References of "Journal of Neuroscience"
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See detailNeuroestrogens Rapidly Regulate Sexual Motivation But Not Performance
Seredynski, Aurore ULg; Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Christophe, Virginie et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2013), 33(1), 164-174

Estrogens exert pleiotropic effects on reproductive traits, which include differentiation and activation of reproductive behaviors and the control of the secretion of gonadotropins. Estrogens also ... [more ▼]

Estrogens exert pleiotropic effects on reproductive traits, which include differentiation and activation of reproductive behaviors and the control of the secretion of gonadotropins. Estrogens also profoundly affect non-reproductive traits, such as cognition and neuroprotection. These effects are usually attributed to nuclear receptor binding and subsequent regulation of target gene transcription. Estrogens also affect neuronal activity and cell-signaling pathways via faster, membrane-initiated events. How these two types of actions that operate in distinct timescales interact in the control of complex behavioral responses is poorly understood. Here, we show that the central administration of estradiol rapidly increases the expression of sexual motivation, as assessed by several measures of sexual motivation produced in response to the visual presentation of a female but not sexual performance in male Japanese quail. This effect is mimicked by membrane-impermeable analogs of estradiol, indicating that it is initiated at the cell membrane. Conversely, blocking the action of estrogens or their synthesis by a single intracerebroventricular injection of estrogen receptor antagonists or aromatase inhibitors, respectively, decreases sexual motivation within minutes without affecting performance. The same steroid has thus evolved complementary mechanisms to regulate different behavioral components (motivation vs performance) in distinct temporal domains (long- vs short-term) so that diverse reproductive activities can be properly coordinated to improve reproductive fitness. Given the pleiotropic effects exerted by estrogens, other responses controlled by these steroids might also depend on a slow genomic regulation of neuronal plasticity underlying behavioral activation and an acute control of motivation to engage in behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of visual perceptual learning on sleep and local slow wave initiation
Mascetti, Laura ULg; Muto, Vincenzo ULg; Matarazzo, Luca et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2013)

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See detailConcurrent Synaptic and Systems Memory Consolidation during Sleep
Mascetti, Laura; Foret, Ariane; Schrouff, Jessica ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2013), 33(24), 10182-10190

Memories are consolidated during sleep by two apparently antagonistic processes: (1) reinforcement of memory-specific cortical interactions and (2) homeostatic reduction in synaptic efficiency. Using fMRI ... [more ▼]

Memories are consolidated during sleep by two apparently antagonistic processes: (1) reinforcement of memory-specific cortical interactions and (2) homeostatic reduction in synaptic efficiency. Using fMRI, we assessed whether episodic memories are processed during sleep by either or both mechanisms, by comparing recollection before and after sleep. We probed whether LTP influences these processes by contrasting two groups of individuals prospectively recruited based on BDNF rs6265 (Val66Met) polymorphism. Between immediate retrieval and delayed testing scheduled after sleep, responses to recollection increased significantly more in Val/Val individuals than in Met carriers in parietal and occipital areas not previously engaged in retrieval, consistent with “systems-level consolidation.” Responses also increased differentially between allelic groups in regions already activated before sleep but only in proportion to slow oscillation power, in keeping with “synaptic downscaling.” Episodic memories seem processed at both synaptic and systemic levels during sleep by mechanisms involving LTP. [less ▲]

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See detailThe retinoblastoma protein is essential for survival of postmitotic neurons
Andrusiak, Matthew; Vandenbosch, Renaud ULg; Park, David et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2012)

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See detailAndrogens and estrogens synergistically regulate the expression of doublecortin and enhance neuronal recruitment in the song system of adult female canaries.
Yamamura, Takashi; Barker, Jennifer ULg; Balthazart, Jacques ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2011)

Vocal control nuclei in songbirds display seasonal changes in volume that are regulated by testosterone (T) and its androgenic (5α-dihydrotestosterone; DHT) or estrogenic metabolites (17β-estradiol; E2 ... [more ▼]

