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See detailEnabling efficient PET imaging of Synaptic Vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) with a robust and one-step radiosynthesis of a highly potent 18F-labelled ligand ([18F]UCB-H)
Warnier, Corentin ULg; Lemaire, Christian ULg; Becker, Guillaume ULg et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (in press)

We herein describe the straightforward synthesis of a stable pyridyl(4- methoxyphenyl)iodonium salt and its [18F]radiolabelling within a one-step, fully automated and cGMP compliant radiosynthesis of [18F ... [more ▼]

We herein describe the straightforward synthesis of a stable pyridyl(4- methoxyphenyl)iodonium salt and its [18F]radiolabelling within a one-step, fully automated and cGMP compliant radiosynthesis of [18F]UCB-H ([18F]7), a PET tracer for the imaging of Synaptic Vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A). Over the course of one year, 50 automated productions provided 34±2% of injectable [18F]7 from up to 285 GBq (7.7 Ci) of [18F]fluoride in 50 minutes (uncorrected radiochemical yield. Specific Activity = 815±185 GBq/μmol). The successful implementation of our synthetic strategy within routine, high-activity and cGMP productions attests to its practicality and reliability for the production of large doses of [18F]7. In addition to enabling efficient and cost-effective clinical research on a range of neurological pathologies through the imaging of SV2A, this work further demonstrates the real value of iodonium salts for the cGMP 18F-PET tracer manufacturing industry, and their ability to fulfill practical and regulatory requirements in that field. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolomics as a Challenging Approach for Medicinal Chemistry and Personalized Medicine.
Frederich, Michel ULg; Pirotte, Bernard ULg; Fillet, Marianne ULg et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2016)

"Omics" sciences have been developed to provide a holistic point of view of biology and to better understand the complexity of an organism as a whole. These systems biology approaches can be examined at ... [more ▼]

"Omics" sciences have been developed to provide a holistic point of view of biology and to better understand the complexity of an organism as a whole. These systems biology approaches can be examined at different levels, starting from the most fundamental, i.e., the genome, and finishing with the most functional, i.e., the metabolome. Similar to how genomics is applied to the exploration of DNA, metabolomics is the qualitative and quantitative study of metabolites. This emerging field is clearly linked to genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. In addition, metabolomics provides a unique and direct vision of the functional outcome of an organism's activities that are required for it to survive, grow, and respond to internal and external stimuli or stress, e.g., pathologies and drugs. The links between metabolic changes, patient phenotype, physiological and/or pathological status, and treatment are now well established and have opened a new area for the application of metabolomics in the drug discovery process and in personalized medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure-Activity Relationships of Novel Tryptamine-Based Inhibitors of Bacterial Transglycosylase.
Sosic, Izidor; Anderluh, Marko; Sova, Matej et al

in Journal of medicinal chemistry (2015)

Penicillin-binding proteins represent well-established, validated, and still very promising targets for the design and development of new antibacterial agents. The transglycosylase domain of penicillin ... [more ▼]

Penicillin-binding proteins represent well-established, validated, and still very promising targets for the design and development of new antibacterial agents. The transglycosylase domain of penicillin-binding proteins is especially important, as it catalyzes polymerization of glycan chains, using the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II as a substrate. On the basis of the previous discovery of a noncovalent small-molecule inhibitor of transglycosylase activity, we systematically explored the structure-activity relationships of these tryptamine-based inhibitors. The main aim was to reduce the nonspecific cytotoxic properties of the initial hit compound and concurrently to retain the mode of its inhibition. A focused library of tryptamine-based compounds was synthesized, characterized, and evaluated biochemically. The results presented here show the successful reduction of the nonspecific cytotoxicity, and the retention of the inhibition of transglycosylase enzymatic activity, as well as the ability of these compounds to bind to lipid II and to have antibacterial actions. [less ▲]

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See detailToward the First Class of Suicide Inhibitors of Kallikreins Involved in Skin Diseases
Tan, Xiao; Soualmia, Feryel; Furio, Laetitia et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2015), 58

