References of "Journal of Plant Physiology"
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See detailHigh temperatures limit plant growth but hasten flowering in root chicory (Cichorium intybus) independently of vernalisation.
Mathieu, Anne-Sophie; Lutts, Stanley; Vandoorne, Bertrand et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (2013), in press

An increase in mean and extreme summer temperatures is expected as a consequence of climate changes and this might have an impact on plant development in numerous species. Root chicory (Cichorium intybus ... [more ▼]

An increase in mean and extreme summer temperatures is expected as a consequence of climate changes and this might have an impact on plant development in numerous species. Root chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is a major crop in northern Europe, and it is cultivated as a source of inulin. This polysaccharide is stored in the tap root during the first growing season when the plant grows as a leafy rosette, whereas bolting and flowering occur in the second year after winter vernalisation. The impact of heat stress on plant phenology, water status, photosynthesis-related parameters, and inulin content was studied in the field and under controlled phytotron conditions. In the field, plants of the Crescendo cultivar were cultivated under a closed plastic-panelled greenhouse to investigate heat-stress conditions, while the control plants were shielded with a similar, but open, structure. In the phytotrons, the Crescendo and Fredonia cultivars were exposed to high temperatures (35 °C day/ 28 °C night) and compared to control conditions (17 °C) over 10 weeks. In the field, heat reduced the root weight, the inulin content of the root and its degree of polymerisation in non-bolting plants. Flowering was observed in 12% of the heat stressed plants during the first growing season in the field. In the phytotron, the heat stress increased the total number of leaves per plant, but reduced the mean leaf area. Photosynthesis efficiency was increased in these plants, whereas osmotic potential was decreased. High temperature was also found to induce flowering of up to 50% of these plants, especially for the Fredonia cultivar. In conclusion, high temperatures induced a reduction in the growth of root chicory, although photosynthesis is not affected. Flowering was also induced, which indicates that high temperatures can partly substitute for the vernalisation requirement for the flowering of root chicory [less ▲]

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See detailOrgan-dependent oxylipin signature in leaves and roots of salinized tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum)
Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Ghars, Mohamed ali; Frettinger, Patrick et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (2012), 169

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See detailMucilage and polysaccharides in the halophyte plant species Kosteletzkya virginica : Localozation and composition in relation to salt stress
Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Han, Rui-Ming; Classen, Birgit et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (2010), 167

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See detailNAM-1 gene polymorphism and Grain Protein Content in Hordeum.
Jamar, Catherine ULg; Loffet, F.; Frettinger, P. et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (2010), 167

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See detailEffect of NaCl and mannitol iso-osmotic stresses on proline and free polyamine levels in embryogenic Fraxinus angustifolia callus
Tonon, Giustino; Kevers, Claire ULg; Faivre-Rampant, Odile et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (2004), 161(6), 701-708

With the aim to differentiate the ionic and osmotic components of salt stress, short and long-term changes in free polyamines and proline induced by iso-osmotic concentrations of NaCl (0.1 mol/L and 0 ... [more ▼]

With the aim to differentiate the ionic and osmotic components of salt stress, short and long-term changes in free polyamines and proline induced by iso-osmotic concentrations of NaCl (0.1 mol/L and 0.2mol/L) and mannitol (0.2mol/L and 0.4mol/L) were determined in Fraxinus angustifolia callus. The peculiarities of the short-term responses were: i) a very early (30 min) and temporary increase in Putrescine (Pu) and Spermine (Spm) as a consequence of salt treatment, and ii) a continuous accumulation of Spermidine (Spd) and Spm in response to mannitol. The changes of Proline (Pro) were quite limited both in the short and in the long term, and generally occurred later than Polyamine (PAs) changes took place, suggesting a regulatory mechanism of PAs metabolism on Pro biosynthesis. In the long-term, no drastic accumulations of Pro or PAs in response to NaCl and mannitol were observed, suggesting that their physiological role is unlikely to be that of osmo-compatible solutes in this plant system. The salt induced a higher callus growth inhibition effect than did mannitol and this inhibition was associated with the reduction of endogenous levels of PAs, especially Pu. However, while a diverging time course was observed under lethal salt concentration (0.2 mol/L NaCl), a high parallelism in the endogenous changes of Pro and Pu was observed under all non-lethal conditions (control - 0.2 and 0.4 mol/L mannitol - 0.1 mol/L NaCl). Therefore the synchronous changes of Pro and Pu can be considered as a physiological trait associated with cell survival. These results indicate a strong metabolic co-ordination between PAs and Pro pathways and suggest that the metabolic fluxes through these pathways start competing only when the stress level is high enough to be lethal for cells. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential gene expression in two potato lines differing in their resistance to Phytophthora infestans
Evers, Danièle; Ghislain, Marc; Hausman, Jean-François et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (2003), 160(6), 709-712

