References of "Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine"
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See detailIn vivo PET/CT in a human glioblastoma chicken chorioallantoic membrane model: A new tool for oncology and radiotracer development.
Warnock, Geoffrey; Turtoi, Andrei ULg; Blomme, Arnaud ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (2013), 54(10), 1782-1788

For many years the laboratory mouse has been used as the standard model for in vivo oncology research, particularly in the development of novel PET tracers, but the growth of tumors on chicken ... [more ▼]

For many years the laboratory mouse has been used as the standard model for in vivo oncology research, particularly in the development of novel PET tracers, but the growth of tumors on chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) provides a more rapid, low cost and ethically sustainable alternative. For the first time, we demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo PET and CT imaging in a U87 glioblastoma tumor model on chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), with the aim of applying this model for screening of novel PET tracers. Methods: U87 glioblastoma cells were implanted on the CAM at day 11 post-fertilization and imaged at day 18. A small animal imaging cell was used to maintain incubation and allow anesthesia using isoflurane. Radiotracers were injected directly into the exposed CAM vasculature. Sodium [18F]fluoride was used to validate the imaging protocol, demonstrating that image-degrading motion can be removed with anesthesia. Tumor glucose metabolism was imaged using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and tumor protein synthesis was imaged using 2-[18F]fluoro-L-tyrosine. Anatomical images were obtained by contrast enhanced CT, facilitating clear delineation of the tumor, delineation of tracer uptake in tumor versus embryo and accurate volume measurements. Results: PET imaging of tumor glucose metabolism and protein synthesis was successfully demonstrated in the CAM U87 glioblastoma model. Catheterization of CAM blood vessels facilitated dynamic imaging of glucose metabolism with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and demonstrated the ability to study PET tracer uptake over time in individual tumors, while CT imaging improved the accuracy of tumor volume measurements. Conclusion: In summary, we describe the novel application of PET/CT in the CAM tumor model, with optimization of typical imaging protocols. PET imaging in this valuable tumor model could prove particularly useful for rapid, high-throughput screening of novel radiotracers. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction at the Curie Level of No-Carrier-Added 6-18F-Fluoro-L-Dopa
Libert, Lionel ULg; Franci, Xavier; Plenevaux, Alain ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (2013), 54(7), 1154-1161

6-18F-fluoro-L-dopa (18F-FDOPA) has proven to be a useful radiopharmaceutical for the evaluation of presynaptic dopaminergic function using PET. In comparison to electrophilic synthesis, the no-carrier ... [more ▼]

6-18F-fluoro-L-dopa (18F-FDOPA) has proven to be a useful radiopharmaceutical for the evaluation of presynaptic dopaminergic function using PET. In comparison to electrophilic synthesis, the no-carrier-added (NCA) nucleophilic method has several advantages. These include much higher available activity and specific activity. Recently, we have described an NCA enantioselective synthesis using a chiral phase-transfer catalyst. However, some chemicals were difficult to implement into a commercially available synthesizer, restricting access to this radiopharmaceutical to only a few PET centers. Methods: In this paper, 2 important chemical improvements are proposed to simplify production of 18F-FDOPA, resulting in straightforward automation of the synthesis in a commercially available module. Results: First, a fast, simple, and reliable synthesis of 2-18F-fluoro-4,5-dimethoxybenzyl iodide on a solid phase support was developed. Second, a phase-transfer catalyst alkylation of a glycine derivative at room temperature was used to enable enantioselective carbon–carbon bond formation. After hydrolysis and high-performance liquid chromatography purification, a high enantiomeric excess of 18F-FDOPA (~97%) was obtained using a chiral catalyst available from a biphenyl 3 substrate. The total synthesis time was 63 min, and the decay-corrected radiochemical yield was 36% +/- 3% (n = 8). Conclusion: By exploiting the advantages of this NCA approach, using a starting activity of 185 GBq of NCA 18F-fluoride, high activities of 18F-FDOPA (> 45 GBq) with high specific activity (>753 GBq/mmol) are now available at the end of synthesis for use in clinical investigations. [less ▲]