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See detailPositive Allosteric Modulators of 2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic Acid Receptors Belonging to 4-Cyclopropyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-pyridothiadiazine Dioxides and Diversely Chloro-Substituted 4-Cyclopropyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-Dioxides
Francotte, Pierre ULg; Nørholm, Ann-Beth; Deva, Taru et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2014), 57(22), 9539-9553

Two 4-ethyl-substituted pyridothiadiazine dioxides belonging to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor positive allosteric modulators were cocrystallized with the GluA2 ... [more ▼]

Two 4-ethyl-substituted pyridothiadiazine dioxides belonging to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor positive allosteric modulators were cocrystallized with the GluA2 ligand binding domain in order to decipher the impact of the position of the nitrogen atom on their binding mode at the AMPA receptors. The latter was found to be very similar to that of previously described benzothiadiazine-type AMPA receptor modulators. The affinity of the two compounds for the receptor was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Accordingly, the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 4-cyclopropyl-substituted pyridothiadiazine dioxides was performed and completed with the synthesis of the corresponding chloro-substituted 4-cyclopropyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides. The “8-aza” compound 32 was found to be the most potent pyridothiadiazine-type AMPA receptor potentiator in vitro, whereas the 7-chloro-substituted compound 36c emerged as the most promising benzothiadiazine dioxide. Due to proper drug-likeness and low in vivo acute toxicity in mice, 36c was chosen for a more complete preclinical evaluation. The compound was able to easily cross the blood–brain barrier. In an in vivo object recognition test with CD1 mice, oral administration of 36c was found to significantly improve cognition performance at doses as low as 1 mg/kg. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis, Pharmacological and Structural Characterization, and Thermodynamic Aspects of GluA2-Positive Allosteric Modulators with a 3,4-Dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-Dioxide Scaffold
Nørholm, Ann-Beth; Francotte, Pierre ULg; Olsen, Lars et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2014), 56(21), 8736-8745

Positive allosteric modulators of ionotropic glutamate receptors are potential compounds for treatment of cognitive disorders, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease. The modulators bind within the dimer interface of ... [more ▼]

Positive allosteric modulators of ionotropic glutamate receptors are potential compounds for treatment of cognitive disorders, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease. The modulators bind within the dimer interface of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) and stabilize the agonist-bound conformation, thereby slowing receptor desensitization and/or deactivation. Here we describe the synthesis and pharmacological testing at GluA2 of a new generation of 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides. The most potent modulator 3 in complex with GluA2-LBD-L483Y-N754S was subjected to structural analysis by X-ray crystallography, and the thermodynamics of binding was studied by isothermal titration calorimetry. Compound 3 binds to GluA2-LBD-L483Y-N754S with a Kd of 0.35 μM (ΔH = −7.5 kcal/mol and −TΔS = −1.3 kcal/mol). This is the first time that submicromolar binding affinity has been achieved for this type of positive allosteric modulator. The major structural factor increasing the binding affinity of 3 seems to be interactions between the cyclopropyl group of 3 and the backbone of Phe495 and Met496. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis, Pharmacological and Structural Characterization, and Thermodynamic Aspects of GluA2-Positive Allosteric Modulators with a 3,4-Dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-Dioxide Scaffold
Nørholm, Ann-Beth; Francotte, Pierre ULg; Olsen, Lars et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2013), 56(21), 87368745

Positive allosteric modulators of ionotropic glutamate receptors are potential compounds for treatment of cognitive disorders, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease. The modulators bind within the dimer interface of ... [more ▼]

