References of "Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine"
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See detailPulmonary Vein-to-Pulmonary Artery Ratio is an Echocardiographic Index of Congestive Heart Failure in Dogs with Degenerative Mitral Valve Disease
Merveille, Anne-Christine ULg; Bolen, Géraldine ULg; Krafft, Emilie et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2015), 29

Background Early recognition of left-sided congestive heart failure (CHF) in dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) is important because it influences medical therapy, timing of follow-up, and ... [more ▼]

Background Early recognition of left-sided congestive heart failure (CHF) in dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) is important because it influences medical therapy, timing of follow-up, and outcome.HypothesisPulmonary vein diameter-to-pulmonary artery diameter ratio (PV/PA) measured by echocardiography can predict CHF.AnimalsNinety-eight client-owned dogs, 37 controls, and 61 dogs with DMVD.Methods Prospective clinical cohort study. History, physical examination and Doppler-echocardiography were performed. Dogs were classified as International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council class I, II or III. Congestive heart failure was identified in a subset of 56 dogs based on radiographic findings. The PV/PA was measured in bidimensional (2D) and M-mode by 2 investigators blinded to the radiologists’ conclusions.ResultsInterobserver coefficients of variation for PV/PA acquisition and measurement were <10%. The PV/PA in control dogs was approximately 1 and increased with class of heart failure. The presence of CHF could be best predicted by measuring PV/PA in 2D echocardiography (cut-off, 1.7; area under the curve, 0.98; CI, 0.97–0.98; P < .001) with a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 91%.Conclusion and clinical importanceThe PV/PA is a simple and reproducible echocardiographic variable that increases with class of heart failure and may help discriminate dogs in CHF from asymptomatic dogs with DMVD. Additional studies are required to determine whether PV/PA might provide additional information in the integrated interpretation of Doppler-echocardiographic indices of left ventricular filling pressures and could be used for rapid assessment of CHF in dogs in a critical care setting. [less ▲]

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See detailEVALUATION OF THE CARDIOMYOTOXIC EFFECTS OF DOXYCYCLINE OVERDOSE IN CALVES USING 2-DIMENSIONAL SPECKLE TRACKING.
Lecoq, Laureline ULg; Leroux, Aurélia ULg; Brihoum, Mounir et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2015), 29(4), 1254

Doxycycline (DOXY) is associated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in calves in accidental overdose but not in experimental models when evaluated with classical and Doppler echocardiography. Two ... [more ▼]

Doxycycline (DOXY) is associated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in calves in accidental overdose but not in experimental models when evaluated with classical and Doppler echocardiography. Two-dimensional-speckle tracking (2DST) is used to evaluate LV dysfunction in numerous species but not in cattle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiotoxic effects of an experimental overdose of DOXY using 2DST in calves. Ten healthy male Holstein calves. Group 1: 5 calves (mean age 58.0 +/- 16.3 days; mean body weight 72.2 +/- 13.0 kg) received 25 mg/kg of DOXY orally for 5 days. Group 2: 5 calves (mean age 56.4 +/- 15.7 days; mean body weight 73.4 +/- 7.0 kg) received a placebo. Electrocardiography (ECG) and 2DST echocardiography were performed at day 0 and day 8. ECG tracings were analysed for occurrence of arrhythmias. 2DST measurements included global and segmental, peak values for radial and circumferential strains (SR, SC), strain rates (SrR, SrC), rotation (Rot), rotation rates (RotR) and radial displacement (DR). All calves completed the study. ECG recordings were unremarkable in both groups. Heart rate was neither significantly different between groups nor before and after treatment. LV systolic function was affected in calves receiving an overdose of DOXY as shown by a significant decrease of segmental SR (P < 0.05), SC (P < 0.05) and DR (P < 0.05) in treated calves compared to the placebo group in several segments. The SrC in early diastole was also significantly decreased in 1 segment (<0.05). In calves, DOXY overdose induces a LV dysfunction in systole, and to a lesser extent, in diastole. A better comprehension of the pathophysiology involved in the DOXY overdose will help in the treatment of accidental cases. [less ▲]