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See detailNEMA NU4-2008 Image Quality Performance Report for the microPET Focus 120 and for Various Transmission and Reconstruction Methods
Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Plenevaux, Alain ULg; Warnock, Geoffrey ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (2009), 50

This work aimed to evaluate the image quality and accuracy of attenuation and scatter corrections provided with the microPET Focus 120 scanner using the National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU4 ... [more ▼]

This work aimed to evaluate the image quality and accuracy of attenuation and scatter corrections provided with the microPET Focus 120 scanner using the National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU4-2008 image quality phantom. Methods: Attenuation correction was obtained from transmission measurements using either a 68Ge or a 57Copoint source. Fully correctedemission images were reconstructed using Fourier rebinning (FORE) and filtered backprojection (FBP). For attenuation data obtained with the 57Co source, fully corrected emission images were also reconstructed using FORE and 2-dimensional (2D) ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM), 3-dimensional (3D) filtered backprojection (3DRP), 3D OSEM, and 3D maximum a posteriori methods. The mean activity, the coefficients of variation (COVs) of the uniform slices, the recovery coefficients (RCs) for hot rods, and the spillover ratio (SOR) for nonemittingwater and air compartments were measured. Results: For 57Co-based attenuation correction, the mean activity value differed by less than 3% from the true activity.Measuring the attenuation with 68Ge resulted in lower reconstructed activity and higher COV. On the basis of 57Co measurements, the SORs for air and water nonemitting compartments were the closest to zero for attenuation correction. The RC measured on emission images corrected for attenuation but not for scatter did not show any significant difference linked to the transmissionmethod. However, higherRCswere noted for transmission measurement with 68Ge in coincidence with windowing when emission data were corrected for attenuation and scatter. This resulted from a lower mean value in the uniform area. 2D and 3DRP reconstructionmethods showed little effect on themean activity value, whereas iterative 3D methods gave 7%higher values. Higher RCs were found with iterative reconstruction than with FBP and 3DRP. However, the SOR seemed to be optimal with FBP. SORs were higher with iterative methods and decreased with the number of iterations. Conclusion: For studies of small rodents with the Focus 120, 57Co transmission seems to be the most suitable method for attenuation correction. FORE and 2D reconstruction methods appear to be a good compromise between overall image quality and reconstruction time: OSEM provides the largest contrasts, but FBP provides superior attenuation and scatter correction. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnical feasibility of pinhole SPECT acquisition in primary hyperparathyroidism: phantom and patient studies.
Carlier, Thomas; Bodet-Milin, C.; Oudoux, M. et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (2006), 47

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See detailNumber of iterations when comparing MLEM/OSEM with FBP
Seret, Alain ULg

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (2004), 45(12), 2125-2125

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See detailTissue distribution and metabolism of D-p-[18F]MPPF in rats.
Defraiteur, C.; Muroni, S.; Lemaire, Christian ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (2004), 45(S2), 444

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See detailCardiac gated pinhole SPECT in living rat: filtered backprojection versus iterative reconstruction.
Vanhove, Christian; Franken, Philippe R.; Lahoutte, Tony et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (2003, May), 44(5), 276-277

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See detailWhole-body tumor imaging using PET and 2-18F-fluoro-l-tyrosine: Preliminary evaluation and comparison with 18F-FDG
Hustinx, Roland ULg; Lemaire, Christian ULg; Jerusalem, Guy ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (2003), 44(4), 533-539

18F-FDG PET imaging is now established as a valuable tool for evaluating cancer patients. However, a limitation of 18F-FDG is its absence of specificity for tumor. Both protein synthesis and amino acid ... [more ▼]