Vocal control nuclei in songbirds display seasonal changes in volume that are regulated by testosterone (T) and its androgenic (5α-dihydrotestosterone; DHT) or estrogenic metabolites (17β-estradiol; E2). In male canaries, T regulates expression of the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX), a marker of neurogenesis. We examined the effect of T and its two metabolites alone or in combination on DCX expression in adult female canaries. Treatment with T or with DHT+E2 increased HVC volume and neuron numbers as well as the total numbers of fusiform (migrating) and round (differentiating) DCX neurons in the nucleus but generally not in adjacent areas. DHT or E2 alone did not increase these measures but increased the density of fusiform DCX cells per section. Similar results were observed in Area X although some effects did not reach significance presumably because plasticity in X is mediated transynaptically and follows HVC changes with some delay. There was no effect of any treatment on the total number of neurons in Area X and no change in DCX cell densities was detected in other parts of the nidopallium nor in LMAN. DHT and E2 by themselves thus increase density of DCX cells migrating through HVC but are not sufficient in isolation to induce the recruitment of these newborn neurons in the nucleus. These effects are generally not observed in the rest of the nidopallium implying that steroids only act on the attraction and recruitment of new neurons in HVC without having any major effects on their production at the ventricle wall. [less ▲]

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See detailThe development of female sexual behavior requires prepubertal estradiol.
Brock, Olivier; Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie ULg

in Journal of Neuroscience (2011), 31(15), 5574-8

The classic view of brain and behavioral sexual differentiation holds that the neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior in female rodents develop in the absence of ovarian sex hormone actions ... [more ▼]

The classic view of brain and behavioral sexual differentiation holds that the neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior in female rodents develop in the absence of ovarian sex hormone actions. However, in a previous study, female aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice, which cannot convert testosterone to estradiol, showed deficient male-oriented partner preference and lordosis behaviors in response to adult ovarian hormones, raising the possibility that estradiol may contribute to the development of these female sexual behaviors. In the present experiments, administering estradiol prepubertally [between postnatal day 15 (P15) and P25] significantly enhanced the ability of ArKO female mice to display lordosis behavior in response to ovarian hormones administered later in adulthood, whereas treatment with estradiol over an earlier postnatal period (P5-P15) had no such effect. Treatment of ArKO females with estradiol between P15 and P25 also rescued their later preference to approach distal cues from an intact male over an estrous female. ArKO females also displayed significantly less female-directed (male-typical) mounting behavior than wild-type control females when treated with testosterone in adulthood. Prepubertal estradiol treatment failed to reverse this deficit in ArKO females, whereas earlier postnatal estradiol augmented later mounting in both genotypes. Our results provide new evidence for an organizing role of prepubertal estradiol in the development of neural mechanisms that control female-typical sexual behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailSleep contributes to the strengthening of some memories over others, depending on hippocampal activity at learning.
Rauchs, Géraldine; Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Landeau, Brigitte et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2011), 31(7), 2563-2568

Memory consolidation benefits from sleep. Besides strengthening some memory traces, another crucial, albeit overlooked, function of memory is also to erase irrelevant information. Directed forgetting is ... [more ▼]

Memory consolidation benefits from sleep. Besides strengthening some memory traces, another crucial, albeit overlooked, function of memory is also to erase irrelevant information. Directed forgetting is an experimental approach consisting in presenting “to be remembered” and “to be forgotten” information, that allows selectively decreasing or increasing the strength of individual memory traces according to the instruction provided at learning. This paradigm was used in combination with fMRI to determine, in Humans, what specifically triggers at encoding sleep-dependent compared to time-dependent consolidation. Our data indicate that relevant items which subjects strived to memorize are consolidated during sleep to a greater extend than items that participants did not intend to learn. This process appears to depend on a differential activation of the hippocampus at encoding, which acts as a signal for the offline reprocessing of relevant memories during post-learning sleep episodes. [less ▲]

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See detailPathophysiological mechanisms of dominant and recessive GLRA1 mutations in hyperekplexia.
Chung, Seo-Kyung; Vanbellinghen, Jean-François ULg; Mullins, Jonathan G L et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2010), 30(28), 9612-20

