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See detailComparative biogeochemistry-ecosystem-human interactions on dynamic continental margins
Levin, Lisa A.; Liu, Kon-Kee; Kay-Christian, Emeis et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (in press)

The ocean’s continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions ... [more ▼]

The ocean’s continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions in Goa, India at the IMBER IMBIZO III, we (1) provide an overview of the drivers of biogeochemical variation and change on margins, (2) compare temporal trends in hydrographic and biogeochemical data across different margins (3) review ecosystem responses to these changes, (4) highlight the importance of margin time series for detecting and attributing change and (5) examine societal responses to changing margin biogeochemistry and ecosystems. We synthesize information over a wide range of margin settings in order to identify the commonalities and distinctions among continental margin ecosystems. Key drivers of biogeochemical variation include long-term climate cycles, CO2-induced warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, as well as sea level rise, eutrophication, hydrologic and water cycle alteration, changing land use, fishing, and species invasion. Ecosystem responses are complex and impact major margin services including primary production, fisheries production, nutrient cycling, shoreline protection, chemical buffering, and biodiversity. Despite regional differences, the societal consequences of these changes are unarguably large and mandate coherent actions to reduce, mitigate and adapt to multiple stressors on continental margins. [less ▲]

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See detailResidence time vs influence time
Delhez, Eric ULg; de Brye, Bejamin; de Brauwere, Anouk et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2014), 132

The concepts of age, residence time, exposure time and influence time provide space and time dependent quantitative measures of the rate at which watermasses and pollutants enter and/or leave a control ... [more ▼]

The concepts of age, residence time, exposure time and influence time provide space and time dependent quantitative measures of the rate at which watermasses and pollutants enter and/or leave a control domain. To help avoid confusion between these concepts, this paper provides clear definitions of the residence time and the influence time. The similarities and differences between them are illustrated using both a simplified 1D advection–diffusion model and a realistic two-dimensional model of the Scheldt Estuary (Belgium and the Netherlands). The residence time of a water parcel in a control domain is the time taken by this parcel to leave the control domain for the first time. The influence time is the time required to replace the water in the domain of interest by renewing water. For steady flows, the influence time is numerically identical to the age of the renewing water, but the two timescales differ for unsteady flows. The residence timemeasures the influence of a hypothetical point discharge on a control domain. In environmental studies, it provides a measure of the effectiveness of hydrodynamic processes at helping a semi-enclosed basin to recover froma local pollution event. The influence time quantifies the local influence of a tracer that would be uniformly distributed in the control domain at the initial time. It is therefore a relevant diagnostic tool in impact studies focusing on the local persistence of a pollution problem. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnosis of the transport of adsorbed material in the Scheldt estuary: A proof of concept
Delhez, Eric ULg; Wolk, Frank ULg

in Journal of Marine Systems (2013), 128

Many contaminants can attach to suspended particles. Their transport differs therefore from the transport of dissolved substances, especially in highly turbid environment like estuaries. In this paper, we ... [more ▼]

Many contaminants can attach to suspended particles. Their transport differs therefore from the transport of dissolved substances, especially in highly turbid environment like estuaries. In this paper, we show how the Constituent Age and Residence time Theory (CART — www.climate.be/CART) can be adapted to quantify in a rigorous manner the transport rate of contaminants that are present in both the dissolved and adsorbed phases. On the basis of numerical experiment using a 1D model of the Scheldt estuary, it is shown that the interaction with suspended particles significantly affects the transport of contaminants with partition coefficients larger than 1000 ml/g. The mean transit time from Ghent to Vlissingen of such contaminants can reach 160 days while it is only 60 days for water and dissolved constituents. This increase of the transit time is mainly due to the fact that adsorbed constituents spend long periods of time on the bottom. Surprisingly, the downstream transport of adsorbed constituents in the water column appears more effective than that of dissolved constituents. This transport affects however a small fraction of the adsorbed constituent and is therefore not sufficient to compensate for the long resting phase on the bottom of the bulk of the constituent. The concept and methodology introduced in this paper are easily applicable to most model studies and provide powerful and flexible tools for the detailed understanding of the transport of contaminants in estuaries. In particular, the concept of age and modified ages taking into account specifically the time spent in the water column or in the bottom provide new diagnostic tools to understand and quantify the dynamics of contaminants. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling phytoplankton succession and nutrient transfer along the Scheldt estuary (Belgium, The Netherlands)
Gypens, N.; Delhez, Eric ULg; Vanhoutte-Brunier, A. et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2013), 128

