References of "Journal of Evolutionary Biology"
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See detailExpression of sexual ornaments in a polymorphic species: phenotypic variation in response to environmental risk
Winandy, Laurane ULg; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Journal of Evolutionary Biology (2015), 28(5), 1049-1056

Secondary sexual traits may evolve under the antagonistic context of sexual and natural selection. In some polymorphic species, these traits are only expressed during the breeding period and are ... [more ▼]

Secondary sexual traits may evolve under the antagonistic context of sexual and natural selection. In some polymorphic species, these traits are only expressed during the breeding period and are differently expressed in alternative phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such phenotypes exhibit phenotypic plasticity of seasonal ornamentations in response to environmental pressures such as in the presence of fish (predation risk). This is an important question to understand the evolution of polyphenisms. We used facultative paedomorphosis in newts as a model system because it involves the coexistence of paedomorphs that retain gills in the adult stage with metamorphs that have undergone metamorphosis, but also because newts exhibit seasonal sexual traits. Our aim was therefore to determine the influence of fish on the development of seasonal ornamentation in the two phenotypes of the palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus). During the entire newt breeding period, we assessed the importance of phenotype and fish presence with an information-theoretic approach. Our results showed that paedomorphs presented much less developed ornamentation than metamorphs and those ornamentations varied over time. Fish inhibited the development of sexual traits but differently between phenotypes: in contrast to metamorphs, paedomorphs lack the phenotypic plasticity of sexual traits to environmental risk. This study points out that internal and external parameters act in complex ways in the expression of seasonal sexual ornamentations and that similar environmental pressure can induce a contrasted evolution in alternative phenotypes. [less ▲]

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See detailAn explicit test for the contribution of environmental maternal effects to rapid clinal differentiation in an invasive plant
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Lebeau, Julie; Meerts, Pierre et al

in Journal of Evolutionary Biology (2009), 22(5), 917-926

Population differentiation of alien invasive plants within their non-native range has received increasingly more attention. Common gardens are typically used to assess the levels of genotypic ... [more ▼]

Population differentiation of alien invasive plants within their non-native range has received increasingly more attention. Common gardens are typically used to assess the levels of genotypic differentiation among populations. However, in such experiments, environmental maternal effects can influence phenotypic variation among individuals if seed sources are collected from field populations under variable environmental regimes. In the present study, we investigated the causes of an altitudinal cline in an invasive plant. Seeds were collected from Senecio inaequidens (Asteraceae) populations along an altitudinal gradient in southern France. In addition, seeds from the same populations were generated by intra-population crossings in a climatic chamber. The two seed lots were grown in a common garden in Central Belgium to identify any evidence of environmentally induced maternal effects and/or an altitudinal cline in a suite of life-history traits. Results failed to detect any environmental maternal effects. However, an altitudinal cline in plant height and above-ground biomass was found to be independent of the maternal environment. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolutionary mode, tempo, and phylogenetic association of continuous morphological traits in the aquatic moss genus Amblystegium
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Jacquemart, A. L.

in Journal of Evolutionary Biology (2004), 17(2), 279-287

Evolutionary significance of morphological characters that have traditionally been used for species delineation in the aquatic moss genus Amblystegium was tested by partitioning the environmentally and ... [more ▼]

Evolutionary significance of morphological characters that have traditionally been used for species delineation in the aquatic moss genus Amblystegium was tested by partitioning the environmentally and genetically induced morphological variation and focusing on morphological evolution using comparative methods. Cultivation experiments under controlled condition showed that most of the morphological variation in nature resulted from plasticity. Information regarding genetically fixed morphological variation and genetic similarity derived from polymorphic inter-simple sequence repeat markers was combined into an explicit model of morphological evolution. Maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters indicated that evolution of most characters tended to accelerate in the most recent taxa and was often independent from the phylogeny. Constraining the different characters to be independent from each other most often produced a less likely result than when the characters were free to evolve in a correlated fashion. Thus, the morphological characters that have traditionally been used to circumscribe different Amblystegium species lack the independence, diagnostic value for specific lineages, and stability that would be required for distinguishing different species. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial autocorrelation of allozyme and quantitative markers within a natural population of Centaurea jacea (Asteraceae)
Hardy, O. J.; Vanderhoeven, SONIA ULg; Meerts, P. et al

in Journal of Evolutionary Biology (2000), 13(4), 656-667

This paper compares the fine-scale genetic structure of quantitative traits and allozyme markers within a natural population of Centaurea jacea s.l. To that end, a spatial autocorrelation approach is ... [more ▼]

This paper compares the fine-scale genetic structure of quantitative traits and allozyme markers within a natural population of Centaurea jacea s.l. To that end, a spatial autocorrelation approach is developed based on pairwise correlation coefficients between individuals and using sib families. Statistical properties of the proposed statistics are investigated with numerical simulations. Our results show that most quantitative traits have a significant spatial structure for their genetic component. On average, allozyme markers and the genetic component of quantitative traits have similar patterns of spatial autocorrelation that are consistent with a neutral model of isolation by distance. We also show evidence that environmental heterogeneity generates a spatial structure for the environmental component of quantitative traits. Results are discussed in terms of mechanisms generating spatial structure and are compared with those obtained on a large geographical scale. [less ▲]

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