Hyperekplexia is a rare, but potentially fatal, neuromotor disorder characterized by exaggerated startle reflexes and hypertonia in response to sudden, unexpected auditory or tactile stimuli. This ... [more ▼]

Hyperekplexia is a rare, but potentially fatal, neuromotor disorder characterized by exaggerated startle reflexes and hypertonia in response to sudden, unexpected auditory or tactile stimuli. This disorder is primarily caused by inherited mutations in the genes encoding the glycine receptor (GlyR) alpha1 subunit (GLRA1) and the presynaptic glycine transporter GlyT2 (SLC6A5). In this study, systematic DNA sequencing of GLRA1 in 88 new unrelated human hyperekplexia patients revealed 19 sequence variants in 30 index cases, of which 21 cases were inherited in recessive or compound heterozygote modes. This indicates that recessive hyperekplexia is far more prevalent than previous estimates. From the 19 GLRA1 sequence variants, we have investigated the functional effects of 11 novel and 2 recurrent mutations. The expression levels and functional properties of these hyperekplexia mutants were analyzed using a high-content imaging system and patch-clamp electrophysiology. When expressed in HEK293 cells, either as homomeric alpha1 or heteromeric alpha1beta GlyRs, subcellular localization defects were the major mechanism underlying recessive mutations. However, mutants without trafficking defects typically showed alterations in the glycine sensitivity suggestive of disrupted receptor function. This study also reports the first hyperekplexia mutation associated with a GlyR leak conductance, suggesting tonic channel opening as a new mechanism in neuronal ligand-gated ion channels. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Assessed Brain Responses during an Executive Task Depend on Interaction of Sleep Homeostasis, Circadian Phase, and PER3 Genotype
Vandewalle, Gilles ULg; Archer, S.; Wuillaume, C. et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2009), 29

Cognition is regulated across the 24 h sleep-wake cycle by circadian rhythmicity and sleep homeostasis through unknown brain mechanisms. We investigated these mechanisms in a functional magnetic resonance ... [more ▼]

Cognition is regulated across the 24 h sleep-wake cycle by circadian rhythmicity and sleep homeostasis through unknown brain mechanisms. We investigated these mechanisms in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of executive function using a working memory 3-back task during a normal sleep-wake cycle and during sleep loss. The study population was stratified according to homozygosity for a variable-number (4 or 5) tandem-repeat polymorphism in the coding region of the clock gene PERIOD3. This polymorphism confers vulnerability to sleep loss and circadian misalignment through its effects on sleep homeostasis. In the less-vulnerable genotype, no changes were observed in brain responses during the normal-sleep wake cycle. During sleep loss, these individuals recruited supplemental anterior frontal, temporal and subcortical regions, while executive function was maintained. In contrast, in the vulnerable genotype, activation in a posterior prefrontal area was already reduced when comparing the evening to the morning during a normal sleep-wake cycle. Furthermore, in the morning after a night of sleep loss, widespread reductions in activation in prefrontal, temporal, parietal and occipital areas were observed in this genotype. These differences occurred in the absence of genotype-dependent differences in circadian phase. The data show that dynamic changes in brain responses to an executive task evolve across the sleep-wake and circadian cycles in a regionally specific manner that is determined by a polymorphism which affects sleep homeostasis. The findings support a model of individual differences in executive control, in which the allocation of prefrontal resources is constrained by sleep pressure and circadian phase. [less ▲]

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See detailOwn-song recognition in the songbird auditory pathway: selectivity and lateralization.
Poirier, Colline; Boumans, Tiny; Verhoye, Marleen et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2009), 29(7), 2252-8

The songbird brain is able to discriminate between the bird's own song and other conspecific songs. Determining where in the brain own- song selectivity emerges is of great importance because experience ... [more ▼]