18F-FDG PET imaging is now established as a valuable tool for evaluating cancer patients. However, a limitation of 18F-FDG is its absence of specificity for tumor. Both protein synthesis and amino acid transport are enhanced in most tumor cells, but their metabolism is less affected in inflammation. We therefore decided to evaluate the ability of PET with 2-18F-fluoro-L-tyrosine (18F-TYR) to visualize cancer lesions in patients compared with 18F-FDG PET. Methods: 18F-FDG PET and 18F-TYR PET were performed on 23 patients with histologically proven malignancies (11 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), 10 lymphomas, and 2 head and neck carcinomas). Fully corrected, whole-body PET studies were obtained on separate days. 18F-FDG studies were performed after routine clinical fashion. 18F-TYR studies were started 36 ± 6 min after tracer injection and a second scan centered over a reference lesion was acquired after completion of the whole-body survey-on average, 87 min after injection. Standardized uptake values (SUVs) were calculated for all abnormal foci and for various normal structures. Results were compared with pathologic or correlative studies. Results: 18F-FDG PET correctly identified 54 malignant lesions, among which 36 were also visualized with 18F-TYR (67%). 18F-TYR did not detect any additional lesion. Tumor SUVs (SUVbw, 5.2 vs. 2.5), tumor-to-muscle (7.4 vs. 2.7), and tumor-to-mediastinum activity ratios (3 vs. 1.4) were higher with 18F-FDG than with 18F-TYR. Two of 11 NSCLCs and 4 of 10 lymphomas were understaged with 18F-TYR compared with 18F-FDG. Although the NSCLC lesions missed by 18F-TYR PET were small, several large lymphoma lesions did not accumulate the tracer. In 4 patients, 18F-TYR-positive lesions coexisted with 18F-TYR-negative lesions. There was a high physiologic 18F-TYR uptake by the pancreas (average SUVbw, 10.3) and the liver (average SUVbw, 6.3). Muscle and bone marrow uptakes were also higher with 18F-TYR than with 18F-FDG: average SUVbw, 1 versus 0.7 and 2.6 versus 1.8, respectively. There was no change over time in the 18F-TYR uptake by the tumors or the normal structures. Conclusion: 18F-TYR PET is not superior to 18F-FDG PET for staging patients with NSCLC and lymphomas. [less ▲]

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See detail18F-MPPF Pharmacokinetics in rat hippocampus imaged with MicroPet.
Rubin, D. J.; Way, B.; Lacan, G. et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (2002), 43(S1), 209

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See detailModeling p-18FMPPF pet kinetics for the detremination of local 5-HT1A receptor concentration.
Costes, N.; Le Bars, D.; Merlet, I. et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (2001), 42(S1), 209

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See detailNoninvasive detection of tumor hypoxia using the 2-nitroimidazole [18F]EF1.
Evans, S. M.; Kachur, A. V.; Shiue, C. Y. et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (2000), 41(2), 327-36

The noninvasive assessment of tumor hypoxia in vivo is under active investigation because hypoxia has been shown to be an important prognostic factor for therapy resistance. Various nuclear medicine ... [more ▼]

The noninvasive assessment of tumor hypoxia in vivo is under active investigation because hypoxia has been shown to be an important prognostic factor for therapy resistance. Various nuclear medicine imaging modalities are being used, including PET imaging of 18F-containing compounds. In this study, we report the development of 18F-labeled EF1 for noninvasive imaging of hypoxia. EF1 is a 3-monofluoro analog of the well-characterized hypoxia marker EF5, 2(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl)acetami de, which has been used to detect hypoxia in tumor and nontumor systems using immunohistochemical methods. METHODS: We have studied 2 rat tumor types: the hypoxic Morris 7777 (Q7) hepatoma and the oxic 9LF glioma tumor, each grown in subcutaneous sites. PET studies were performed using a pharmacological dose of nonradioactive carrier in addition to [18F]EF1 to optimize and assess drug biodistribution. After PET imaging of the tumor-bearing rats, tissues were obtained for gamma-counting of the 18F in various tissues and immunohistochemical detection of intracellular drug adducts in tumors. In one pair of tumors, Eppendorf needle electrode studies were performed. RESULTS: [18F]EF1 was excreted dominantly through the urinary tract. The tumor-to-muscle (T/M) ratio of [18F]EF1 in the Q7 tumors was 2.7 and 2.4 based on PET studies and 2.1, 2.5, and 3.0 based on gamma-counting of the tissues (n = 3). In contrast, the T/M ratio of [18F]EF1 in the 9LF glioma tumor was 0.8 and 0.5 based on PET studies and 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4 based on gamma-counting of the tissues (n = 3). Immunohistochemical analysis of drug adducts for the two tumor types agreed with the radioactivity analysis. In the Q7 tumor, substantial heterogeneous binding was observed throughout the tumor, whereas in the 9LF tumor minimal binding was found. CONCLUSION: [18F]EF1 is an excellent radiotracer for noninvasive imaging of tumor hypoxia. [less ▲]