Positive allosteric modulators of ionotropic glutamate receptors are potential compounds for treatment of cognitive disorders, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease. The modulators bind within the dimer interface of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) and stabilize the agonist-bound conformation, thereby slowing receptor desensitization and/or deactivation. Here we describe the synthesis and pharmacological testing at GluA2 of a new generation of 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides. The most potent modulator 3 in complex with GluA2-LBD-L483Y-N754S was subjected to structural analysis by X-ray crystallography, and the thermodynamics of binding was studied by isothermal titration calorimetry. Compound 3 binds to GluA2-LBD-L483Y-N754S with a Kd of 0.35 μM (ΔH = −7.5 kcal/mol and −TΔS = −1.3 kcal/mol). This is the first time that submicromolar binding affinity has been achieved for this type of positive allosteric modulator. The major structural factor increasing the binding affinity of 3 seems to be interactions between the cyclopropyl group of 3 and the backbone of Phe495 and Met496. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of Thiophenic Analogues of Benzothiadiazine Dioxides as New Powerful Potentiators of 2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic Acid (AMPA) Receptors
Francotte, Pierre ULg; Goffin, Eric ULg; Fraikin, Pierre et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2013), 56(20), 7838-7850

On the basis of the results obtained in previous series of AMPA potentiators belonging to 3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo- and 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrido-1,2,4-thiadiazine 1,1-dioxides, the present work focuses on the ... [more ▼]

On the basis of the results obtained in previous series of AMPA potentiators belonging to 3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo- and 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrido-1,2,4-thiadiazine 1,1-dioxides, the present work focuses on the design of original isosteric 3,4-dihydro-2H-thieno-1,2,4-thiadiazine 1,1-dioxides. Owing to the sulfur position, three series of compounds were developed and their activity as AMPA potentiators was characterized. In each of the developed series, potent compounds were discovered. After screening the selected active compounds on a safety in vivo test, 6-chloro-4-ethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-thieno[2,3-e]-1,2,4-thiadiazine 1,1-dioxide (24) appeared as the most promising compound and was further evaluated. Its effects on long-term potentiation in vivo and on AMPA-mediated noradrenaline release were measured to predict its potential cognitive enhancing properties. Finally, an object recognition test performed in mice revealed that 24 was able to significantly enhance cognition, after oral administration, at doses as low as 0.3 mg/kg. This study validates the interest of the isosteric replacement of the benzene or pyridine nuclei by the thiophene nucleus in the ring-fused thiadiazine dioxides class of AMPA potentiators. [less ▲]

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See detailNew 5-Aryl-1H-imidazoles display in vitro antitumor activity against apoptosis-resistant cancer models, including melanomas, through mitochondrial targeting.
Mathieu, Véronique; Van Den Brege, E; Ceusters, Justine ULg et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2013), 56(17), 6626-6637

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See detailNew pyridobenzoxazepine derivatives derived from 5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloro-pyrido[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepine (JL13): chemical synthesis and pharmacological evaluation
Liégeois, Jean-François ULg; Deville, Marine; Dilly, Sébastien ULg et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2012), 55(1572), 1582

A series of new pyridobenzoxazepine derivatives with various heterocyclic amine side chains were synthesized in order to explore two main parameters related to the distal basic nitrogen. These compounds ... [more ▼]

A series of new pyridobenzoxazepine derivatives with various heterocyclic amine side chains were synthesized in order to explore two main parameters related to the distal basic nitrogen. These compounds were tested for their affinity for dopamine D2L, D4, serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and adrenergic 2A receptors in comparison with 5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloro-pyrido[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepine, JL13 (1) and other diarylazepine derivatives. In terms of multi-receptor target strategy, 2 and 5 present the most promising in vitro binding profile. Bulky, polar and more flexible side chains are not favourable in this context. 2 and 5 were tested in adult rats to evaluate their long-term effects on dopamine and serotonin receptors density in different brain areas. Similar to 1 and other second-generation antipsychotic drugs, repeated treatment with 2 significantly increased D1 and D4 receptors in nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen, and D2 receptors in medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus while 5 significantly increased D2 and D4 receptors in nucleus accumbens. In addition, 2 increased 5-HT1A and decreased 5-HT2A receptors in cerebral cortex. In contrast, 5 did not alter levels of any 5-HT receptor subtype in any brain region examined. These results encourage further development of 2 as a novel second-generation antipsychotic agent. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural basis for the interaction of lactivicins with serine beta-lactamases.
Brown, Tom Jr; Charlier, Paulette ULg; Herman, Raphaël ULg et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2010), 53(15), 5890-4