The songbird brain is able to discriminate between the bird's own song and other conspecific songs. Determining where in the brain own- song selectivity emerges is of great importance because experience-dependent mechanisms are necessarily involved and because brain regions sensitive to self-generated vocalizations could mediate auditory feedback that is necessary for song learning and maintenance. Using functional MRI, here we show that this selectivity is present at the midbrain level. Surprisingly, the selectivity was found to be lateralized toward the right side, a finding reminiscent of the potential right lateralization of song production in zebra finches but also of own-face and own-voice recognition in human beings. These results indicate that a midbrain structure can process subtle information about the identity of a subject through experience-dependent mechanisms, challenging the classical perception of subcortical regions as primitive and nonplastic structures. They also open questions about the evolution of the cognitive skills and lateralization in vertebrates. [less ▲]

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See detailTargeted disruption of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 3 (NCX3) gene leads to a worsening of ischemic brain damage
Molinaro, P.; Cuomo, O.; Pignataro, G. et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2008), 28

Na+/Ca+ exchanger 3 (NCX3), one of the three isoforms of the NCX family, is highly expressed in the brain and is involved in the maintenance of intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ homeostasis. Interestingly ... [more ▼]

Na+/Ca+ exchanger 3 (NCX3), one of the three isoforms of the NCX family, is highly expressed in the brain and is involved in the maintenance of intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ homeostasis. Interestingly, whereas the function of NCX3 under physiological conditions has been determined, its role under anoxia is still unknown. To assess NCX3 role in cerebral ischemia, we exposed ncx3-/- mice to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. In addition, to evaluate the effect of ncx3 ablation on neuronal survival, organotypic hippocampal cultures and primary cortical neurons from ncx3-/- mice were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) plus reoxygenation. Here we report that ncx3 gene suppression leads to a worsening of brain damage after focal ischemia and to a massive neuronal death in all the hippocampal fields of organotypic cultures as well as in cortical neurons from ncx3-/- mice exposed to OGD plus reoxygenation. In addition, in ncx3-/- cortical neurons exposed to hypoxia, NCX currents, recorded in the reverse mode of operation, were significantly lower than those detected in ncx3+/+. From these results, NCX3 protein emerges as a new molecular target that may have a potential therapeutic value in modulating cerebral ischemia [less ▲]

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See detailSexual Behavior activity tracks rapid changes in brain estrogen concentrations
Taziaux, Mélanie ULg; Keller, Matthieu ULg; Bakker, Julie ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2007), 27(24), 6563-6572

Estrogens are classically viewed as hormones that bind to intracellular receptors, which then act as transcription factors to modulate gene expression; however, they also affect many aspects of neuronal ... [more ▼]

Estrogens are classically viewed as hormones that bind to intracellular receptors, which then act as transcription factors to modulate gene expression; however, they also affect many aspects of neuronal functioning by rapid nongenomic actions. Brain estrogen production can be regulated within minutes by changes in aromatase (estrogen synthase) activity as a result of calcium-dependent phosphorylations of the enzyme. To determine the effects of rapid changes in estrogen availability on male copulatory behavior, we mimicked in male mice the rapid upregulation and downregulation of brain estrogen concentration that should occur after inactivation or activation of aromatase activity. A single injection of different aromatase inhibitors [Vorozole, 1,4,6-androstatrien-3,17-dione (ATD), or its metabolite 17-OH-ATD (1,4,6-androstatrien-17beta-ol-3-one)] almost completely suppressed male sexual behavior (mounts and intromissions) expressed 10-20 min later by C57BL/6J mice but did not affect behavior in aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice, activated by daily injections of estradiol benzoate, thereby confirming the specificity of the behavioral inhibition observed in wild-type mice. The rapid ATD-induced inhibition was reversed by the simultaneous injection of a large dose of estradiol. A single injection of estradiol to ArKO mice also activated male sexual behavior within 15 min. Thus, rapid increases or decreases in brain estrogen concentrations are followed within minutes by corresponding changes in male sexual behavior. Sexual behavior can thus be used to monitor changes in local estrogen concentrations and analyze the mechanisms mediating the rapid decline in estrogen signaling that takes place after inhibition of estrogen synthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailHistone deacetylase 6 inhibition compensates for the transport deficit in Huntington's disease by increasing tubulin acetylation.
Godin, Juliette ULg; Dompierre, Jim; Charrin, Bénédicte et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2007), 27(13)