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See detailMaximum-likelihood reconstruction with ordered subsets in bone SPECT
Blocklet, Didier; Seret, Alain ULg; Popa, Niculaie et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (1999), 40(12), 1978-1984

This study was aimed at determining whether the ordered-subset expectation maximum (OSEM) is more effective than filtered backprojection (FBP) for bone SPECT in the routine clinical context. Methods ... [more ▼]

This study was aimed at determining whether the ordered-subset expectation maximum (OSEM) is more effective than filtered backprojection (FBP) for bone SPECT in the routine clinical context. Methods. Fifty-seven consecutive bone SPECT studies were analyzed. They included pelvic and lumbar spine, thoraco lumbar spine, head and neck, feet and shoulders. A 64-projection SPECT study was acquired over 360° by single-head cameras 2–3h after the injection of 750 MBq 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. Three observers compared the OSEM and FBP reconstructed images. Results. Streak artifacts, always present with FBP, were rarely generated with the OSEM. When present (n = 24), artifacts associated with negative values near hyperactivities in FBP were not generated with the OSEM in 67% of the cases (n = 16), permitting a satisfactory interpretation of these regions. In half of the other cases (17%, n = 4/24), interpretation was precluded. In only one case did the three observers agree that more hyperactivities were seen with the OSEM. Ninety-six percent of the OSEM pictures were superior or equal to FBP for anatomic resolution and were clearly better in 12% of the cases. The extent of the lesion with the OSEM seemed better or equally defined in 96% and clearly better in 14% of the cases. The low-activity regions were better or equally visualized in all cases and were clearly better seen in 23% of the cases. The quality of the pictures was found to be better or superior with the OSEM in 98% of the cases and definitely better in 65% of the cases. Conclusion: Replacement of FBP by the OSEM in bone SPECT would be beneficial to clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailAdvantages of iterative OSEM reconstruction over filtered backprojection in bone SPET
Blocklet, Didier; Seret, Alain ULg; Popa, N. et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (1999, May), 40(5), 303

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See detailPotential applications of PET imaging in developing novel cancer therapies.
Hustinx, Roland ULg; Eck, S. L.; Alavi, A.

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (1999), 40(6), 995-1002

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See detailClinical evaluation of processing techniques for attenuation correction with 137Cs in whole-body PET imaging.
Benard, F.; Smith, R. J.; Hustinx, Roland ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (1999), 40(8), 1257-63

Transmission scanning can be successfully performed with a 137Cs single-photon emitting point source for three-dimensional PET imaging. However, the attenuation coefficients provided by this method are ... [more ▼]

Transmission scanning can be successfully performed with a 137Cs single-photon emitting point source for three-dimensional PET imaging. However, the attenuation coefficients provided by this method are underestimated because of the energy difference between 662- and 511-keV photons, as well as scatter and emission contamination when the transmission data are acquired after injection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, from a clinical perspective, the relative benefits of various processing schemes to resolve these issues. METHODS: Thirty-eight whole-body PET studies acquired with postinjection singles transmission scans were analyzed. The transmission images were processed and applied to the emission data for attenuation correction. Three processing techniques were compared: simple segmentation (SEG) of the transmission scan, emission contamination subtraction with scaling (ECS) of the resulting data to 511-keV attenuation coefficient values and a hybrid technique performing partial segmentation of some tissue densities on the ECS scan (THR). The corrected emission scans were blindly assessed for image noise, the presence of edge artifacts at the lung-soft-tissue interface and for overall diagnostic confidence using a semiquantitative scoring system. The count densities and the SDs in uniform structures were compared among the various techniques. The observations for each method were compared using a paired t test. RESULTS: The SEG technique produced images that were visually less noisy than the ECS method (P < 0.0001) and the THR technique, but at the expense of increased edge artifacts at the boundaries between the lungs and surrounding tissues. The THR technique failed to eliminate these artifacts compared with the ECS technique (P < 0.0001) but preserved the activity gradients in the hilar areas. The count densities (and thus, the standardized uptake values) were similar among the three techniques, but the SEG method tended to underestimate the activity in the lung fields and in chest tumors (slope = 0.79 and 0.94, respectively). CONCLUSION: For many clinical applications, SEG data remain an efficient method for processing 137Cs transmission scans. The ECS method produced noisier images than the other two techniques but did not introduce artifacts at the lung boundaries. The THR technique, more versatile in complex anatomic areas, allowed good preservation of density gradients in the lungs. [less ▲]