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See detailTWO-DIMENSIONAL SPECKLE TRACKING ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY IN CALVES: FEASIBILITY, REPEATABILITY AND VARIABILITY STUDY
Lecoq, Laureline ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg; Leroux, Aurélia ULg

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2015), 29(4), 1255

Two-dimensional speckle tracking (2DST) is a non-invasive technique used in many species to evaluate global and regional left ventricular (LV) function; however it received little attention in the bovine ... [more ▼]

Two-dimensional speckle tracking (2DST) is a non-invasive technique used in many species to evaluate global and regional left ventricular (LV) function; however it received little attention in the bovine species. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and reliability of 2DST for the evaluation of circumferential and radial LV wall motions in calves. Fourteen Holstein black calves (age: 62 11.6 days; body weight: 75.25 5.4 kg) were used in this observational study. Right parasternal short axis views at the level of the papillary muscles were recorded and subsequently analysed by 2DST for global and regional radial and circumferential strains and strain rates, radial displacement, rotation and rotation rate. Echocardiographic examinations were performed in unsedated, standing calves by two different observers to evaluate intra- and interobserver repeatability and variability. 2DST was feasible in all calves but 2 were excluded from analyses (ventricular septum defect and resting heart rate above 120 bpm, respectively). Automated tracking was better in systole than in diastole. Intraobserver repeatability was good to moderate for most systolic global and segmental peak values. Systolic peak values for radial strain and strain rate were more repeatable than for circumferential strain, circumferential train rate and diastolic measurements. Variability of the interobserver measurements was greater than the intraobserver measurements. Two-dimensional speckle tracking is feasible in calves and as in other species systolic radial function can be more reliably evaluated than circumferential and diastolic function. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of physiological determinants and cardiac disease on plasma adiponectin concentration in dogs
Damoiseaux, Cécile; Merveille, Anne-Christine ULg; Krafft, Emilie et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2014), 28(3), 771-778

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See detailLong-term outcome and use of 6-Minute Walk test in West Highland white Terriers with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Lilja-Maula, LIO; Laurila, HP; Syrjä, P et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2014), 28(2), 379-385

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See detailEffect of Body Weight Loss on Cardiopulmonary Function assessed by 6-Minute Walk Test and Arterial Blood Gas Analysis in Obese Dogs
Manens; Ricci, R; Damoiseaux, C et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2014), 28(2), 371-378

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See detailTransforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Activation, Storage, and Signaling Pathways in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis in Dogs.
Krafft, Emilie; Lybaert, P.; Roels, Elodie ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2014), 28

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in dogs is poorly understood. In human, transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) is considered central in the pathogenesis ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in dogs is poorly understood. In human, transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) is considered central in the pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: To investigate TGF-beta1 pathway in IPF. ANIMALS: Lung tissues from 12 affected and 11 control dogs. Serum from 16 affected West Highland white Terriers (WHWTs) and healthy dogs from predisposed (13 WHWTs, 12 Scottish Terriers and 13 Bichons Frise) and nonpredisposed breeds (10 Whippets, 10 Belgian shepherds, 8 Labradors). METHODS: In this prospective study, immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate expression and localization of TGF-beta1 protein and proteins involved in TGF-beta1 signaling (TGF-beta receptor type I and phospho-Smad2/3). Pulmonary expression of TGF-beta1 and molecules involved in its storage (latent TGF-beta binding proteins [LTBP] 1, 2, and 4), activation (alphanubeta6 and alphanubeta8 integrins, thrombospondin-1) and signal inhibition (Smad 7) was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Circulating TGF-beta1 concentration was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: In IPF, high level of TGF-beta1 protein was found in areas of fibrosis, epithelial cells had strong expression of TGF-beta receptor type 1 and phospho-Smad2/3, gene expression was decreased for LTBP 4 (P = .009) and beta8 integrin (P < .001) and increased for thrombospondin-1 (P = .016); no difference was seen for Smad7, LTBP1 and 2. Serum TGF-beta1 concentration was higher in predisposed compared with nonpredisposed breeds (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: This study identified an enhanced TGF-beta1 signaling activity in IPF. TGF-beta1 storage and activation proteins with altered expression represent potential therapeutic targets. Higher circulating TGF-beta1 concentration in predisposed breeds might partly explain their susceptibility for IPF [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence and Risk Factors for Various Cardiac Diseases in a Hospital-Based Population of 3434 Horses (1994-2011)
Leroux, Aurélia ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2013), 27(6), 1563-70

