References of "Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology"
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See detailSkin viscoelasticity in incipient gravitational syndrome.
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Paquet, Philippe; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg

in Journal of cosmetic dermatology (2014), 13(1), 52-5

BACKGROUND: The gravitational syndrome resulting from venous pressure elevation occasionally develops on the legs during pregnancy. The limb tends to enlarge and become stiffer. The body contours are ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The gravitational syndrome resulting from venous pressure elevation occasionally develops on the legs during pregnancy. The limb tends to enlarge and become stiffer. The body contours are altered. AIMS: To assess incipient gravitational edema due to chronic venous insufficiency using measurements of the skin tensile strength. METHOD: A total of 21 women aged 28-37 years were enrolled in the study. Evaluations were made twice in each subject following an alternate use and avoidance of daytime elastic contention. Skin viscoelasticity was measured on the mid portion of the calves using a computerized suction device. RESULTS: The discretely increased consistency of skin showing abnormal rheological characteristics at the site of incipient gravitational edema was significantly improved by contention therapy. Under progressive suction measurements, both skin distensibility, biologic elasticity and hysteresis were increased after wearing tight stockings. The biologic elasticity appears to be the most sensitive parameter pointing to the diagnosis of gravitational syndrome. CONCLUSION: Noninvasive measurements of the skin viscoelasticity, particularly the biologic elasticity, represent an objective assessment of both early gravitational edema and its control by contention therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailImmunohistochemical sweat gland profiles.
Noel, Fanchon; Pierard, Gérald ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2013), 12

Abstract BACKGROUND: Human sweat glands are heterogeneous in their structures and functions. Accordingly, eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands are distinguished. AIMS: Some immunohistochemical markers ... [more ▼]

Abstract BACKGROUND: Human sweat glands are heterogeneous in their structures and functions. Accordingly, eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands are distinguished. AIMS: Some immunohistochemical markers are expected to distinguish the sweat gland types in their secretory and excretory parts. METHODS: This study used two sets of antibodies. The first panel was composed of antibodies directed to well-defined sweat gland structures. The molecular targets included the low-molecular-weight cytokeratins CAM 5.2, the S100-B protein, the epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1). A second exploratory panel of antibodies targeted syndecan-1 (CD138), NKI-C3 (CD63), and CD68. They were used to disclose some undescribed antigen expressions in human sweat glands. RESULTS: The first set of antibodies confirmed previous findings. The immunoreactivities of the three sweat gland types were similar in the excretory ducts. By contrast, they were distinguished in the deeper coiled secretory portions of the glands. CONCLUSION: Clues supporting their distinction and probably their functional activity were obtained by immunohistochemistry using the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 antibodies. The immunoreactivity to the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 possibly help identifying apoeccrine sweat glands or a peculiar functional activity of eccrine sweat glands. [less ▲]

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See detailHair weathering and hair capacitance mapping: a pilot study.
Franchimont, Claudine ULg; PIERARD, Gérald ULg

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2012), 11(3), 179-82

BACKGROUND: Currently, there is no reported objective method allowing confident assessment of hair hydration mapping. Thus, assessing hair moisture kinetics and versatility according to hair shaft damages ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Currently, there is no reported objective method allowing confident assessment of hair hydration mapping. Thus, assessing hair moisture kinetics and versatility according to hair shaft damages and hair care products is difficult to perform. AIM: To explore a new method for assessing hair moisture. METHOD: A new method of hair capacitance mapping (HCM) is introduced for monitoring hair surface damage and hydration. This study was performed on intact and weathered hair locks. Samples were soaked in 10% solutions of regular shampoos or in tap water alone. HCM was performed using the SkinChip((R)) device based on a semiconductor image sensor technology. Time to complete water desorption from cuticular cells was recorded. RESULTS: Hair surface moisture was increased for <30 min after soaking in the shampoos or water alone. The method was sensitive enough to disclose a gradient of moisture from the base to the tip of the hair shafts. Weathered hairs lost their moisture more rapidly than intact hairs. CONCLUSION: Hair capacitance mapping appears to be a promising method in the assessment of the dynamics of hair surface moisture. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical and instrumental assessment of the effects of a new product based on hydroxypropyl chitosan and potassium azeloyl diglycinate in the management of rosacea.
Berardesca, Enzo; Iorizzo, Matilde; Abril, Elva et al

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2012), 11(1), 37-41

Background Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting mostly facial skin. Its origin is multifactorial. Important steps in its treatment are avoidance of any triggering factor and control of ... [more ▼]

