), 52(3), 114-120

Bone responds to exercise with changes in bone (re-)modelling, which might be monitored non-invasively with biochemical bone markers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of exercise on ... [more ▼]

Bone responds to exercise with changes in bone (re-)modelling, which might be monitored non-invasively with biochemical bone markers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of exercise on serum osteocalcin and serum carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen generated by matrix metalloproteinases (CTX-MMP) concentration in young racehorses. Seventy-one 2 to 4-year-old Thoroughbreds were included in this prospective infield study. Blood sampling was performed six times (i.e. six sampling cycles) during a 9-month period. Serum samples were analysed with commercial osteocalcin and CTX-MMP radioimmunoassays. Two-year-old racehorses had higher serum osteocalcin and CTX-MMP values than 3-year-old horses. Gender and training amplitude did not significantly influence serum osteocalcin and CTX-MMP values. Two-year-old horses showed an increase in osteocalcin values between cycles 2 and 3 and an increase in serum CTX-MMP values between cycles 1 and 2. Serum osteocalcin and CTX-MMP concentrations decreased between cycles 4 and 5, and 5 and 6. Three-year-old horses showed an increase in serum osteocalcin levels between cycles 3 and 4 and an increase in serum CTX-MMP concentrations between cycles 1 and 2, and 3 and 4. Serum osteocalcin levels decreased between cycles 5 and 6, whereas serum CTX-MMP levels decreased between cycles 4 and 5, and 5 and 6. Two- and three-year-old horses showed a decreased osteocalcin/CTX-MMP ratio between cycles 1 and 2. Moreover, 2-year-old horses showed an increase in the osteocalcin/CTX-MMP ratio between cycles 2 and 3. Sore shin formation did not significantly influence serum osteocalcin and CTX-MMP values. Serum osteocalcin and CTX-MMP are promising bone markers for monitoring exercise induced changes in equine bone metabolism. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of thyroid function in obese dogs and in dogs undergoing a weight loss protocol
Daminet, Sylvie; Jeusette, Isabelle; Duchateau, L. et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (2003), 50(4), 213-218

Obesity and weight loss have been shown to alter thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans. In dogs, obesity is the most common nutritional problem encountered and weight loss is the cornerstone of its ... [more ▼]

Obesity and weight loss have been shown to alter thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans. In dogs, obesity is the most common nutritional problem encountered and weight loss is the cornerstone of its treatment. Therefore, it is important to clarify how obesity and weight loss can affect thyroid function test results in that species. The objectives of this study were to compare thyroid function in obese dogs and in lean dogs and to explore the effects of caloric restriction and weight loss on thyroid hormone serum concentrations in obese dogs. In the first experiment, 12 healthy lean beagles and 12 obese beagles were compared. Thyroid function was evaluated by measuring serum concentrations of total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3), thyrotropin (TSH), and reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) as well as a TSH stimulation test using 75 mu g IV of recombinant human TSH. In the second experiment, eight obese beagles were fed an energy-restricted diet [average 63% maintenance energy requirement (MER)] until optimal weight was obtained. Blood samples for determination of TT4, FT4, TT3, TSH and rT3, were taken at the start and then weekly during weight loss. Only TT3 and TT4 serum concentrations were significantly higher in obese dogs as compared to lean dogs. In the second experiment, weight loss resulted in a significant decrease in TT3 and TSH serum concentrations. Thus obesity and energy restriction significantly alter thyroid homeostasis in dogs, but the observed changes are unlikely to affect interpretation of thyroid function test results in clinics. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of a gravity and shock score for prognosis in equine surgical colic
Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Olle, E.; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (2001), 48(8), 465-73

A retrospective study evaluated 200 surgical colic cases. A gravity score (GS) based on four clinical parameters estimating intestinal obstruction (rectal palpation, borborygmi, abdominal distension, pain ... [more ▼]