Background: Risk factors for several cardiac diseases have been suspected in horses, but few have been statistically demonstrated in a large equine population. Objectives: To describe risk factors for ... [more ▼]

Background: Risk factors for several cardiac diseases have been suspected in horses, but few have been statistically demonstrated in a large equine population. Objectives: To describe risk factors for various cardiac diseases in a hospital-based equine population. Animals: Files of 3434 horses admitted at the internal medicine department of the Liege Equine Teaching Hospital between 1994 and 2011were reviewed and of those, 284 were categorized as suffering from moderate to severe cardiac disease. Methods: Observational study. After calculating prevalence for each cardiac disease, we tested whether breed (chi-square test) or gender, age, body weight (BW) and other cardiac diseases (logistic regressions) were risk factors (p<0.05 significant). Results: Mitral regurgitation (MR, 4.4%), atrial fibrillation (AF, 2.3%), aortic regurgitation (AR, 2.1%) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR, 1.7%) were the most common cardiac abnormalities. Determinants were male gender and increasing age for AR (OR=2.03, CI=1.07-4.94), racehorses breed and middle-age for TR (OR=4.36; CI=1.10-17.24), and high BW for AF (OR=3.54; CI=1.67-7.49). MR was the major valvular disease associated with AF, pathological ventricular arrhythmia, pulmonary regurgitation (PR) and congestive heart failure (CHF). TR was also linked to AF, PR and CHF; AR was not linked to CHF. Conclusions and clinical importance: Several previously suspected risks factors of a variety of equine cardiac diseases are statistically confirmed in the studied hospital-based population. Similar observation could be suspected in a larger randomized population and should be taken into account in health and sport’s monitoring of horses presenting predisposing factors. [less ▲]

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See detailTraditional and quantitative assessment of acid-base and shock variables in horses with atypical myopathy
van Galen, G; Cerri, Simona ULg; Porter, S et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2013), 27(1), 186-193

BACKGROUND: Descriptions of acid-base disturbances in atypical myopathy (AM) are limited. OBJECTIVES: Describe and compare traditional and quantitative acid-base abnormalities and cardiovascular shock ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Descriptions of acid-base disturbances in atypical myopathy (AM) are limited. OBJECTIVES: Describe and compare traditional and quantitative acid-base abnormalities and cardiovascular shock status in horses with AM at admission. ANIMALS: 34 horses with AM, 15 healthy controls. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study. Records were searched for shock variables (packed cell volume [PCV], blood urea nitrogen [BUN], heart and respiratory rate) and acid-base variables (venous blood gas analysis, electrolytes, total protein, lactate) on admission. Base excess (BE) of free water (BEfw), chloride (BEcl), total protein (BEtp), and unidentified anions (BEua), anion gap (AG), measured strong ion difference (SIDm), and concentration of total nonvolatile weak acids ([Atot]) were calculated. Acid-base classifications, using simplified strong ion model and traditional approach, and shock grades were assigned. A 2-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Bonferroni correction compared variables in AM cases versus control horses. Significance was P < .05/16 for acid-base and P < .05/5 for shock variables. RESULTS: Tachycardia, tachypnea, and normal to increased PCV and BUN were common in AM cases. Respiratory, metabolic acid-base alterations, or both were mainly caused by respiratory alkalosis, lactic acidosis, and SIDm alkalosis, alone or in combination. Evaluated variables (except pH, potassium concentration, total protein, and related calculations) were significantly different (P < .001) between AM cases and control horses. The strong ion model provided a more accurate assessment than the traditional approach and identified mixed derangements. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Acid-base derangements should be evaluated in horses with AM and this preferably with the strong ion model. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of heart failure on dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity in plasma of dogs.
Gomez, N.; Matheeussen, V.; Damoiseaux, Cécile ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2012)