Background Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting mostly facial skin. Its origin is multifactorial. Important steps in its treatment are avoidance of any triggering factor and control of skin inflammation. Aim To assess the benefit of topical applications of a new product (P-3075). Patients/Methods A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, pilot study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a cream (P-3075) based on 5% potassium azeloyl diglycinate (PAD, Azeloglicina((R)) ) and 1% hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH). Forty-two patients (rosacea stages I and II) were enrolled and randomized, 28 in the P-3075 group and 14 in the placebo group. They were asked to apply the cream twice daily for 4 weeks. The main assessments were the objective quantification of erythema and skin hydration using the Mexameter((R)) and Corneometer((R)) devices, respectively. Clinical signs and symptoms were evaluated on a four-point scale. Results The P-3075 cream applied for 28 days was effective in skin protection by reducing erythema, evaluated both instrumentally and clinically. In addition, the clinical assessments of other symptoms such as flushing, stinging, and burning supported the beneficial effect of the P-3075 cream. Conclusions The anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects of potassium azeloyl diglycinate combined with the protective properties of HPCH allow the new product to be a good candidate for controlling signs and symptoms of rosacea. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of skin barrier repair following preconditioning by a biotechnology-driven extract from samphire (Crithmum maritimum) stem cells.
CAUCANAS, Marie ULg; Montastier, Christiane; Pierard, Gérald ULg et al

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2011), 10(4), 288-93

Background With aging, the barrier repair kinetics following any weakening of the epidermal permeability barrier function is commonly slowed down. Objective To assess the recovery rate of the epidermal ... [more ▼]

Background With aging, the barrier repair kinetics following any weakening of the epidermal permeability barrier function is commonly slowed down. Objective To assess the recovery rate of the epidermal permeability barrier function following controlled stripping and applications of samphire and control formulations. Method In 12 healthy subjects older than 50 years, controlled stratum corneum (SC) strippings were used to increase the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) just above 15 g/m(2) /h. This procedure followed a 14-day skin preconditioning by daily applications of formulations enriched or not with a samphire (Crithmum maritimum) biomass. An untreated skin site served as control. The epidermal permeability repair kinetics was assessed for 14 days by daily measurements of both TEWL and the colorimetric value a*. Results A rapid (96 h) recovery to lower TEWL values was obtained at each of the samphire-preconditioned sites (0.1% serum, 0.05% cream, the serum-cream association, and 0.5% silicone oil). This process was significantly (P < 0.001) faster than that on both the placebo-preconditioned (silicone oil) and the untreated sites. No adverse inflammatory and sensory reactions were recorded. At the sites preconditioned by samphire formulations, the SC moisture (capacitance) was higher at completion of the study compared to inclusion. Conclusions The present experimental pilot study brings some clues supporting a beneficial boosting effect of samphire cell biomass on the kinetics of epidermal permeability barrier repair. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytic assessment under ultraviolet light of actinic lentigines under bleaching treatment.
PIERARD, Gérald ULg; Seite, Sophie; Rougier, Andre et al

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2011), 10(2), 104-9

BACKGROUND: Actinic (solar) lentigines are melanotic tumors frequently developed during photoaging on the dorsum of the hands. Bleaching (whitening) agents are commonly offered to fade their darker aspect ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Actinic (solar) lentigines are melanotic tumors frequently developed during photoaging on the dorsum of the hands. Bleaching (whitening) agents are commonly offered to fade their darker aspect. In general, regular colorimetric methods show poor sensitivity to disclose any bleaching effect. METHOD: The present randomized controlled study on 24 women was designed to objectively assess the clinical efficacy of a combination of bleaching agents on actinic lentigines. In the endeavor of improving sensitivity, the ultraviolet light-enhanced visualization (ULEV) method was used to derive analytical measurements of lentigo areas and darkness. The test product was a commercially available formulation associating glycolic acid, kojic acid, lipohydroxyacid, and a Vitreoscilla extract. The Analysis(R) Olympus and Adobe Photoshop(R) quantitative methods were applied to the ULEV pictures. RESULTS: Data indicated a rapid bleaching effect arising as early as after 1 month of daily applications. The effect progressively increased over 3 months of therapy. CONCLUSION: The presently described analytical method appears to be sensitive to document some bleaching effects on actinic lentigines. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanobiology and cell tensegrity: the root of ethnic hair curling?
Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine; PAQUET, Philippe ULg; QUATRESOOZ, Pascale ULg et al