Lactivicin (LTV) is a natural non-beta-lactam antibiotic that inhibits penicillin-binding proteins and serine beta-lactamases. A crystal structure of a BS3-LTV complex reveals that, as for its reaction ... [more ▼]

Lactivicin (LTV) is a natural non-beta-lactam antibiotic that inhibits penicillin-binding proteins and serine beta-lactamases. A crystal structure of a BS3-LTV complex reveals that, as for its reaction with PBPs, LTV reacts with the nucleophilic serine and that cycloserine and lactone rings of LTV are opened. This structure, together with reported structures of PBP1b with lactivicins, provides a basis for developing improved lactivicin-based gamma-lactam antibiotics. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Fluorinated 1,2,4-Benzothiadiazine 1,1-Dioxides: Discovery of an Orally Active Cognitive Enhancer Acting through Potentiation of the 2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic Acid Receptors
Francotte, Pierre ULg; Goffin, Eric ULg; Fraikin, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2010), 53

In the search of a potent cognitive enhancer, a series of 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides have been synthesized and evaluated as positive allosteric modulators of the AMPA receptors. In ... [more ▼]

In the search of a potent cognitive enhancer, a series of 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides have been synthesized and evaluated as positive allosteric modulators of the AMPA receptors. In the present work, we focused our efforts on the insertion of mono- or polyfluoro- substituted alkyl chains at the 4-position of the thiadiazine ring in an attempt to enhance the pharmacokinetic behavior of previously described compounds. Among all the described compounds, 7-chloro-4-(2-fluoroethyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide, 12b, was shown to exert a strong activity on AMPA receptors in vitro and a marked cognitive-enhancing effect in vivo after oral administration to Wistar rats. Considering its in vivo activity, the metabolic degradation of 12b was studied and compared to that of its nonfluorinated analogue 9b. Taken together, results of this study clearly validated the positive impact of the fluorine atom on the alkyl chain at the 4-position of benzothiadiazine dioxides on activity and metabolic stability. [less ▲]

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See detailModified Cap Group Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Derivatives Reveal Improved Selective Antileukemic Activity
Chanaz, Salmi-Smail; Fabre, Aurélie; Dequiedt, Franck ULg et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2010), 53(8)

A series of SAHA cap derivatives was designed and prepared in good-to-excellent yields that varied from 49% to 95%. These derivatives were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity in several human ... [more ▼]

A series of SAHA cap derivatives was designed and prepared in good-to-excellent yields that varied from 49% to 95%. These derivatives were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity in several human cancer cell lines. Antiproliferative activity was observed for concentrations varying from 0.12 to >100 microM, and a molecular modeling approach of selected SAHA derivatives, based on available structural information of human HDAC8 in complex with SAHA, was performed. Strikingly, two compounds displayed up to 10-fold improved antileukemic activity with respect to SAHA; however, these compounds displayed antiproliferative activity similar to SAHA when assayed against solid tumor-derived cell lines. A 10-fold improvement in the leukemic vs peripheral blood mononuclear cell therapeutic ratio, with no evident in vivo toxicity toward blood cells, was also observed. The herein-described compounds and method of synthesis will provide invaluable tools to investigate the molecular mechanism responsible for the reported selectively improved antileukemic activity. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel diamidino-substituted derivatives of phenyl benzothiazolyl and dibenzothiazolyl furans and thiophenes: synthesis, antiproliferative and DNA binding properties.
Racane, Livio; Tralic-Kulenovic, Vesna; Kraljevic Pavelic, Sandra et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2010), 53(6), 2418-32