A retrospective study evaluated 200 surgical colic cases. A gravity score (GS) based on four clinical parameters estimating intestinal obstruction (rectal palpation, borborygmi, abdominal distension, pain) and classified into three categories was established and tested to determine if it could evaluate prognosis. A shock score (SS) based on six parameters was also attributed to each case. The overall survival rate was 54%. The statistical analysis showed a significant (P < 0.01) difference in the survival rate in the different categories of the GS, as well as in the categories of the SS. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that horses with GS 3 are 10.6 times more likely to die than those with GS 1. A model combining the two scores showed an odds ratio of 7.1 for GS 3 versus GS 1, and for SS 3 versus SS 1, the odds ratio was 7.2. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of the cholinergic pathway in mediating platelet-Activating factor-induced pulmonary dysfunctions in unsedated calves
Van de Weerdt, ML; Husson, Cécile; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1999), 46(2), 103-113

The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible role of the cholinergic pathway in mediating platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced pulmonary dysfunctions in unsedated calves. In a placebo ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible role of the cholinergic pathway in mediating platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced pulmonary dysfunctions in unsedated calves. In a placebo group, PAF infusion challenge induced significant dysfunctions in the pattern of breathing [a significant increase in respiratory rate (RR) and a significant decrease in tidal volume (VT)], the mechanics of breathing [a significant increase in total lung resistance (RL) and a significant decrease in dynamic lung compliance (CLdyn)] and gas exchange, whereas in atropine pre-treated calves, PAF infusion challenge induced a significant increase in RR, VT and HR and a significant decrease in CLdyn. The RL increase was prevented by atropine pre-treatment. On the basis of our findings, we suggest that, in cattle, the PAF-induced pattern of breathing dysfunctions and the diffuse bronchoconstriction and microvascular leakage of small airways are not mediated through the cholinergic pathway. By contrast, our data suggest that PAF-induced bronchoconstriction of upper airways is at least partly mediated through muscarinic receptors. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined Effect of Web 2086 (Paf Antagonist) and Ketoprofen (Nsaid) on Paf-Induced Ex Vivo Platelet Aggregation in Bovine
Bastos da Silva, Miriam; Herion, Francine ULg; Raskinet, Renée ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1997), 44(2), 65-71

The effect of the specific PAF-antagonist WEB 2086, a thieno-triazolo-diazepine, and ketoprofen, a NSAID, was investigated on PAF-induced bovine platelet aggregation measured ex vivo in platelet-rich ... [more ▼]

The effect of the specific PAF-antagonist WEB 2086, a thieno-triazolo-diazepine, and ketoprofen, a NSAID, was investigated on PAF-induced bovine platelet aggregation measured ex vivo in platelet-rich plasma (PRP). WEB 2086 was infused intravenously over 1 min followed immediately by ketoprofen administration over 1 s (both drugs = 3 mg/kg), in a group of six healthy male Friesian calves. Depending on the PAF concentration, a reversible (10(-8)-10(-9) mol/l) and irreversible (10(-5)-10(-7) mol/l) platelet aggregation was observed. The reversible aggregation was completely blocked by pretreatment of the animal with WEB 2086 and ketoprofen. The inhibitory effects observed during the irreversible aggregation were 47.22%, 54.00% and 88.00% at 10(-5), 10(-6) and 10(-7) mol/l PAF, respectively. Moreover, the aggregation obtained in these condition became reversible. Maximal inhibitory effect of WEB 2086 and ketoprofen on PAF-induced platelet aggregation in calves was observed within 30 min after administration of both drugs. This inhibition persisted even after 24 h and was significantly different from control with P < 0.05. The combined effect of both drugs exceeded the sum of the individual effects (synergism). It was concluded that WEB 2086 and ketoprofen very effectively blocked PAF-induced bovine platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma. The study also suggested a synergism between both substances. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibition of Paf-Induced Platelet Aggregation by Web 2086 'in-Vitro', an Antagonist to the Receptor for Platelet-Activating Factor, in Bovine
Bastos da Silva, Miriam; Herion, Francine ULg; Raskinet, Renée ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1996), 43(7), 399-413