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See detailParticle export during a bloom of Emiliania huxleyi in the North-West European continental margin
Schmidt, S.; Harlay, Jérôme ULg; Borges, Alberto ULg et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2013), 109-110

Coccolithophores, the dominant pelagic calcifiers in the oceans, play a key role in the marine carbon cycle through calcification, primary production and carbon export, the main rivers of the biological ... [more ▼]

Coccolithophores, the dominant pelagic calcifiers in the oceans, play a key role in the marine carbon cycle through calcification, primary production and carbon export, the main rivers of the biological CO2 pump. In May 2002 a cruise was conducted on the outer shelf of the North West European continental margin, from the north Bay of Biscay to the Celtic Sea (47.0°-50.5°N, 5.0°-11.0°W), an area where massive blooms of Emiliania huxleyi are observed annually. Biogeochemical variables including primary production, calcification, partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), particle load, particulate organic and inorganic carbon (POC, PIC) and 234Th, were measured in surface waters to assess particle dynamic and carbon export in relation to the development of a coccolithophore bloom. We observed a marked northward decrease in Chl-a concentration and calcification rates: the bloom exhibited lower values and may less well developed in the Goban Spur area. The export fluxes of POC and PIC from the top 80 m, determined using the ratios of POC and PIC to 234Th of particles, ranged from 81 to 323 mgC m-2 d-1 and from 30 to 84 mgC m-2 d-1, respectively. The highest fluxes were observed in waters presenting a well-developed coccolithophore bloom, as shown by high reflectance of surface waters. This experiment confirms that the occurrence of coccolithophores promotes efficient export of organic and inorganic carbon on the North-West European margin. [less ▲]

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See detailWater renewal timescales in the Scheldt Estuary
de Brye, Benjamin; de Brauwere, Anouk; Gourgue, Olivier et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2012), 94

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See detailThe carbonate system in the North Sea: sensitivity and model validation
Artioli, Y.; Blackford, J.C.; Butenschön, M. et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2012), 102-104

The ocean plays an important role in regulating the climate, acting as a sink for carbon dioxide, perturbing the carbonate system and resulting in a slow decrease of seawater pH. Understanding the ... [more ▼]

The ocean plays an important role in regulating the climate, acting as a sink for carbon dioxide, perturbing the carbonate system and resulting in a slow decrease of seawater pH. Understanding the dynamics of the carbonate system in shelf sea regions is necessary to evaluate the impact of Ocean Acidification (OA) in these societally important ecosystems. Complex hydrodynamic and ecosystem coupled models provide a method of capturing the significant heterogeneity of these areas. However rigorous validation is essential to properly assess the reliability of such models. The coupled model POLCOMS–ERSEM has been implemented in the North Western European shelf with a new parameterization for alkalinity explicitly accounting for riverine inputs and the influence of biological processes. The model has been validated in a like with like comparison with North Sea data from the CANOBA dataset. The model shows good to reasonable agreement for the principal variables, physical (temperature and salinity), biogeochemical nutrients) and carbonate system (dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity), but simulation of the erived variables, pH and pCO2, are not yet fully satisfactory. This high uncertainty is attributed mostly o riverine forcing and primary production. This study suggests that the model is a useful tool to provide information on Ocean Acidification scenarios, but uncertainty on pH and pCO2 needs to be reduced, particularly when impacts of OA on ecosystem functions are included in the model systems. [less ▲]

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See detailScience based management of coastal waters
Delhez, Eric ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg

in Journal of Marine Systems (2011, October), 88(1),

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See detailCarbon and nitrogen flows during a bloom of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi: Modelling a mesocosm experiment
Joassin, Pascal ULg; Delille, Bruno ULg; Soetaert, Karline et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2011), 85

A dynamic model has been developed to represent biogeochemical variables and processes observed during experimental blooms of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi induced inmesocosms over a period of 23 ... [more ▼]