A series of new diamidino-, diisopropylamidino-, and diimidazolinyl-substituted derivatives of phenyl benzothiazolyl and dibenzothiazolyl furans and thiophenes were successfully prepared and evaluated for ... [more ▼]

A series of new diamidino-, diisopropylamidino-, and diimidazolinyl-substituted derivatives of phenyl benzothiazolyl and dibenzothiazolyl furans and thiophenes were successfully prepared and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity on tumor cell lines in vitro, DNA binding propensity, and sequence selectivity as well as cellular distribution. A strong antiproliferative effect of the tested compounds was observed on all tested cell lines in a concentration-dependent response pattern. In general, imidazolinyl-substituted derivatives and/or the thiophene core were in correlation with increased antiproliferative activity. Two compounds (2b and 3b) were chosen for biological studies due to their differential antiproliferative properties. The DNA binding properties of this new series of compounds were assessed and evidenced their efficient minor groove binding properties with preferential interaction at AT-rich sites. Both compounds also present nuclear subcellular localization, suggesting that their cellular mode of action implies localization in the DNA compartment and direct inhibition of DNA replication and induction of apoptosis. [less ▲]

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See detailMercaptophosphonate Compounds as Broad-Spectrum Inhibitors of the Metallo-β-lactamases
Lassaux, Patricia ULg; Hamel, Matthieu; Gulea, Mihaela et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2010), 53

In this paper, we investigated the inhibitory effect of mercaptophosphonate derivatives against the three subclasses of MBLs (B1, B2, and B3). All 14 tested mercaptophosphonates, with the exception of one ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigated the inhibitory effect of mercaptophosphonate derivatives against the three subclasses of MBLs (B1, B2, and B3). All 14 tested mercaptophosphonates, with the exception of one, behaved as competitive inhibitors for the three subclasses. <br />Apart from two compounds, all the mercaptophosphonates tested exhibit a good inhibitory effect on the subclass B2 MBL CphA with low inhibition constants (Ki<15 μM). Interestingly, compound 18 turned out to be a potent broad spectrum MBL inhibitor. <br />The crystallographic structures of the CphA-10a and CphA-18 complexes indicated that the sulfur atom of 10a and the phosphonato group of 18 interact with the Zn2þ ion, respectively. Molecular modeling studies of the interactions between two compounds and the VIM-4 (B1), CphA (B2), and FEZ-1 (B3) enzymes brought to light different binding modes depending on the enzyme and the inhibitor, consistent with the crystallographic structures. [less ▲]

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See detailMultidentate small-molecule inhibitors of vaccinia H1-related (VHR) phosphatase decrease proliferation of cervix cancer cells.
Wu, Shuangding; Vossius, Sofie ULg; Rahmouni, Souad ULg et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2009), 52(21), 6716-23

Loss of VHR phosphatase causes cell cycle arrest in HeLa carcinoma cells, suggesting that VHR inhibition may be a useful approach to halt the growth of cancer cells. We recently reported that VHR is ... [more ▼]

Loss of VHR phosphatase causes cell cycle arrest in HeLa carcinoma cells, suggesting that VHR inhibition may be a useful approach to halt the growth of cancer cells. We recently reported that VHR is upregulated in several cervix cancer cell lines as well as in carcinomas of the uterine cervix. Here we report the development of multidentate small-molecule inhibitors of VHR that inhibit its enzymatic activity at nanomolar concentrations and exhibit antiproliferative effects on cervix cancer cells. Chemical library screening was used to identify hit compounds, which were further prioritized in profiling and kinetic experiments. SAR analysis was applied in the search for analogs with improved potency and selectivity, resulting in the discovery of novel inhibitors that are able to interact with both the phosphate-binding pocket and several distinct hydrophobic regions within VHR’s active site. This multidentate binding mode was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The inhibitors decreased the proliferation of cervix cancer cells, while growth of primary normal keratinocytes was not affected. These compounds may be a starting point to develop drugs for the treatment of cervical cancer. [less ▲]

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