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See detailA modified surgical model of fulminant hepatic failure in the rat.
DETRY, Olivier ULg; Gaspar, Yves; CHERAMY-BIEN, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Journal of Surgical Research (2013), 181

BACKGROUND: There is a need for better animal models of fulminant liver failure (FHF). Eguchi et al described an interesting surgical model of FHF in the rat. This model includes 68% partial hepatectomy ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: There is a need for better animal models of fulminant liver failure (FHF). Eguchi et al described an interesting surgical model of FHF in the rat. This model includes 68% partial hepatectomy, ischemia of 24% of the liver mass, and 8% of remnant liver left intact. In the original description by Eguchi et al, rats were administered subcutaneous glucose. However, the authors found that normothermic FHF rats with subcutaneous glucose died from deep hypoglycemia. In this report, we describe a modification of that model, and show that administration of intravenous glucose allows better survival and development of intracranial hypertension. METHODS: We operated on FHF rats using the procedure described by Eguchi et al, kept them normothermic, and maintained normoglycemia by continuous intravenous glucose injection (glucose 10%, 1 mL/h). At 24 h, we monitored liver blood tests (n = 5), intracranial pressure (n = 5), clinical encephalopathy, and survival (n = 10), and compared them with sham and 68% hepatectomy rats. RESULTS: The FHF rats developed acute cytolysis, cholestasis, and liver failure, as demonstrated by the liver blood tests. They experienced progressive encephalopathy and intracranial hypertension leading to death. Mean survival was 45.9 h. Of 10 FHF rats from the survival evaluation cohort, one survived 7 d. Laparotomy showed necrosis of lateral liver lobes and enlargement of omental lobes with a normal hepatic aspect, suggesting liver recovery. CONCLUSIONS: This surgical rat model mimics the features of human FHF and seems interesting for further research into the pathophysiology and therapeutic management of the disease. [less ▲]

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See detailConsequences of Pneumoperitoneum on Liver Ischemia During Laparoscopic Portal Triad Clamping in a Swine Model.
Nsadi, Berthier; Gilson, Nathalie ULg; Pire, Emilie et al

in Journal of Surgical Research (2011), 166(1), 35-43

BACKGROUND: Portal triad clamping (PTC) may be required during laparoscopic liver resection to limit blood loss. The aim of this study was to test in a swine model the hypothesis that during laparoscopic ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Portal triad clamping (PTC) may be required during laparoscopic liver resection to limit blood loss. The aim of this study was to test in a swine model the hypothesis that during laparoscopic PTC, increased intraperitoneal pressure may alter hepatic vein reverse circulation, inducing a more severe hepatic ischemia compared with PTC performed in laparotomy. METHODS: Fifteen pigs were randomized into three groups: laparoscopy (1 h of pneumoperitoneum at 15 mmHg and 3 h of surveillance), open PTC (1 h PTC through laparotomy and 3 h of reperfusion), and laparoscopic PTC (1 h PTC with 15 mmHg pneumoperitoneum and 3 h of reperfusion). PTC was performed under mesenteric decompression using a veno-venous splenofemoral bypass. Hepatic partial oxygen tension and microcirculatory flow were continuously measured using a Clarke-type electrode and a laser Doppler flow probe, respectively. Liver consequences of PTC was assessed by right atrium serum determination of transaminases, creatinine, bilirubin, INR, and several ischemia/reperfusion parameters, drawn before PTC (T0), before unclamping (T60), and 1 (T120) and 3 h after reperfusion (T240). Histology was performed on T240 liver biopsies. RESULTS: Compared with open PTC, laparoscopic PTC produced a more rapid and more severe decrease in hepatic oxygen tension, indicating a more severe tissular hypoxia, and a more severe decrease in hepatic microcirculatory flow, indicating a decrease in hepatic backflow. At T240, the laparoscopic PTC livers suffered from a higher degree of hepatocellular damage, shown by higher transaminases and increased necrotic index at pathology. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that in this pig model, laparoscopic PTC induces a more severe liver ischemia, related to decreased hepatic oxygen content and decreased hepatic backflow. If confirmed by clinical studies, these results may indicate that caution is necessary when performing prolonged PTC during laparoscopic hepatic resection, particularly in cirrhotic or steatotic livers. [less ▲]

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See detailBiochemical Study of Collagen in Adult Groin Hernias
Pans, Alain ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg; Lapiere, C. M. et al

in Journal of Surgical Research (2001), 95(2), 107-13

BACKGROUND: Previous works have suggested that a defect in collagen fiber structure may play a role in inguinal hernia formation. These studies focused mainly on the rectus sheath or the skin, while only ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Previous works have suggested that a defect in collagen fiber structure may play a role in inguinal hernia formation. These studies focused mainly on the rectus sheath or the skin, while only few reports dealt with the transversalis fascia. According to these findings and to our previous biomechanical and histological studies suggesting that a connective tissue pathology could play a role in the genesis of groin hernias, we performed a biochemical investigation of the collagen in the transversalis fascia and rectus sheath. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The samples were collected from 40 adult patients with uni- or bilateral hernias and from 20 control subjects without hernia (autopsies and organ donors). A constant area of tissue was taken by using a calibrator. The wet and dry weights per 100 mm(2) were determined and the total collagen concentration as well as its sequential extractibility in NaCl, acetic acid, and pepsin was measured. The ratios of alpha(1)/alpha(2) chains (I) and of type I/III collagen were assessed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: Samples collected in the control and patient sheaths showed an increased wet weight per 100 mm(2) in the patients. The wet and dry weights per unit area were increased in the patient fascias. The collagen concentration was increased in the indirect hernias. The fascias from the direct hernias (DH) presented a significantly increased collagen extractibility after pepsin digestion (5.6%), when compared to the control fascias (2.6%). The extractibility was 3.4% in the nonherniated (NH) sides. The qualitative study (ratios alpha(1)/alpha(2) (I) and I/III collagen) showed no difference between the fascia groups. CONCLUSIONS: The significant increase of collagen extractibility with pepsin in the DH fascias and at a lesser degree in the NH fascias suggests that molecular alterations of collagen could be involved in the genesis of groin hernias. This connective tissue pathology would express preferentially its effects in the inguinal region, since we have observed no major difference between the rectus sheaths of controls and those of patients. [less ▲]

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