A dynamic model has been developed to represent biogeochemical variables and processes observed during experimental blooms of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi induced inmesocosms over a period of 23 days. The model describes carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycling through E. huxleyi and the microbial loop, and computes pH and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). The main innovations are: 1) the representation of E. huxleyi dynamics using an unbalanced growthmodel in carbon and nitrogen, 2) the gathering of formulations describing typical processes involved in the export of carbon such as primary production, calcification, cellular dissolved organic carbon (DOC) excretion, transparent exopolymer (TEP) formation and viral lyses, and 3) an original and validated representation of the calcification process as a function of the net primary production with a modulation by the intra-cellular N:C ratio mimicking the effect of nutrients limitation on the onset of calcification. It is shown that this new mathematical formulation of calcification provides a better representation of the dynamics of TA, DIC and calcification rates derived from experimental data compared to classicaly used formulations (e.g. function of biomass or of net primary production without anymodulation term). In a first step, the model has been applied to the simulations of present pCO2 conditions. It adequately reproduces the observations for chemical and biological variables and provides an overall view of carbon and nitrogen dynamics. Carbon and nitrogen budgets are derived from the model for the different phases of the bloom, highlighting three distinct phases, reflecting the evolution of the cellular C:N ratio and the interaction between hosts and viruses. During the first phase, inorganic nutrients are massively consumed by E. huxleyi increasing its biomass. Uptakes of carbon and nitrogen are maintained at a constant ratio. The second phase is triggered by the exhaustion of phosphate (PO4 3−). Uptake of carbon and nitrogen being uncoupled, the cellular C:N ratio of E. huxleyi increases. This stimulates the active release of DOC, acting as precursors for TEP. The third phase is characterised by an enhancement of the phytoplankton mortality due to viral lysis. A huge amount of DOC has been accumulated in the mesocosm. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal variability of the oceanic upper layer and its modulation of biological cycles in the Canary Island region
Troupin, Charles ULg; Sangrà, Pablo; Arístegui, Javier

in Journal of Marine Systems (2010), 80(3-4), 172-183

The Canary Island region is rich in mesoscale phenomena that affect cycles of physical and biological processes. A 1D version of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS) is used south of the Gran ... [more ▼]

The Canary Island region is rich in mesoscale phenomena that affect cycles of physical and biological processes. A 1D version of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS) is used south of the Gran Canaria Island to simulate seasonal climatologies of these cycles. The model is forced with monthly air–sea fluxes averaged from 1993 to 2002 and initialized with mean in situ profiles of temperature, salinity, oxygen and nitrate concentrations. The K-Profile Parameterization (KPP) mixed layer submodel is compared with other submodels using idealized numerical experiments. When forced with realistic air–sea fluxes, the model correctly reproduces the annual cycle of temperature (mixed layer depth), with minimum surface values of 18 °C (maximal depth > 105 m) in February during convective mixing resulting from a negative heat flux. Maximum temperatures above 23 °C (minimal depth < 20 m) are simulated from September to October after strong summer heating and a decrease in Trade Winds intensity. A simple ecosystem model is coupled to the physical model, which provides simulated biological cycles that are in agreement with regional observations. A phytoplankton bloom develops in late winter, driven by the injection of new nutrients into the euphotic layer. Simulated chlorophyll shows a deep maximum fluctuating around 100 m with concentrations around 1 mg Chla /m³, while surface values are low (around 0.1 mg Chla /m³) during most of the year. The physical and biological model results are validated by comparisons with data from regional studies, climatological fields and time-series from the ESTOC station. [less ▲]

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See detailRevisiting the role of zooplankton in pelagic ecosystems
Hecq, Jean-Henri ULg; Goffart, Anne ULg

in Journal of Marine Systems (2009), 78

Preface of the 38th International Liège Colloquium on Ocean Dynamics (Liège, Belgium, 8–12 May 2006) : Revisiting the role of zooplankton in pelagic ecosystems. Issue of JMS edited by Jean-Henri Hecq and ... [more ▼]

Preface of the 38th International Liège Colloquium on Ocean Dynamics (Liège, Belgium, 8–12 May 2006) : Revisiting the role of zooplankton in pelagic ecosystems. Issue of JMS edited by Jean-Henri Hecq and Anne Goffart. [less ▲]

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See detailDedication - Michel Frankignoulle
Borges, Alberto ULg; Delille, Bruno ULg

in Journal of Marine Systems (2007), 66(1-4), 4-5

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See detailForecast verification of a 3D model of the Mediterranean Sea. The use of discrete wavelet transforms and EOFs in the skill assessment of spatial forecasts
Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Ben Bouallegue, Zied et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2007), 65(1-4), 460-483

The quality assessment of a nested model system of the Mediterranean Sea is realised. The model has two zooms in the Provencal Basin and in the Ligurian Sea, realised with a two-way nesting approach. The ... [more ▼]