The sensitivity of bovine platelet aggregation in response to PAF stimulation and the ability of WEB 2086 (a thieno-triazolodiazepine) to inhibit response to PAF-induced platelet aggregation were ... [more ▼]

The sensitivity of bovine platelet aggregation in response to PAF stimulation and the ability of WEB 2086 (a thieno-triazolodiazepine) to inhibit response to PAF-induced platelet aggregation were investigated in the blood from five healthy male Belgian Blue calves. The recorded response to PAF showed a plateau which was dependent on the PAF concentration. Platelet aggregation induced by PAF consists of two mechanisms: reversible and irreversible aggregations which are accompanied by the release of platelet granule contents. Reversible aggregation occurred above (2 . 10(-9) mol/l) PAF, and irreversible aggregation occurred above (2 . 10(-7) mol/l) PAF. Addition of WEB 2086 to bovine platelets in vitro induced a rightward shift in the dose-response curve to PAF. WEB 2086 inhibited PAF-induced aggregation in a competitive reversible manner (pA2 = 7.61). The results of our study show that PAF induces platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and that addition of WEB 2086 to bovine platelets in vitro inhibits PAF-induced Platelet Aggregation. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of Creatine, Glycogen and L-(+)-Lactate Determination in Biopsy Samples of Bovine Musculus Diaphragma
Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Linden, Annick ULg; Cuvelier-Klimek, M. et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1995), 42(1), 13-26

Whereas reliable measurements of diaphragmatic force and electrical activity are now available in calves, evidence that substrate contents in the bovine diaphragm can be accurately measured is still ... [more ▼]

Whereas reliable measurements of diaphragmatic force and electrical activity are now available in calves, evidence that substrate contents in the bovine diaphragm can be accurately measured is still lacking. The purposes of the present study were therefore a) to describe and test the reliability of methods and procedures used for sampling, lyophilisation, extraction and dosage of muscular lactate, glycogen and creatine contents and b) to report the variation in their levels found along the bovine diaphragm and among individuals. The repeatability of the results yielded by a) assaying the extracts, b) processing and assaying the extracts and c) taking samples at different sites in the muscle was assessed. Neither assay, nor processing effects were significant (P < or = 0.05). Substrates were found to be homogeneously distributed within the two muscles studied. Substrate contents expressed per unit of muscle weight or total creatine were neither more or less variable than when expressed per unit of dry matter. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of a Serotonin-S2 Receptor Blockade During Early or Late Stage of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Double-Muscled Calves: A Comparative Study
Genicot, Bruno; Mouligneau, Frédéric; Lindsey, J. K. et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1993), 40(4), 241-248

Ninety-four Belgian White and Blue double-muscled calves were involved in this study which aimed to compare the efficacy of a serotonin-S2 receptor blockade at two different stages of an acute respiratory ... [more ▼]

Ninety-four Belgian White and Blue double-muscled calves were involved in this study which aimed to compare the efficacy of a serotonin-S2 receptor blockade at two different stages of an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), i.e. at the occurrence of first clinical signs or when another anti-inflammatory compound was clinically shown to be ineffective. Metrenperone, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT2) blocker, was injected (intramuscularly, 5 times, at 12 hourly intervals, dose rate: 0.1 mg/kg) to (1) 58 calves referred to our laboratory after a treatment (group I) which lasted from 3 to 5 days and which did not improve the clinical status of the animals and (2) 36 calves investigated as soon as first clinical signs occurred (group II). Following the severity of the ARDS, the animals from group I needed to be classified into 2 groups: group IA (moderate ARDS - n = 45) and group IB (severe ARDS - n = 13). For animals in group I, the antibacterial compound previously used was maintained and administered during 4 more days whilst the previous anti-inflammatory drug was suppressed and replaced by metrenperone administered as mentioned above. In group II, each animal was treated with ceftiofur sodium as an antibacterial agent. A clinical score and a breathing score were calculated at each step of the investigation period, i.e. before (T0) and 1 hour (T1) after the first treatment, during the interval 12H-48H (T2) which followed this treatment and 168 H (T3) after this treatment. Four clinical parameters were also taken into account separately: rectal and cutaneous temperatures, respiratory and heart rates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailThe distensibility of the central bronchial system in calves measured by means of the monofrequency oscillation technique
Reinhold, P.; Barnikol, W. K. R.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1993), 40