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See detailSleep deprivation on the post-encoding night modifies the neural correlates of retrieval of emotional memories 6 months later
Sterpenich, Virginie ULg; Albouy, Geneviève ULg; Darsaud, Annabelle et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2007), 27(Suppl. 1),

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See detailTask-related interaction between basal ganglia and cortical dopamine release.
Garraux, Gaëtan ULg; Peigneux, Philippe ULg; Carson, Richard E et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2007), 27(52), 14434-41

Dopamine (DA) is a powerful neuromodulator for a wide variety of behaviors. Considerable evidence accumulated from rodent and monkey experiments over the last two decades suggests that DA activity in the ... [more ▼]

Dopamine (DA) is a powerful neuromodulator for a wide variety of behaviors. Considerable evidence accumulated from rodent and monkey experiments over the last two decades suggests that DA activity in the frontal cortex is reciprocally linked to that in functionally related basal ganglia (BG) structures. However, the functional importance of this in humans is still unknown. To address this issue, we measured endogenous DA release using positron emission tomography in 15 healthy subjects as they practiced the first training session of a finger sequence learning task. Significant results were observed not only in striatal areas but also in extrastriatal "motor" regions, bilaterally. Faster learning was specifically coupled to lower DA release in the sensorimotor part of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) contralateral to the moving hand, which was paralleled by a higher increase in DA levels in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA). This finding provides original evidence supporting a motor-learning-related interaction between DA release in left GPi and pre-SMA, a mechanism that may also apply to other anatomically and functionally interconnected BG and frontal cortical areas as a function of behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Sleep in Motor Memory Consolidation assessed by fMRI and MEG
Albouy, Geneviève ULg; Sterpenich, Virginie ULg; Darsaud, Annabelle et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2007), 27(Suppl. 1),

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See detailIdentification of Sox17 as a transcription factor that regulates oligodendrocyte development
Sohn, Jiho; Natale, Joanne; Chew, Li-Jin et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2006), 26(38), 9722-9735

Microarray analysis of oligodendrocyte lineage cells purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from 2', 3'- cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP)-enhanced green fluorescent protein ... [more ▼]

Microarray analysis of oligodendrocyte lineage cells purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from 2', 3'- cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP)-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic mice revealed Sox17 (SRY-box containing gene 17) gene expression to be coordinately regulated with that of four myelin genes during postnatal development. In CNP-EGFP-positive (CNP-EGFP(+)) cells, Sox17 mRNA and protein levels transiently increased between postnatal days 2 and 15, with white matter O4(+) preoligodendrocytes expressing greater Sox17 levels than Nkx2.2(+) ( NK2 transcription factor related, locus 2) NG2(+), or GalC(+) ( galactocerebroside) cells. In spinal cord, Sox17 protein expression was undetectable in the primary motor neuron domain between embryonic days 12.5 and 15.5 but was evident in Nkx2.2(+) and CCl+ cells. In cultured oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), Sox17 levels were maximal in O4(+) cells and peaked during the phenotypic conversion from bipolar to multipolar. Parallel increases in Sox17 and p27 occurred before MBP protein expression, and Sox17 upregulation was prevented by conditions inhibiting differentiation. Sox17 down-regulation with small interfering RNAs increased OPC proliferation and decreased lineage progression after mitogen withdrawal, whereas Sox17 overexpression in the presence of mitogen had opposite effects. Sox17 overexpression enhanced myelin gene expression in OPCs and directly stimulated MBP gene promoter activity. These findings support important roles for Sox17 in controlling both oligodendrocyte progenitor cell cycle exit and differentiation. [less ▲]

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See detailEncoding Difficulty Promotes Postlearning Changes in Sleep
Schmidt, Christina ULg; Peigneux, Philippe ULg; Muto, Vincenzo ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2006), 26(35), 8976-8982