Horizontal resistance to late blight in the potato is a primary objective of many breeding programs. Knowledge of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying it, however, is scarce. The ... [more ▼]

Horizontal resistance to late blight in the potato is a primary objective of many breeding programs. Knowledge of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying it, however, is scarce. The purpose of the present study was the identification of these physiological and biochemical factors in plant material obtained by crossing a late blight resistant Solanum phureja clone with a susceptible dihaploid of S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum. The mRNA RT-PCR differential display method was used to compare the gene expression patterns of a resistant hybrid with that of a susceptible one. By sequence homology, we identified several genes with diverse functions, including genes known to be involved in resistance or stress responses and genes known to be involved in primary or secondary metabolism. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a more versatile alpha-glucan biosynthesis in plants
Jacon, Géraldine ULg

in Journal of Plant Physiology (2003)

During the last 10 years, the increased need for starches with novel properties has occupied the research community, and many efforts were concentrated on unraveling the starch bio- synthesis pathways ... [more ▼]

During the last 10 years, the increased need for starches with novel properties has occupied the research community, and many efforts were concentrated on unraveling the starch bio- synthesis pathways. The knowledge generated in these investigations was subsequently used to produce tailor-made starches in higher plants using recombinant DNA technology. Examples of starches with new functionalities are those with a modified degree of branching (Schwall et al. 2000, Shewma- ker et al. 1994, Kortstee et al. 1996) and the amylose-free starch (Visser et al. 1991a, Kuipers et al.1994), some of which hold potential for applications in the paper-, textile-, plastics-, food and pharmaceutical industry. The accumulation of more starch has also been an objective, but this will not be dis- cussed further here, (see: Slattery et al. 2000). In our laboratory, we have embarked on two generic tech- nologies with a very wide range of applicability: (i) introduction of new linkages types and structural elements using glu- cansucrases, and (ii) engineering granule-boundness by using microbial starch-binding domains (SBDs). It is expected that these technologies will contribute substantially to the biosynthesis of more versatile α-glucans in the near future, leading to starches with altered functionalities that cannot be obtained by conventional breeding. In this study recent developments in starch modification using heterologous expression of microbial genes will be reviewed, with emphasis on the potato plant. [less ▲]

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See detailFatty Acid Hydroperoxides Biotransformation By Potato Tuber Cell-Free Extracts
Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Delcarte, J.; Jaziri, M. et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (2002), 159(10),

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See detailOsmotic pretreatment promotes axillary shooting from cauliflower curd pieces by acting through internal cytokinin level modifications
Vandemoortele, Jean-Luc; Kevers, Claire ULg; Billard, Jean-Pierre et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (2001), 158(2), 221-225

In vitro propagation of cauliflower has generally been achieved through axillary shoot proliferation of curd explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with an auxin and a cytokinin ... [more ▼]

In vitro propagation of cauliflower has generally been achieved through axillary shoot proliferation of curd explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with an auxin and a cytokinin. Recently, it has been shown (Vandemoortele 1999) that a soaking in sucrose (-2 MPa for 24 h) of cauliflower curd explants, before culture without any growth regulator, also induced axillary branching. The later procedure avoids the phenomenon of hyperhydricity in the shoots formed. Axillary shooting obtained by the two methods appears to be mediated by modifications of internal cytokinin levels. The osmotic pretreatment did not influence auxin levels, but induced a zeatin and a zeatin riboside levels increase. Curd explants cultured with the usual procedure (on MS medium supplemented with 5 mu mol/L BA and 0.5 mu mol/L NAA) showed a zeatin and zeatin riboside levels increase of the same magnitude and a higher one for isopentenyl adenine and isopentenyl adenosine. The modification of the cytokinin status in the curd explants subjected to a short osmotic pretreatment thus should be less favourable for hyperhydricity. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide decomposition activity in tissues cultures of soybean
Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Mouttalib, A.; Billo, D. et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (2001), 158(7), 953-955