The quality assessment of a nested model system of the Mediterranean Sea is realised. The model has two zooms in the Provencal Basin and in the Ligurian Sea, realised with a two-way nesting approach. The experiment lasts for nine weeks, and at each week sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level anomaly are assimilated. The quality assessment of the surface temperature is done in a spatio-temporal approach, to take into account the high complexity of the SST distribution. We focus on the multi-scale nature of oceanic processes using two powerful tools for spatio-temporal analysis, wavelets and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). We apply two-dimensional wavelets to decompose the high-resolution model and observed SST into different spatial scales. The Ligurian Sea model results are compared to observations at each of those spatial scales, with special attention on how the assimilation affects the model behaviour. We also use EOFs to assess the similarities between the Mediterranean Sea model and the observed SST. The results show that the assimilation mainly affects the model large-scale features, whereas the small scales show little or no improvement and sometimes, even a decrease in their skill. The multiresolution analysis reveals the connection between large- and small-scale errors, and how the choice of the maximum correlation length of the assimilation scheme affects the distribution of the model error among the different spatial scales. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of a SEEK filter to a 1D biogeochemical model of the Ligurian Sea: Twin experiments and real in-situ data assimilation
Raick, Caroline ULg; Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2007), 65(1-4), 561-583

The Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter has been implemented to assimilate in-situ data in a 1D coupled physical-ecosystem model of the Ligurian Sea. The biogeochemical model describes the ... [more ▼]

The Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter has been implemented to assimilate in-situ data in a 1D coupled physical-ecosystem model of the Ligurian Sea. The biogeochemical model describes the partly decoupled nitrogen and carbon cycles of the pelagic food web. The GHER hydrodynamic model (1D version) is used to represent the physical forcings. The data assimilation scheme (SEEK filter) parameterizes the error statistics by means of a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). Twin experiments are first performed with the aim to choose the suitable experimental protocol (observation and estimation vectors, number of EOFs, frequency of the assimilation,...) and to assess the SEEK filter performances. This protocol is then applied to perform real data assimilation experiments using the DYFAMED data base. By assimilating phytoplankton observations, the method has allowed to improve not only the representation of the phytoplankton community, but also of other variables such as zooplankton and bacteria that evolve with model dynamics and that are not corrected by the data assimilation scheme. The validation of the assimilation method and the improvement of model results are studied by means of suitable error measurements. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detail36th International Liege Colloquium on Ocean Dynamics - Liege, Belgium, 3-7 May, 2004 - Marine environmental monitoring and prediction - Preface
Desaubies, Yves; Rixen, Michel; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg

in Journal of Marine Systems (2007), 65(1-4), 1-2

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See detailMultigrid state vector for data assimilation in a two-way nested model of the Ligurian Sea
Barth, Alexander ULg; Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2007), 65(1-4), 41-59

A system of two nested models composed by a coarse resolution model of the Mediterranean Sea, an intermediate resolution model of the Provencal Basin and a high resolution model of the Ligurian Sea is ... [more ▼]

A system of two nested models composed by a coarse resolution model of the Mediterranean Sea, an intermediate resolution model of the Provencal Basin and a high resolution model of the Ligurian Sea is coupled with a Kalman-filter based assimilation method. The state vector for the data assimilation is composed by the temperature, salinity and elevation of the three models. The forecast error is estimated by an ensemble run of 200 members by perturbing initial condition and atmospheric forcings. The 50 dominant empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) are taken as the error covariance of the model forecast. This error covariance is assumed to be constant in time. Sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH) are assimilated in this system. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial and temporal variation of bacterioplankton in a sub-Antarctic coastal area (Kerguelen Archipelago)
Delille, Daniel; Gleizon, Fabien; Delille, Bruno ULg

in Journal of Marine Systems (2007), 68(3-4), 366-380

Bacterial abundance and production were measured monthly for one year along cross-shore transects in 3 sub-Antarctic fjords of the Kerguelen Archipelago (seven stations each). Mean values of the 3 most ... [more ▼]