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2011), 10(2), 163-7

BACKGROUND: The hair shape, either straight, crimp, or curly, is basically under genetic influence. It is possibly altered by some drugs such as cytostatic agents. In addition, specific innate molecular ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The hair shape, either straight, crimp, or curly, is basically under genetic influence. It is possibly altered by some drugs such as cytostatic agents. In addition, specific innate molecular characteristics are modulated by some cosmetic procedures to reshape the hair shafts. AIM: To revisit the possible implication of mechanobiology and cell tensegrity in shaping ethnic hair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Optical and scanning electron microscopy of hairs. RESULTS: It is generally held that the cross-section shape of hair is related to differences in the global aspect of the hair shaft. A possible biologic link between these features may rely on shaping cell tensegrity at any portion of the hair shaft. Cell tensegrity encompasses all intrinsic and extrinsic forces responsible for the three-dimensional arrangement of intracellular macromolecules. CONCLUSION: We offer as a hypothesis that the hair shape in part depends on the organization of the cell proliferation in the hair matrix. This review gathers observations supporting the involvement of cell tensegrity in shaping the hair shaft. [less ▲]

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See detailVulnerability of reactive skin to electric current perception--a pilot study implicating mast cells and the lymphatic microvasculature.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2009), 8(3), 186-9

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Sensitive/reactive skin is regarded as a manifestation of sensory irritation. This susceptibility condition to various exogenous factors suggests the intervention of some ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Sensitive/reactive skin is regarded as a manifestation of sensory irritation. This susceptibility condition to various exogenous factors suggests the intervention of some neuropeptides and other neurobiological mediators. Mast cells are among the putative implicated cells. METHOD: The present immunohistochemical and morphometric study was performed on two groups of 36 gender- and age-matched subjects complaining or not from reactive skin as determined by electric current perception. In the mid upper part of the dermis, the numerical density in mast cells and the size of the microvasculature were assessed distinguishing the blood and lymphatic vessels. RESULTS: Globally, the distributions of data were large in reactive skin. This condition was characterized by a prominent increase in both the numerical density in mast cells and the overall size of the lymphatics. By contrast, no difference was found in the size of cutaneous blood vessels. More precisely, it appeared that a subgroup of people with reactive skin exhibited these changes contrasting with some other individuals whose data remained close to the normal range. CONCLUSION: Mast cells and lymphatics are probably involved in the process of sensory irritation affecting a subgroup of the population. [less ▲]

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See detailRevisiting biothermal effects on erythematous hypertrophic scars during pregnancy
NIZET, Jean-Luc ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2009), 8(1), 27-31

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is possibly associated with altered wound healing including the development of hypertrophic or keloidal scarring. The management of these lesions may prove to be difficult, and there ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is possibly associated with altered wound healing including the development of hypertrophic or keloidal scarring. The management of these lesions may prove to be difficult, and there are no universally accepted treatment protocols. Objective To assess erythema fading of hypertrophic scars following cold applications. METHODS: Skin color was assessed using the Visi-Chroma VC100 technology following validation of the method. We compared the effects of freezing or cooling hypertrophic scars developed in 45 Caucasian pregnant women. The effects of liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy, hydrogel cooling pads, and thermal contact cushions were compared. RESULT: This pilot study showed that the three treatment modalities substantially decreased erythema. The thermal contact cushion appeared to be the most effective biothermal means for achieving this effect. CONCLUSION: Freezing or cooling hypertrophic scars helps reducing erythema of hypertrophic scars. This effect probably results from an inhibitory action exerted on the microvasculature. Data suggest that repeat applications of mild cooling might be more effective than a few short freezing sessions. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of various concentrations of glycolic acid at the corneoxenometry and collaxenometry bioassays.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2008), 7(3), 194-8

BACKGROUND: Glycolic acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid used as a chemical peeling for more than a quarter century. The primary tissue target is the stratum corneum. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Glycolic acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid used as a chemical peeling for more than a quarter century. The primary tissue target is the stratum corneum. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the effects of various concentrations of glycolic acid on the stratum corneum and collagen fibers using two selected bioassays. METHODS: Corneoxenometry was performed to test the effects on human stratum corneum. Collaxenometry was similarly designed to quantify the effect on sheets of collagen fibers. Different glycolic acid concentrations ranging from 5% to 70% in alcohol were tested, respectively, for 3- and 10-min exposure times. RESULTS: Both bioassays showed consistent reactivities with a dose-effect relationship when using a 3-min exposure time. By contrast, the tests appeared unreliable or uninformative for the 10-min exposure time. CONCLUSION: Corneoxenometry and collaxenometry appear useful for in vitro testing peeling agents during short exposure times. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined effects of silymarin and methylsulfonylmethane in the management of rosacea: clinical and instrumental evaluation.
Berardesca, Enzo; Cameli, Norma; Cavallotti, Claudia et al

