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See detailSynthesis and Surface-Active Properties of Uronic Amide Derivatives, Surfactants from Renewable Organic Raw Materials
Laurent, Pascal ULg; Razafindralambo, Hary ULg; Wathelet, Bernard ULg et al

in Journal of Surfactants and Detergents (2011), 14(1), 51-63

Short chemical syntheses were developed to produce a new set of surfactants from uronic acids derived from widely available raw material. Three different strategies were used to synthesise uronic amide ... [more ▼]

Short chemical syntheses were developed to produce a new set of surfactants from uronic acids derived from widely available raw material. Three different strategies were used to synthesise uronic amide derivatives, the structures of which were totally characterized by spectrometric methods (IR, MS, 1H-RMN and 13C-RMN). The best one, using an acid chloride as synthetic intermediate, furnished the expected amides as a mixture of anomers in 46 to 58 % global yield. Surface-active properties (CMC, g cmc, Tmax, Amin) of homologous series of uronic acid N-alkylamides from C8 to C18 were also assessed. In general, these sugar-based surfactants exhibited good surface-activities, and appeared as valuable non ionic surfactants compared to Triton X-100, the most well-known non ionic surfactant. Increasing the alkyl chain length influenced the CMC values for both glucuronic and galacturonic N-alkylamide derivatives. The galacturonic N-alkylamides decreased g cmc at slower values than their counterpart's glucuronic N-alkylamides. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic And Equilibrium Surface Tensions Of Surfactin Aqueous Solutions
Razafindralambo, Hary ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg

in Journal of Surfactants and Detergents (2004), 7(1), 41-46

A homologous series of surfactins containing β-hydroxy fatty acids having 13, 14, or 15 carbon atoms were isolated from the supernatant of Bacillus subtilis strain S499 cultures. Their surface-active ... [more ▼]

A homologous series of surfactins containing β-hydroxy fatty acids having 13, 14, or 15 carbon atoms were isolated from the supernatant of Bacillus subtilis strain S499 cultures. Their surface-active properties at the air-water interface were then evaluated. Dynamic surface tension data were analyzed by the relaxation function γt=γm+(γo−γm)/[1+(t/t*)n]. Based on various parameters t*, n, vmax, γm calculated from this equation, the dynamic surface properties of surfactin were found to depend on both bulk concentration and hydrophobic character of the alkyl chain. At low concentrations of surfactin, the dynamic surface tension (γd) decreased with increasing carbon atom number of the surfactin alkyl chain (n=13 to 15). However, at high concentrations, the maximum decrease of 41-4 was achieved by surfactin-C14. In contrast, more strongly hydrophobic alkyl chains in surfactins always enhanced their ability in reducing the equilibrium surface tensions and their aptitude in forming micelles. [less ▲]

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