Bacterial abundance and production were measured monthly for one year along cross-shore transects in 3 sub-Antarctic fjords of the Kerguelen Archipelago (seven stations each). Mean values of the 3 most coastal (inside) and most offshore (outside) stations were used to describe the relationship between temperature, phytoplankton biomass, bacterial abundance and bacterial production over a one year annual cycle. The entire sampling protocol was repeated twice during each cruise: once at noon and once at midnight. Over the whole sampling period, the temperature ranged from 2.1 to 7.4 degrees C, while chlorophyll a concentrations varied by a factor of 10, and bacterial abundance and production varied by factors of 12 and 30, respectively. Within one day, all of these parameters sometimes varied by a factor of 4 between noon and midnight. A clear seasonality was observed for all of the parameters. However, while variations of phytoplankton and bacterial production paralleled those of temperature, bacterial abundance was low in midsummer and maximum in autumn. While no general pattern could be observed from the total data set, spatial gradients could interfere strongly with temporal changes. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the seasonal cycle of the biogeochemical processes in the Ligurian Sea using a ID interdisciplinary model
Raick, Caroline ULg; Delhez, Eric ULg; Soetaert, Karline et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2005), 55(3-4), 177-203

A one-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model has been built to study the pelagic food web of the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea). The physical model is the turbulent closure model (version ... [more ▼]

A one-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model has been built to study the pelagic food web of the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea). The physical model is the turbulent closure model (version I D) developed at the GeoHydrodynamics and Environmental Laboratory (GHER) of the University of Liege. The ecosystem model contains 19 state variables describing the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the pelagic food web. Phytoplankton and zooplankton are both divided in three size-based compartments and the model includes an explicit representation of the microbial loop including bacteria, dissolved organic matter, nano-, and microzooplankton. The internal carbon/nitrogen ratio is assumed variable for phytoplankton and detritus, and constant for zooplankton and bacteria. Silicate is considered as a potential limiting nutrient of phytoplankton's growth. The aggregation model described by Kriest and Evans in (Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., Earth Planet. Sci. 109 (4) (2000) 453) is used to evaluate the sinking rate of particulate detritus. The model is forced at the air-sea interface by meteorological data coming from the "Cote d'Azur" Meteorological Buoy. The dynamics of atmospheric fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea (DYFAMED) time-series data obtained during the year 2000 are used to calibrate and validate the biological model. The comparison of model results within in situ DYFAMED data shows that although some processes are not represented by the model, such as horizontal and vertical advections, model results are overall in agreement with observations and differences observed can be explained with environmental conditions. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the Aral Sea negative water balance on its seasonal circulation patterns: use of a 3D hydrodynamic model
Sirjacobs, Damien ULg; Grégoire, Marilaure ULg; Delhez, Eric ULg et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2004), 47(1-4), 51-66

A 3D hydrodynamic model of the Aral Sea was successfully implemented to address the complex hydrodynamic changes induced by the combined effect of hydrologic and climatic change in the Aral region. The ... [more ▼]

A 3D hydrodynamic model of the Aral Sea was successfully implemented to address the complex hydrodynamic changes induced by the combined effect of hydrologic and climatic change in the Aral region. The first barotropic numerical experiments allowed us to produce a comparative description of the mean general seasonal circulation patterns corresponding to the original situation (1956-1960) and of the average situation for the period from 1981 to 1985, a very low river flow period. The dominant anticyclonic circulation suggested by our seasonal simulation is in good agreement with previous investigations. In addition. this main anticyclonic gyre was shown to be stable and clearly established from February to September, while winter winds led to another circulation scenario. In winter, the main anticyclonic gyre was considerably limited, and cyclonic circulations appeared in the deep western basin and in the northeast of the shallow basin. In contrast, stronger anticyclonic circulation was observed in the Small Aral Sea during winter. As a consequence of the 10-m sea level drop observed between the two periods considered, the 1981-1985 simulation suggests an intensification of seasonal variability. Total water transport of the main gyre was reduced with sea level drop by a minimum of 30% in May and up to 54% in September. Before 1960, the study of the net flows through Berg and Kokaral Straits allowed us to evaluate the component of water exchange between the Small and the Large Seas linked with the general anticyclonic circulation around Kokaral Island. This exchange was lowest in summer (with a mean anticyclonic exchange of 222 m(3)/s for July and August), highest in fall and winter (with a mean value of 1356 m(3)/s from September to February) and briefly reversed in the spring (mean cyclonic circulation of 316 m(3)/s for April and May). In summer, the water exchange due to local circulation at the scale of each strait was comparatively more important because net flows through the straits were low. After about 20 years of negative water balance, the western Kokaral Strait was dried up and the depth of Berg Strait was reduced from 15 to 5 m. Simulation indicated a quasi-null net transport, except during the seasonal modification of the circulation pattern, in February and October. A limited, but stable, water exchange of about 100 m(3)/s remained throughout the year, as a result of the permanent superposition of opposite currents. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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