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2008), 7(1), 8-14

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate a topical treatment based on silymarin/methylsulfonilmethane (S-MSM) to improve erythematous-telangiectactic rosacea. METHODS: Forty-six patients affected by stage I ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate a topical treatment based on silymarin/methylsulfonilmethane (S-MSM) to improve erythematous-telangiectactic rosacea. METHODS: Forty-six patients affected by stage I-III rosacea entered this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were treated for 1 month. Clinical and instrumental evaluations were done at baseline, after 10 and 20 days, and at the end of the study. Itching, stinging, erythema, and papules were investigated clinically as well as hydration and erythema instrumentally with capacitance and color measurements. RESULTS: A statistically significant improvement was observed in many clinical and instrumental parameters investigated (P < 0.001). In particular, improvement of skin redness, papules, itching, hydration, and skin color occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of silymarin and S-MSM can be useful in managing symptoms and condition of rosacea skin, especially in the rosacea subtype 1 erythemato-telangiectatic phase. The action can be considered multicentric and multiphase because of the direct modulating action on cytokines and angiokines normally involved and up-regulated in the case of such skin condition. [less ▲]

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See detailCosmetic surgery for congenital nail deformities
Richert, Bertrand ULg; Choffray, Alexandre ULg; de LA BRASSINNE, Michel ULg

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2008), 7

Only a few nail dystrophies may be improved by surgery: malalignment of the big toenail, racquet thumbs, trapezoidal nails, and vertical implantation of the nail on the fifth toe. Knowledge of the ... [more ▼]

Only a few nail dystrophies may be improved by surgery: malalignment of the big toenail, racquet thumbs, trapezoidal nails, and vertical implantation of the nail on the fifth toe. Knowledge of the surgical management of these deformities may allow a nice cosmetic outcome if performed by skilled surgeons. [less ▲]

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See detailSkin climacteric aging and hormone replacement therapy.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Gaspard, Ulysse ULg et al

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2006), 5(1), 3-8

A gender perspective is indispensable for a full understanding of aging. Menopause is a turning point in women's lives. In addition to the effects of chronological aging, sunlight exposure, and other ... [more ▼]

A gender perspective is indispensable for a full understanding of aging. Menopause is a turning point in women's lives. In addition to the effects of chronological aging, sunlight exposure, and other environmental and endogenous stimuli, the climacteric appears to exert some dramatic consequences on skin biology and aspect. The epidermis may become xerotic and exhibit altered functions. The dermis thins out and its elasticity decreases in concert with the decline in bone mass. The skin microcirculation is impaired. These aspects are some of the better worked-out changes of the climacteric, which in turn seem to be stabilized or in part reversible with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The HRT effect on menopause consequences on hair growth and sebum production is less impressive. This review summarizes some important impacts of the climacteric on skin, and highlights the benefits of HRT that may influence cosmetic dermatology. [less ▲]

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See detailCommentary on Cellulite: Skin Mechanobiology and the Waist-to-Hip Ratio
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2005), 4(3), 151-2

Cellulite is a gender-related condition which is the clinical expression of conformational changes taking place in the fibrous strands partitioning the hypodermis. The affected skin areas are those where ... [more ▼]

Cellulite is a gender-related condition which is the clinical expression of conformational changes taking place in the fibrous strands partitioning the hypodermis. The affected skin areas are those where fat deposition is under the influence of estrogens. Some hypodermal fibrous strands become enlarged and others become loose and look similar to striae distensae. Cellulite is not a result of increased body mass, but its aspect may be influenced by the waist-to-hip ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailStriae distensae in darker skin types: the influence of melanocyte mechanobiology.
Pierard, Claudine ULg; Hermanns, Jean-François ULg; Hermanns-Le, Trinh ULg et al

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2005), 4(3), 174-8

Introduction Striae distensae in White people are commonly described as being reddish at first and turning white in time. This dual perception has been challenged. Indeed, the color difference between ... [more ▼]

Introduction Striae distensae in White people are commonly described as being reddish at first and turning white in time. This dual perception has been challenged. Indeed, the color difference between striae distensae and their surrounding skin varies on a wide range in part depending upon typology. Aim To study striae nigrae that are found only in subjects of darker complexion. Materials and methods In the present study conducted in 44 darker skin adults, dermoscopy was combined to reflectance colorimetry. Results Striae nigrae exhibited hypermelanosis of the epidermal rete ridges crossing transversally the lesions in a laddering pattern. By contrast, striae albae showed only faint melanotic networks. Conclusions As striae distensae are in part under the influence of skin stretching, their colors are likely to be controlled by some mechanobiological process activating or inhibiting melanogenesis in people of darker complexion. No argument involving an inflammatory mechanism is supported by the present observations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Inflammatory Hypothesis of Ageing: Fascinating Concept or Confusing Dogma?
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2004), 3(4), 246