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See detailEffect of a Booster Vaccination against Influenza and Equine Herpes Virus on Cardio-Respiratory Adjustments to Strenuous Exercise and Training in Thoroughbred Horses
Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1993), 40(7), 481-491

This study was conducted in order to assess whether exercise- and training-induced cardio-respiratory adjustments are modified during the 10-day period which follows a booster vaccination with an oily ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted in order to assess whether exercise- and training-induced cardio-respiratory adjustments are modified during the 10-day period which follows a booster vaccination with an oily adjuvanted inactivated vaccine against influenza and equine herpesvirus-1 (Equiffa). Nine healthy vaccinated thoroughbred horses were used. Six were revaccinated and three were kept as control. All the horses completed a standardised exercise test (SET) that was repeated 4 times, i.e. 10 (SET1) and 2 (SET2) days before revaccination, and 2 (SET3) and 10 (SET4) days after revaccination. During the whole experimental period the horses were trained 6 days per week according to an interval training schedule. Respiratory airflow, tidal volume, respiratory rate and expired minute volume (VE) were measured using a face mask and 2 ultra-sonic pneumotachographs. The oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were obtained on a breath-by-breath basis, using a mass spectrometer. Heart rate (HR) was continuously measured with a polar horse tester. Venous blood was sampled before and after the test and analysed for biochemical determinations. Blood was also sampled before and 21 days after the booster vaccination for circulating antibody titration. The peak VO2, VCO2, ventilatory equivalent (VE/VO2) and oxygen pulse (VO2/HR) were significantly improved by the 3-week training period. The other cardio-respiratory parameters as well as most of the blood parameters remained unchanged throughout the 4 SETs. The revaccination did not impair any of the parameters measured before, during, or after the SETs. All revaccinated horses showed a rise in antibodies against influenza virus type A1 and A2 and EVH-1 compared to the control horses. It was concluded that, in our horses, revaccination with an oily adjuvanted inactivated vaccine against influenza and EVH-1 did not impair their cardiorespiratory and metabolic adjustments to strenuous exercise and intense training, and that the seroconversion due to revaccination was unaffected by the intense daily exercise experienced by the animals in the post-vaccination period [less ▲]

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See detailNormal Electro- and Vectorcardiographic Data in the Growing Friesian Calf Using a Semi-Orthogonal Lead System
Amory, Hélène ULg; Genicot, B; Rollin, Frédéric ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1993), 40(2), 81-92

This study derives normal values for electro- and vectorcardiographic parameters, as generated by the Holmes semi-orthogonal lead system, in healthy growing calves. Sixty-four electrocardiograms were ... [more ▼]

This study derives normal values for electro- and vectorcardiographic parameters, as generated by the Holmes semi-orthogonal lead system, in healthy growing calves. Sixty-four electrocardiograms were recorded from healthy Friesian calves aged from one week to one year. Waveform and duration were analysed and compared in the X-, Y- and Z-leads. The modal P, QRS and T tridimensional vectors were graphically constructed and their magnitude and orientation were calculated. The duration of waves and intervals were similar to data previously reported in the bovine species. Differences from data reported in other species were attributed to heart rate. The duration of waves and QT and ST intervals significantly lengthened with the decrease in heart rate which occurred during growth. PR interval significantly lengthened with physical maturation, and this change was independent of the decrease in heart rate. The magnitude and the orientation of the spatial modal vectors were approximately similar to the few data previously reported in cattle and in other ungulates and were not affected by somatic growth [less ▲]

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See detailBovine Vectocardiography: A Comparative Study Relative to the Validity of Four Tridimensional Lead Systems
Amory, Hélène ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg; Genicot, B. et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1992), 39(6), 453-469

For spatial vectocardiography to become applicable for cardiac investigation in cattle, it was necessary to develop a reliable standardized electrocardiographic lead system in this species. In this study ... [more ▼]