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See detailThe diagnostic value of equine rectal and duodenal biopsies.
Tossens, Morgane; Borde, Laura ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2012), 26(2), 430-431

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See detailSystematic review of efficacy of nutraceuticals to alleviate clinical signs of osteoarthritis.
Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel ULg; Coisnon, C.; Clegg, P. et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2012), 26(3), 448-56

BACKGROUND: Various treatments of osteoarthritis (OA) have been described, including use of nutraceuticals. OBJECTIVES: To review systematically the literature about the effects of nutraceuticals on ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Various treatments of osteoarthritis (OA) have been described, including use of nutraceuticals. OBJECTIVES: To review systematically the literature about the effects of nutraceuticals on clinical signs of pain or abnormal locomotion in horses, dogs, and cats, and to discuss methodological aspects of trials and systematic reviews. METHODS: A systematic search of controlled trials evaluating the impact of nutraceuticals on OA in horses, dogs, and cats was performed, using Medline, CAB Abstracts, and Google Scholar. Scientific evidence was evaluated by means of criteria proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and a scoring system adapted from both the CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement and recommendations for assessing trials by the Center of Evidence Based Medicine of Oxford. RESULTS: Twenty-two papers were selected and reviewed, with 5 studies performed in horses, 16 in dogs, and 1 in cats. The strength of evidence was low for all nutraceuticals except for omega-3 fatty acid in dogs. There were limited numbers of rigorous randomized controlled trials and of participants in clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The evidence of efficacy of nutraceuticals is poor, with the exception of diets supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids in dogs. Greater access to systematic reviews must be part of the objectives of the veterinary science in the future. Their reporting would be improved by internationally agreed-upon criteria for standards and guidelines. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Four Refractometers for the Investigation of the passive transfer in Beef Calves
Vandeputte, Sébastien ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2011), 25

Background: Failure of passive transfer (FPT) in beef calves can be detected by refractometry. Nevertheless, different models of refractometers are available, and few studies compare them for the ... [more ▼]

Background: Failure of passive transfer (FPT) in beef calves can be detected by refractometry. Nevertheless, different models of refractometers are available, and few studies compare them for the detection of FPT. Objectives: To compare the accuracy of 4 different refractometers for measuring serum total protein concentrations in comparison with results obtained by the biuret method and, based on the serum IgG threshold of 1,600 mg/mL, to determine, for each refractometer, the optimal serum protein concentration’s lowest threshold for successful passive transfer. Animals: One hundred and eight healthy beef calves, 3–8 days of age. Methods: Observational study. The concentrations of serum total proteins were determined with 4 different models of refractometers and compared with the biuret method by a Bland–Altman statistical method. The optimal serum protein concentration’s lowest threshold for successful passive transfer was determined for each refractometer by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In addition, the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration was compared with the serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (c-GT) activity and with the total immunoglobulin concentration. Results: The refractometric measurements were highly correlated with those obtained by the biuret method. Serum total protein concentration threshold values of 56, 58, 54, and 56 g/L were found respectively for the Atago, Atago ATC, Wolf ATC, and digital ATC refractometers. Immunoglobulins were highly correlated with IgG, whereas Gamma-GT only reflected colostrum uptake by the calf. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: All refractometers could be used for the assessment of passive transfer using their individual serum protein concentration threshold. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical, bronchoscopic, histopathologic, diagnostic imaging, and arterial oxygenation findings in West Highland White Terriers with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Heikkilä, H. P.; Lappalaïnen, A. K.; Day, M. J. et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2011)