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See detailAgeing across the life span: time to think again.
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2004), 3(1), 50-3

Living organisms are subject to ageing. This natural process has gained greater importance in socially and medically affluent societies. For many, ageing connotes unattractive changes in the appearance of ... [more ▼]

Living organisms are subject to ageing. This natural process has gained greater importance in socially and medically affluent societies. For many, ageing connotes unattractive changes in the appearance of the skin. The gross morphological changes of ageing skin are mirrored by a range of more profound age-associated physiological declines. Thus, skin ageing can be put into other perspectives which lie at the interfaces of molecular biology, cellular biology, oncology and cosmetic dermatology. Genetically programmed replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) are two processes that are fundamental to skin ageing. Some iteroparous species can be used as animal models for human ageing. Undoubtedly, scientific understanding of skin ageing is firmly rooted in the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic types of ageing. However, seven major types of skin ageing can be distinguished: genetic, chronological, solar, behavioural, endocrinological, catabolic and gravitational types. Preventative measures can target each of these. [less ▲]

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See detailSkin tensile properties revisited during ageing. Where now, where next?
Hermanns-Le, Trinh ULg; Uhoda, Isabelle; Smitz, Simon ULg et al

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2004), 3(1), 35-40

Skin and its subcutaneous layer represent a complex composite of tissues, whose mechanical characteristics depend upon the mutual interdependence of their constituent parts. The molecular and ... [more ▼]

Skin and its subcutaneous layer represent a complex composite of tissues, whose mechanical characteristics depend upon the mutual interdependence of their constituent parts. The molecular and microanatomical structures of skin allow it to meet normal mechanical demands. They also determine the orientation both of Langer's lines and of relaxed skin tension lines. Ageing, photodamage, hormones, drugs, cosmetic products and dermatological interventions may modify the skin's overall tensile properties. In turn, any variation in mechanical stresses and strains imposed upon the skin's connective tissue influences the metabolic activity and phenotypic expression of fibroblasts and dermal dendrocytes. The viscoelastic functions of ageing skin can be tested by altering the orientation and magnitude of imposed stresses and strains over time. Assessment can be made of various biomechanical properties of skin: tensile, torsional, acoustic shear wave, indentation, impact and elevation. Such objective biomechanical assessments may be applied to dermocosmetic interventions, so providing opportunity for progress in cosmetic dermatological science. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom skin microrelief to wrinkles. An area ripe for investigation.
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Uhoda, Isabelle; Pierard, Claudine ULg

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2003), 2(1), 21-8

Skin microrelief alters progressively with age. Wrinkles do not result from these changes but are superimposed upon them. Wrinkles result from structural changes in the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis ... [more ▼]

Skin microrelief alters progressively with age. Wrinkles do not result from these changes but are superimposed upon them. Wrinkles result from structural changes in the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. Four types of wrinkles can be recognized. Type 1 wrinkles are atrophic. Type 2 wrinkles are elastotic. Type 3 wrinkles are expressional. Type 4 wrinkles are gravitational. Each type of wrinkle is characterized by distinct microanatomical changes and each type of wrinkle develops in specific skin regions. Each is likely to respond differently to treatment. Skin microrelief and skin folds can be identified on histological examination. By contrast, only minimal dermal changes are found beneath permanent or reducible wrinkles compared with immediately adjacent skin. A series of objective and non-invasive methods is available to quantify the severity of wrinkling. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-pulsed ruby laser-assisted hair removal in male-to-female transsexuals.
Paquet, Philippe ULg; Fumal, I.; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2002), 1(1), 8-12

BACKGROUND: Unwanted male-pattern pilosity is a heavy psychological burden and can cause distress for male-to-female transsexuals. Orchidectomy and oestrogen supplementation combined with antiandrogens ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Unwanted male-pattern pilosity is a heavy psychological burden and can cause distress for male-to-female transsexuals. Orchidectomy and oestrogen supplementation combined with antiandrogens fail to make hair disappear. AIMS: To study the effect of long-pulsed ruby laser treatment. RESULTS: Hair density was successfully abated on the beard and chest of three male-to-female transsexuals. A lingering effect over 6 months with a 50-90% hair density reduction was obtained. CONCLUSION: Photothermolysis using the long-pulsed ruby laser is a promising, well-tolerated method of hair removal in male-to-female transsexuals under oestrogen supplementation and antiandrogens. [less ▲]

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