Glycine max L. tissue cultures were initiated on different media supplemented with appropriate plant growth regulators that specifically induce the formation of callus, root, or shoot primordia ... [more ▼]

Glycine max L. tissue cultures were initiated on different media supplemented with appropriate plant growth regulators that specifically induce the formation of callus, root, or shoot primordia. Exogenously applied hormones resulted in important changes in both Lox and HPO decomposition activity. Lox activity was higher in extracts from tissues cultured in medium supplemented with NAA or 2,4-D, while a lowest activity was recorded in extracts from cultures treated with BA. 13-HPOD was cleaved by all tested extracts, while 13-HPOT and 9-HPOD were cleaved exclusively by extracts from tissues cultured in the presence of BA. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions between polyamine and ethylene metabolisms in a hormone autonomous sugarbeet callus
Bisbis, Badia; Kevers, Claire ULg; Dommes, Jacques ULg et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (2000), 157(1), 24-30

In a fully habituated non-organogenic sugarbeet callus (HNO) overproducing polyamines and underproducing ethylene (in comparison with its normal hormone-dependent counterpart), the question raised about a ... [more ▼]

In a fully habituated non-organogenic sugarbeet callus (HNO) overproducing polyamines and underproducing ethylene (in comparison with its normal hormone-dependent counterpart), the question raised about a possible competition between these two metabolites for their common precursor, S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM). The experimental strategy consisted in determining the effects of exogenous polyamines and inhibitors of polyamine biosynthetic pathway on growth, polyamine accumulation and ethylene production. Exogenous putrescine or spermidine decreased polyamine contents and ethylene production. Inhibitors of the diamine putrescine biosynthesis, DFMO and DFMA, induced a reduction of both polyamine content and ethylene production with an increase of HNO callus growth. However, when a mixture of the two inhibitors was used, an increase of ethylene production was observed without any effect on growth. The inhibitors of spermidine synthase (CHA) and of SAM decarboxylase (MGBG) also decreased polyamine content and ethylene production with different effects on growth according to the concentrations used. The combination of the two inhibitors (CHA + MGBG) increased ethylene production of the HNO callus. The effect of growth regulators (auxin and cytokinin) on growth and ethylene production of HNO callus is also discussed. These results suggest that polyamines affect directly the ethylene biosynthesis. In the absence of an exogenous hormonal control, the lower ethylene metabolism of HNO callus could not be explained by a competition with polyamines for their common precursor. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison of respiratory pathways in fully habituated and normal non-organogenic sugarbeet callus
Bisbis, Badia; Wagner, Anneke; Kevers, Claire ULg et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (2000), 156(3), 312-318

The respiration of cells and isolated mitochondria of a habituated non-organogenic (HNO) cell line (auxin- and cytokinin-independent) and of a normal (N) cell line (auxin- and cytokinin-requiring) from ... [more ▼]

The respiration of cells and isolated mitochondria of a habituated non-organogenic (HNO) cell line (auxin- and cytokinin-independent) and of a normal (N) cell line (auxin- and cytokinin-requiring) from sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) was investigated. Oxygen uptake by both cells and mitochondria of the HNO fine was higher than that of the N line. Respiration in the presence of cyanide (i.e. capacity of the alternative pathway) was also higher in the HNO callus as compared with the N one. The measurements of O-2 uptake from isolated HNO and N mitochondria showed that addition of a mixture of substrates (NADH, succinate, malate and NAD) resulted in a higher respiration via the CN-resistant pathway in mitochondria From HNO cells. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase was twice as high as in the N cells as compared with the HNO cells. Immunoblots also showed that a higher alternative oxidase protein was present in HNO cells than in the N cells. A model showing the relationships between the different metabolic pathways previously studied in the HNO cells and the higher respiration via the CN-resistant pathway in the HNO cells is proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokinin modulates catalase activity and coumarin accumulation in in vitro cultures of tobacco
Petit-Paly, Geneviève; Franck, Thierry ULg; Brisson, Louise et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (1999), 155(1), 9-15