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, interstitial lung disease primarily affecting West Highland White Terriers (WHWTs). OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinicopathological and ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, interstitial lung disease primarily affecting West Highland White Terriers (WHWTs). OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinicopathological and diagnostic imaging features in WHWTs with IPF. ANIMALS: Twelve WHWTs with IPF and 14 healthy control WHWTs. METHOD: Prospective study. Clinical signs and findings of physical examination, blood and arterial blood gas analyses, radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of IPF dogs were obtained and compared with controls. Histopathologic changes in IPF dogs were evaluated. RESULTS: Mean partial pressure of oxygen was significantly lower in IPF (mean ± SD, 65.5 ± 15.4 mmHg) than in controls (99.1 ± 7.8 mmHg, P<.001). The alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient was significantly higher in IPF (50.1 ± 17.3 mmHg) than in controls (17.5 ± 4.9 mmHg, P<.001). In HRCT, ground glass opacity (GGO) was detected in all IPF dogs, traction bronchiectasis in 4, and honeycombing in 1. Bronchoscopic airway changes were noted in all IPF dogs. On BAL fluid (BALF) cytology, the total cell count (TCC) was higher in IPF dogs, and the numbers but not the percentages of macrophages, neutrophils, and mast cells were increased. On histopathology, multifocal or diffuse interstitial fibrosis, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, prominent intraalveolar macrophages, distortion of alveolar architecture, and emphysematous change were detected. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: IPF causes substantial hypoxemia. In HRCT, GGO is a consistent finding. IPF dogs have concurrent airway changes and an increase in BALF TCC. [less ▲]

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See detailSerum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid endothelin-1 concentrations as diagnostic biomarkers of canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Krafft, Emilie ULg; Heikkilä, H. P.; Jespers, P. et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2011)

Background: Diagnosis of canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is challenging. Endothelin-1 (ET1) is a biomarker of IPF in humans, but whether ET1 can detect and differentiate IPF from other canine ... [more ▼]

Background: Diagnosis of canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is challenging. Endothelin-1 (ET1) is a biomarker of IPF in humans, but whether ET1 can detect and differentiate IPF from other canine respiratory diseases is unknown. Objective: To evaluate whether measurement of the concentration of ET1 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) can be used to distinguish canine IPF from chronic bronchitis (CB) and eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy (EBP). Animals: Twelve dogs with IPF, 10 dogs with CB, 6 dogs with EBP, 13 privately owned healthy West Highland White Terriers (WHWT), and 9 healthy Beagle dogs. Methods: Prospective, case control study. ET1 concentration was determined by ELISA in serum and in BALF. Results: No significant difference in serum ET1 concentration was detected between healthy Beagle dogs and WHWT. Serum ET1 concentration was higher in dogs with IPF (median interquartile range; 2.32 pg/mL, 2.05-3.38) than healthy Beagle dogs (1.28, 1.07-1.53; P < .001), healthy WHWT (1.56, 1.25-1.85; P < .001), dogs with EBP (0.94 0.68-1.01; P = .001), and dogs with CB (1.54 0.74-1.82; P = .005). BALF ET1 concentration was below the detection limit in healthy WHWT and in dogs with CB, whereas it was measurable in all dogs with IPF. A cut-off serum concentration of 1.8 pg/mL had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 81.2% for detection of IPF, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.818. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Serum ET1 can differentiate dogs with IPF from dogs with EBP or CB. ET1 can be detected in BALF of dogs with IPF. [less ▲]

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See detailDescriptive study of 32 cases of doxycycline-overdosed calves.
Brihoum, Mounir ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2010), 24(5), 1203-10

BACKGROUND: Reports of doxycycline-induced toxicity are limited despite common use of this antibiotic to treat infectious respiratory disorders in calves. OBJECTIVE: To describe previously unreported ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Reports of doxycycline-induced toxicity are limited despite common use of this antibiotic to treat infectious respiratory disorders in calves. OBJECTIVE: To describe previously unreported kidney lesions and diagnostic test results in doxycycline-overdosed calves and to compare these results with other findings reported previously. ANIMALS: Thirty-two calves that presented with adverse effects after receiving high doses of doxycycline as a treatment for mild respiratory disorders. METHOD: Retrospective review of medical records. RESULTS: Clinical examination identified mainly lethargy, dyspnea, cough, tongue paresia or paralysis associated with dysphagia and sialorrhea, tachycardia, tachypnea, and signs of myopathy. Blood analysis indicated increases in creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities and increased serum creatinine and urea concentrations. ECG recordings and Doppler echocardiography examination identified ventricular premature beats and a decrease in left ventricular global and systolic function, respectively. Necropsy and histopathology disclosed necrosis of the myocardium, tongue, and some striated muscles, acute renal tubular necrosis, and fatty degeneration or congestion of the liver. CONCLUSIONS: Most of these findings corroborate previous observations made in doxycycline-overdosed calves, and further suggest myocardial and striated muscular toxicity as well as renal toxicity in doxycycline-overdosed calves. [less ▲]

