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See detailContribution to the identification of α-, β- and ε-copper phthalocyanine blue pigments in modern artists' paints by X-ray powder diffraction, attenuated total reflectance micro-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy
Defeyt, Catherine ULg; Vandenabeele, P.; Gilbert, Bernard ULg et al

in Journal of Raman Spectroscopy (2012), 43

Since the end of the 20th century, the α-, β- and ε-copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) blue pigments are widely used in modern artists' paints. The identification of the CuPc crystalline structure can provide ... [more ▼]

Since the end of the 20th century, the α-, β- and ε-copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) blue pigments are widely used in modern artists' paints. The identification of the CuPc crystalline structure can provide useful technical and chronological information for the study of works of art. Although when a CuPc blue pigment is identified, its crystalline structure often remains unspecified despite the interest for conservation science. In this study, X-ray powder diffraction, attenuated total reflectance micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy analyses have been carried out on 15 dry pigment samples of CuPc and acrylic, vinylic, alkyd, arabic gum and oil-based artists' paints. By using the polymorphic markers underlined for dry pigments, the CuPc crystalline structure has been successfully identified for most of the analysed artists' paints. However, according to the analytical technique used and the investigated paint sample, the obtained results largely differ. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect analysis of the central panel of the so-called Wyts triptych after Jan van Eyck
Deneckere, A.; Hocquet, François-Philippe ULg; Born, A. et al

in Journal of Raman Spectroscopy (2010), 41(11), 1210-1219

The applicability of mobile, non-destructive techniques such as energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, which reveals the elemental composition, and fibre-coupled Raman spectroscopy, offering ... [more ▼]

The applicability of mobile, non-destructive techniques such as energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, which reveals the elemental composition, and fibre-coupled Raman spectroscopy, offering molecular information, is applied to the central panel of the Wyts triptych, after Jan van Eyck. Using a combination of these direct techniques, vermilion (HgS), lead white (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2), anatase (TiO2), massicot (PbO), zinc white (ZnO) and lead-tin yellow type I (Pb2SnO4) could be identified. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) measurements also confirmed the presence of cobalt. Also, copper was detected in different blue and green areas. For the brown and red colour, iron oxides were used. Apart from identifying pigments, the combination of these analytical techniques also gave information about restored parts and the layered structure of the panel. XRF maps of three different areas of the panel painting were recorded to get an idea of the changes the painting underwent during its past history. This research confirms the results of the visual analysis that the painting is a heavily restored copy of a lost original by Jan van Eyck. [less ▲]

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See detailMaya blue-green pigments found in Calakmul, Mexico: a study by Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy
Moreno, Renata Garcia; Strivay, David ULg; Gilbert, Bernard ULg

in Journal Of Raman Spectroscopy (2008), 39(8), 1050-1056

After more than two decades of fieldwork in the Maya archaeological site of Calakmul, Mexico, numerous remnants of blue and green pigments have been reported on wall paintings, as well as on funerary ... [more ▼]

After more than two decades of fieldwork in the Maya archaeological site of Calakmul, Mexico, numerous remnants of blue and green pigments have been reported on wall paintings, as well as on funerary paraphernalia, such as masks, miniatures and vases. The importance of these pigments is linked to the sacred values that Maya people associate with blue and green colours since pre-Columbian times. These hues symbolise water, and are therefore associated with fertility and regeneration. This paper aims to perform a survey of the blue and green pigments used in the Early Classic and Late Classic periods in Calakmul (300-850 A.D.), in order to have a better understanding of their chemical composition and origin. Analyses were performed on microsamples using Raman and UV-visible spectroscopies to evaluate the possibilities that these techniques can offer in future in situ researches on Mesoamerican archaeological materials and objects. With these analyses, we have documented a large blue-green chromatic palette, which includes the earliest Blue Maya and Green Maya known to date, as well as malachite, pseudomalachite and an unknown-up-to-now blue-green mineral pigment, veszelyite, used specifically for ritual objects. The results indicate a careful selection of imported products and the mastering of a complex ancient Maya pictorial tradition. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailThe technique of the mural paintings of the Tournai Cathedral
Lepot, Laurent ULg; Gilbert, Bernard ULg; Denoël, Sophie

in Journal of Raman Spectroscopy (2006), 37(10), 1098-1103

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