For spatial vectocardiography to become applicable for cardiac investigation in cattle, it was necessary to develop a reliable standardized electrocardiographic lead system in this species. In this study, four tridimensional lead systems, initially developed in horses, were compared when applied in calves. Fifty seven electrocardiograms were collected. The between-subject variability of the magnitude and angles of the tridimensional P, QRS and T modal vectors obtained by use of each lead system was compared. Reproducibility of vectrocardiographic measurements was analyzed by comparing results obtained in 10 calves within a one day interval. The Holmes semi-orthogonal lead system, giving the lowest between-subject variability and the highest between-day reproducibility, appeared to be the most reliable lead system in order to apply vectocardiography in the bovine species. [less ▲]

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See detailLobeline-Induced Hyperpnea in Equids. Comparison with Rebreathing Bag and Exercise
Art, Tatiana ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1991), 38(2), 148-152

In order to facilitate lung auscultation, a transitory hyperpnea may be obtained by lobeline administration, use of a rebreathing bag or exercise. The effect of these three methods on the pulmonary ... [more ▼]

In order to facilitate lung auscultation, a transitory hyperpnea may be obtained by lobeline administration, use of a rebreathing bag or exercise. The effect of these three methods on the pulmonary function were studied and compared in 5 healthy ponies. Respiratory airflow and tidal volume were measured with a pneumotachograph Nr. 5 and pleural pressure with the esophageal balloon catheter technique. Pulmonary function values were measured before, during and after the hyperpnea induced by (i) lobeline, (ii) rebreathing and (iii) exercise. Lobeline administration induced an hyperpnea due to both an increase in tidal volume and respiratory rate; this increase in ventilation lasted for about 90 s and was accompanied by a sharp rise in the respiratory peak airflows, especially the expiratory ones. The rebreathing method induced a less hyperpnea which lasted only 30 s. Lastly the hyperpnea after a light treadmill exercise was the longer in duration and intermediate between the preceding methods in intensity [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of the Thermodilution Technique for the Estimation of the Cardiac Output in the Unsedated Calf
Amory, Hélène ULg; Linden, Annick ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1991), 38(6), 409-417

The purpose of this study was to establish a standardized protocol in order to obtain accurate and reproducible cardiac output (CO) measurements by the thermodilution technique in the unsedated calf. In 5 ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to establish a standardized protocol in order to obtain accurate and reproducible cardiac output (CO) measurements by the thermodilution technique in the unsedated calf. In 5 healthy calves, the effect of various temperatures, volumes, rates, means and sites of injection of the thermal indicator were tested for their effect on accuracy and reproducibility of CO measurement by the thermodilution technique, the Fick method being used as the standard technique. Five milliliters of an iced 5% dextrose solution per 100 kg body weight constituted the correct amount of thermal indicator. Manual injection of the indicator bolus and/or injection of this bolus through the proximal lumen of a thermodilution Swan-Ganz catheter gave poor results of CO measurements by the thermodilution technique. On the other hand, results of CO measurements were highly reliable when the bolus injection was performed by an ECG-synchronized injection pump and/or through a right atrial catheter with a larger diameter and a shorter length than the classical Swan-Ganz catheter. It was concluded that an iced 5% solution of dextrose (5 ml/100 kg body weight) injected through a right atrial catheter by an ECG-synchronized pump gives the most accurate and reproducible CO measurements by the thermodilution technique in unsedated calves. [less ▲]

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See detailWirksamkeit eines oralen Beruhigungsmittels auf das Verhalten und die zootechnischen Leistungen von Mastbullen der Wei-Blauen Belgischen Rasse
Genicot, Bruno; Mouligneau, Frédéric; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1991), 38

This trial was conducted with 22 Belgian White and Blue double-muscled cattle (body weight: 241.5 +/- 6.2 kg; age: 7 months). Two similar groups were constituted: a group of bulls which were treated with ... [more ▼]