Learning-dependent increases in sleep spindle density have been reported during nocturnal sleep immediately after the learning session. Here, we investigated experience-dependent changes in daytime sleep ... [more ▼]

Learning-dependent increases in sleep spindle density have been reported during nocturnal sleep immediately after the learning session. Here, we investigated experience-dependent changes in daytime sleep EEG activity after declarative learning of unrelated word pairs. At weekly intervals, 13 young male volunteers spent three 24 h sessions in the laboratory under carefully controlled homeostatic and circadian conditions. At approximately midday, subjects performed either one of two word-pair learning tasks or a matched nonlearning control task, in a counterbalanced order. The two learning lists differed in the level of concreteness of the words used, resulting in an easier and a more difficult associative encoding condition, as confirmed by performance at immediate cued recall. Subjects were then allowed to sleep for 4 h; afterward, delayed cued recall was tested. Compared with the control condition, sleep EEG spectral activity in the low spindle frequency range and the density of low-frequency sleep spindles (11.25–13.75 Hz) were both significantly increased in the left frontal cortex after the difficult but not after the easy encoding condition. Furthermore, we found positive correlations between theseEEG changes during sleep and changes in memory performance between pre nap and post-nap recall sessions. These results indicate that, like during nocturnal sleep, daytime sleep EEG oscillations including spindle activity are modified after declarative learning of word pairs. Furthermore, we demonstrate here that the nature of the learning material is a determinant factor for sleep-related alterations after declarative learning. [less ▲]

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See detailThe locus ceruleus is involved in the successful retrieval of emotional memories in humans
Sterpenich, Virginie ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Desseilles, Martin ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2006), 26(28), 7416-7423

Emotional memories are better remembered than neutral ones. The amygdala is involved in this enhancement not only by modulating the hippocampal activity, but possibly also by modulating central arousal ... [more ▼]

Emotional memories are better remembered than neutral ones. The amygdala is involved in this enhancement not only by modulating the hippocampal activity, but possibly also by modulating central arousal. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we analyzed the retrieval of neutral faces encoded in emotional or neutral contexts. The pupillary size measured during encoding was used as a modulator of brain responses during retrieval. The interaction between emotion and memory showed significant responses in a set of areas, including the amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus. These areas responded significantly more for correctly remembered faces encoded in an emotional, compared with neutral, context. The same interaction conducted on responses modulated by the pupillary size revealed an area of the dorsal tegmentum of the ponto-mesencephalic region, consistent with the locus ceruleus. Moreover, a psychophysiological interaction showed that amygdalar responses were more tightly related to those of the locus ceruleus when remembering faces that had been encoded in an emotional, rather than neutral, context. These findings suggest that the restoration of a central arousal similar to encoding takes part in the successful retrieval of neutral events learned in an emotional context. [less ▲]

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See detailShared brain areas but not functional connections controlling movement timing and order
Garraux, Gaëtan ULg; McKinney, Christopher; Wu, Tao et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2005), 25(22), 5290-5297

Virtually every aspect of the enormous repertoire of human behaviors is embedded in a sequential context, but brain mechanisms underlying the adjustment of two fundamental dimensions defining a motor ... [more ▼]

Virtually every aspect of the enormous repertoire of human behaviors is embedded in a sequential context, but brain mechanisms underlying the adjustment of two fundamental dimensions defining a motor sequence (order of a series of movements and intervals separating them) as a function of a given goal are poorly understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we demonstrate that, at the neuronal level, these tasks can only be distinguished by differences in functional interactions between associative areas of common activation, which included bilateral subcortico-parieto-frontal regions, and two subcortical structures. Activity in these shared associative areas was preferentially coupled with that in right putamen during manipulation of timing and with that in right posterior cerebellum during manipulation of serial order. This finding is important because it provides evidence for an efficient organization of the brain during cognitive control of motor sequences and supports a recently proposed principle according to which the role of brain regions involved in different behavioral tasks without differential alterations in their measured activity depends on changes in their interactions with other connected areas as a function of the tasks. [less ▲]

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