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See detailProgressive juvenile glomerulonephropathy in 16 related French Mastiff (Bordeaux) Dogs
Lavoué, Rachel ULg; van der Lugt, J.J.; Day, M.J. et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2010), 24(2), 314-322

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See detailThe use of radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy in the treatment of urethral urolithiasis in the horse: a preliminary study.
Verwilghen, Denis ULg; Ponthier, Jérôme ULg; Van Galen, Gaby ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2008), 22(6), 1449-51

BACKGROUND: Radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is widely used in equine practice for the treatment of orthopedic problems. However, its original use as a lithotripsy device in human and canine ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is widely used in equine practice for the treatment of orthopedic problems. However, its original use as a lithotripsy device in human and canine urology led us to postulate that it could be used as an alternative to the surgical treatment of urethral calculi in horses. HYPOTHESIS: Radial ESWT can easily and safely fragment calculi in the distal urethra of the horse. ANIMALS: Two postmortem cases and 1 live case of obstructive urinary disease admitted at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Liege. METHODS: A radial shockwave device was directly applied to the urethra in an attempt to fragment calculi. An ex vivo trial was performed on the same retrieved calculi to investigate pressure settings in order to obtain complete fragmentation of the calculus. RESULTS: In all cases, radial ESWT was able to fragment the calculus partially, enabling retrieval of the remaining fragments via the urethra. Much higher pressure settings than those used for in vivo partial fragmentation were necessary to obtain complete destruction of the calculi ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: This brief report suggests the use of radial ESWT as a safe and useful alternative to more invasive surgical management of urethral calculi in horses. [less ▲]

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See detailVegetative endocarditis in the horse: retrospective study
Porter, Sarah ULg; Saegerman, Claude ULg; Van Galen, Gaby ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2008), 22(6), 1411-1416

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See detailHistory and clinical features of atypical myopathy in horses in Belgium (2000-2005)
Votion, D. M.; Linden, Annick ULg; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2007), 21(6, Nov-Dec), 1380-1391

Background: The emergent nature of atypical myopathy or atypical myoglobinuria (AM) necessitates precise description of its clinical and epidemiologic features. Purpose: To define key features of AM to ... [more ▼]

Background: The emergent nature of atypical myopathy or atypical myoglobinuria (AM) necessitates precise description of its clinical and epidemiologic features. Purpose: To define key features of AM to help practitioners recognize the disease and to advise owners to take preventive measures. Animals: Belgian cases of AM confirmed by histology (CC horses; n = 57) from autumn 2000 to spring 2005 were included in the study. Co-grazing horses (Co-G horses; n = 77) that remained free of any abnormal clinical signs constituted a control croup. Methods: History, environmental characteristics, clinical signs, and laboratory results associated with AM were determined by a retrospective case series study. Results: Young horses in poor or normal body condition were found to be at risk for AM. Pastures were characterized by poor natural drainage and vegetation of low nutritional value. Features of AM were seasonal occurrence, apparent link with weather conditions fie, lack of solar radiation with no heavy frost and an excess of precipitation or relative humidity), sudden onset of clinical signs, and rapid death. Evaluation of serum creatine kinase activity indicated severe muscle destruction in CC horses and subclinical disease in a few Co-G horses. Conclusions: The association of AM with specific environmental conditions and individual animals suggests that young horses should not be pastured on bare premises subject to humidity when the weather has been very wet and cold for several days. Management of AM outbreaks should include control of Co-G horses who are apparently healthy. [less ▲]

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