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See detailPreoperative evaluation of 54 gliomas by PET with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose and/or carbon-11-methionine.
Kaschten, Bruno ULg; Stevenaert, Achille ULg; Sadzot, Bernard ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (1998), 39(5), 778-85

This study evaluates the usefulness of PET for the preoperative evaluation of brain gliomas and methods of quantification of PET results. METHODS: Fifty-four patients with brain gliomas were studied by ... [more ▼]

This study evaluates the usefulness of PET for the preoperative evaluation of brain gliomas and methods of quantification of PET results. METHODS: Fifty-four patients with brain gliomas were studied by PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) (n = 45) and/or 11C-methionine (MET) (n = 41) before any treatment. Results of visual analysis, calculation of glucose consumption and five tumor-to-normal brain ratios for both tracers were correlated with two histologic grading systems and with follow-up. RESULTS: Visual analysis (for FDG) and tumor-to-mean cortical uptake (T/MCU) ratio proved to be the best tools for the evaluation of PET results. Methionine was proven to be better than FDG at delineating low-grade gliomas. Tumor-to-mean cortical uptake ratios for FDG and MET were clearly correlated (r = 0.78), leading to the equation T/MCU(FDG) = 0.4 x T/MCU(MET). We showed a good correlation between FDG PET and histologic grading. MET uptake could not differentiate between low-grade and anaplastic astrocytomas but was significantly increased in glioblastomas. Low-grade oligodendrogliomas exhibited high uptake of FDG and MET, probably depending more on oligodendroglial cellular differentiation than on proliferative potential. Uptake was decreased in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, probably due to dedifferentiation. Care must be taken with peculiar histologic subgroups, i.e., juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, because of a discrepancy between high PET metabolism and low proliferative potential (good prognosis). Both tracers proved useful for the prediction of survival prognosis. Methionine proved slightly superior to FDG for predicting the histologic grade and prognosis of gliomas, despite the impossibility of differentiation between Grades II and III astrocytomas with MET. This superiority of MET could be explained by patient sampling (low number of Grade III gliomas submitted to examination with both tracers). The combination of both tracers improved the overall results compared to each tracer alone. CONCLUSION: Both tracers are useful for the prediction of the histologic grade and prognosis. The apparent superiority of MET over FDG could be due to the small number of Grade III gliomas studied with both tracers. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of p-[F-18]MPPF, 5-HT1A antagonist, in rats: tissue distribution, autoradiography and metabolism.
Plenevaux, Alain ULg; Aerts, Joël ULg; Lemaire, Christian ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (1997), 38

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See detailHigh yield radiosynthesis of p-[F-18]MPPF, 5-HT1A antagonist, and PET studies in cat brain.
Le Bars, D.; Lemaire, Christian ULg; Plenevaux, Alain ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (1997), 38

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See detailAl2O3/KF in radiochemistry: fast preparation of L-[11C-methyl]methionine without HPLC.
Schmitz, F.; Plenevaux, Alain ULg; Del Fiore, G. et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (1994), 35

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See detailEnantioselective synhteses of n.c.a. L-2-[18F]fluoro-4-chlorophenylalanine and of L-(a-methyl)-2-[18F]fluoro-4-chlorophenylalanine.
Al-Darwich, M. J.; Plenevaux, Alain ULg; Lemaire, Christian ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (1994), 35

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