Cytokinins (CKs) represent an important class of phytohormones particularly known for their antisenescence properties that might be regulated through an effect on the oxidative metabolism. In the present ... [more ▼]

Cytokinins (CKs) represent an important class of phytohormones particularly known for their antisenescence properties that might be regulated through an effect on the oxidative metabolism. In the present work, we demonstrate the effect of CKs on catalase activity in tobacco cultivated in vitro. The catalase activity observed in suspension-cultured cells decreased slightly during the first hour of CK treatment and increased thereafter to double the level detected in untreated cells. In contrast to these results, catalase activity was inhibited in shoot cultures in which the endogenous levels of CK were elevated by the introduction of the isopentenyltransferase gene or by an exogenous feeding of CK to the cultures. Interestingly, this catalase inhibition correlated with an accumulation of scopolin, an inducible coumarin. Taken together, our results show that CK modulates (directly or undirectly) catalase activity. The inverse relationship that was always found between scopolin accumulation and catalase activity is discussed in terms of vitrification and habituation. [less ▲]

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See detailPutrescine metabolism in a fully habituated nonorganogenic sugar beet callus and its relationship with growth
Kevers, Claire ULg; Bisbis, Badia; Faivre-Rampant, Odile et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (1999), 154(4), 503-508

A fully-habituated and nonorganogenic (HNO) sugar beet callus was previously shown to overproduce polyamines, as compared with a normal (N) auxin- and cytokinin-dependent callus of the same strain ... [more ▼]

A fully-habituated and nonorganogenic (HNO) sugar beet callus was previously shown to overproduce polyamines, as compared with a normal (N) auxin- and cytokinin-dependent callus of the same strain. Because relationships were established between polyamine levels and metabolism with different growth and development processes, some key enzymes in the metabolic pathways of polyamines were investigated in the HNO callus, and their involvement in growth appraised. Putrescine was found to be the major free and conjugated polyamine in the HNO callus. It was biosynthesised preferentially via ornithine and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which is in agreement with the surplus of synthesised ornithine. Diamine (DAO) and polyamine (PAO)-oxidase activities were also highest in the HNO callus, as compared with the normal, with DAO being the more active. Transglutaminase activities (+/- Ca) were also higher in HNO than in normal callus. Addition of different polyamines or of inhibitors of their biosynthesis to the culture medium of the HNO callus modified the level of endogenous polyamines and affected callus growth. The results thus pointed out a higher polyamine metabolism, particularly of putrescine, in the actively growing auxin- and cytokinin-independent callus than in the normal one. They also provided evidence for the sensitivity of a habituated tissue type towards this class of growth regulators. [less ▲]

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See detailReducing properties, and markers of lipid peroxidation in normal and hyperhydrating shoots of Prunus avium L.
Franck, Thierry ULg; Kevers, Claire ULg; Penel, Claude et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (1998), 153(3-4), 339-346

The amounts of some reductants (ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, cx-tocopherol) and the amounts of some markers of lipid peroxidation (peroxide and malondialdehyde) were quantified weekly in normal ... [more ▼]

The amounts of some reductants (ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, cx-tocopherol) and the amounts of some markers of lipid peroxidation (peroxide and malondialdehyde) were quantified weekly in normal shoots (NS, in culture on agar) and in hyperhydrating shoots (HS, in culture on gelrite) of Prunus avium L. The redox activity of the plasma membrane (reduction of exogenously added ferricyanide), the antilipoperoxidant potential, the level of hydrogen peroxide and the lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.11.12) activity were investigated after 28 days of culture in both types of shoots. Reducing capacity of HS seemed generally more efficient in comparison to NS: higher levels of free ascorbate, reduced glutathione and the antilipoperoxidant potential were measured in HS than in NS. The alpha-tocopherol content did not change between the two types of shoots Reduction of exogenously applied ferricyanide was lower in HS during the last 2 weeks of the culture. These results suggest that the plasma membrane of HS had an unchanged reducing capacity but less redox transfer activity in comparison to NS. Markers of membrane damage (peroxide and malondialdehyde) were lower in HS than in NS and the same level of hydrogen peroxide was measured in the two types of shoots. Therefore, HS seem not to be submitted to oxidative stress. However, a more important lipoxygenase activity measured in HS was in contradiction to the lower peroxidation of lipids. The discussion points out some paradoxical results in an extensive classical analysis of stress criteria and indicates alternative defense mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailAutonomy to plant growth regulators and gene expression in periwinkle cultures in vitro
Droual, Anne-Marie; Hamdi, Said; Creche, Joel et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (1998), 153(5-6), 623-630