This trial was conducted with 22 Belgian White and Blue double-muscled cattle (body weight: 241.5 +/- 6.2 kg; age: 7 months). Two similar groups were constituted: a group of bulls which were treated with potassium bromide (BT; n = 11) and another one which remained untreated UT; n = 11). The treatment (736 mg potassium bromide/kg feed dry matter) was stopped 60 days before the slaughtering day. The treatment with potassium bromide induced a significantreduction in the rear engagements during the whole trial period (221 days), in direct attacks during the period A (from day 0 to day 53) and in side-on attacks during the period B from day 54 to day 167). The daily weight gains, calculated for the whole trial period, were not significantly different between the two groups. Feed utilization was lower in treated bulls. During the period C (from day 168 to day 221), the sedative potency of potassium bromide seemed to be weaker than during the periods A and B. This might be due to the habituation to potassium bromide. On the basis of these results, we can conclude that the frequency of rear engagements and, during a restricted period of fattening, the frequencies of side and directattacks are significantly reduced when potassium bromide (736 mg/kg feed dry matter) is used. The time spent for hay intake, the frequency of water intake (even if the time consumed at the drinking trough was the same) was reduced and the time during which the bulls were standing was prolonged by bromide [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of cardiovascular dysfunction during Pasteurella haemolytica - induced acute pneumonia in calves
Amory, Hélène ULg; Linden, Annick ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1990)

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See detailComparison of the adrenocortical response to both pharmacological and physiological stresses in sport horses
Linden, Annick ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1990), 37(8), 601-604

Seven sport horses were investigated to compare physiological and pharmacological stresses on the plasma glucocorticosteroid levels. <br />Venous blond was sampled and analysed for cortisol concentrations ... [more ▼]

Seven sport horses were investigated to compare physiological and pharmacological stresses on the plasma glucocorticosteroid levels. <br />Venous blond was sampled and analysed for cortisol concentrations before and after each type of stress. The physiological stress was induced by the completion of a cross-country and the phar¬macological one, by an intravenous ACTH administration (200 µg) in the came horses, one week after the course. <br />Both exercise and ACTH injection induced a highly significant cortisol increase of 79 ± 0.10 %, and 160 ± 0.18 %, respectively. The relative plasma cortisol increases due to exercise on the nue hand, and due to ACTH administration on the other hand, were correlated with a coefficient of 0.82. It was concluded that the plasma cortisol increase induced by a standardised pharmacological stress could be used in order to predict the exercise-induced stress response. [less ▲]

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See detailVentilatory Mechanics in Healthy Calves During Helium-Oxygen Breathing
Rodriguez, M. N.; Art, Tatiana ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1990), 37(4), 241-246

The mechanics of breathing was investigated in six healthy calves breathing either air or a mixture of 79% helium and 21% oxygen (He-O2). Intrapleural pressure (Ppl) was measured with an esophageal ... [more ▼]

The mechanics of breathing was investigated in six healthy calves breathing either air or a mixture of 79% helium and 21% oxygen (He-O2). Intrapleural pressure (Ppl) was measured with an esophageal balloon catheter and transpulmonary pressure was obtained by subtracting the mouth pressure (Pm) from Ppl. Respiratory airflow (V) was measured using a Fleisch pneumotachograph N degrees 3 and tidal volume (Vt) was electronically derived by integrating V with respect to time. Respiratory airflow, Vt, Ppl and Pm were simultaneously recorded while the calves breathed first air (1 min), secondly He-O2 (1 min) and finally air again (1 min). The pulmonary function values were calculated on the tracings and the He-O2 values were compared to the corresponding "air" values. The ventilatory response to resistance unloading was characterized by a significant increase in minute volume exclusively due to an increase in respiratory frequency, while Vt remained unchanged. A decrease of 32% in the total pulmonary resistance (RL) and 16% in the work per litre of ventilation (Wrm/l) were observed when calves breathed He-O2. The effect of the He-O2 on RL and on Wrm/l suggests that, in the bovine species, airflow turbulances in the upper part of the respiratory tract play a significant role in the total airways resistance. [less ▲]

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