To better understand the effect of habituation on gene expression in plant cells, we have compared the accumulation of specific mRNAs encoding respectively two proline-rich proteins, a chaperone protein ... [more ▼]

To better understand the effect of habituation on gene expression in plant cells, we have compared the accumulation of specific mRNAs encoding respectively two proline-rich proteins, a chaperone protein and three enzymes linking primary and secondary metabolisms in two models of in vitro culture of periwinkle. These models consisted of two couples of a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-dependent/2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid independent line in which autonomy to auxin and cytokinin was obtained either through habituation or through transformation with the isopentenyltransferase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Results showed that gene expression was modified by plant growth regulator autonomy but differently according to the type of autonomy: only the gene encoding a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein was regulated similarly in both PGR-independent lines. On the other hand, PGR autonomy did not lead to total insensitivity to exogenously-applied PGRs, and the two PGR autonomous lines did not accumulate indole alkaloids for different reasons. [less ▲]

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See detailCarry-Over Of Morphological And Biochemical Characteristics Associated With Hyperflowering Of Micropropagated Strawberries
Jemmali, A.; Boxus, P.; Kevers, Claire ULg et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (1995), 147(3-4),

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See detail- Establishment of normal and transformed root cultures of Artemisia annua L. for artemisinin production.
Jaziri, M.; Shimomura, K.; Yoshimatsu, K. et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (1995), 145(1-2), 175-177

Transformed cultures of Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) were established by the co-culture method using leaf segments of A. annua and Agrobacterium rhizogenes NCIB 8196 or MAFF 03-01724. The hairy root ... [more ▼]

Transformed cultures of Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) were established by the co-culture method using leaf segments of A. annua and Agrobacterium rhizogenes NCIB 8196 or MAFF 03-01724. The hairy root clones thus obtained grew vigorously on hormone-free medium, showing the typical transformed morphology. The genetic transformation of the root was proved by the opine assay. Normal root and shoot cultures were also established. A highly specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) method was used for the detection and semi-quantitative determination of artemisinin and structurally related compounds in these cultures. The presence of artemisinin was confirmed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The hairy roots cultured in the dark produced no detectable level of artemisinin as shown by the adventitious shoots cultured under light conditions. The ELISA analysis of the green hairy roots cultured in liquid medium under a 16 h light/day photoperiod showed the existence of compound(s) structurally related to artemisinin, though normal and hairy roots cultured in the dark give no detectable levels of immuno-signal. [less ▲]

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See detailEssential oil production by Anthemis nobilis L. tissue culture.
Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Jaziri, M.; Marlier, Michel et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (1993), 141(6), 759-761

The production of essential oil by tissue culture s ol Antbemis nobilis L. including cell suspension, shoot and crown-gall cultures is reported. The biosynthetic capability of these different cultures was ... [more ▼]

The production of essential oil by tissue culture s ol Antbemis nobilis L. including cell suspension, shoot and crown-gall cultures is reported. The biosynthetic capability of these different cultures was compared with that of plants grown in a field. The addition of crude polysaccharide fraction prepared from yeast extract and from the plant itself to shoot cultures affected the composition and total essential content (from 0.08 o/o to 0.3Qo/o dry weight). The essential oil content of the crown-gall tissue ol A. nobilis was 0.25 % of the dry weight and the composition of the essential oil was comparable to that of the flowers. [less ▲]

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See detailINHIBITION OF THE PHOTOSYSTEM-II PHOTOACTIVATION PROCESS IN FLASHED LEAVES BY SULFATE
BEAUREGARD, M.; Franck, Fabrice ULg; DUJARDIN, E. et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (1989), 134(3), 370-374

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