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See detailEfficacy of Sublingual Lorazepam Versus Intrarectal Diazepam for Prolonged Convulsions in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Malu, Celestin Kaputu Kalala; Kahamba, Daniel Mukeba; Walker, Timothy David et al

in Journal of child neurology (2013)

In Sub-Saharan Africa, intrarectal diazepam is the first-line anticonvulsant mostly used in children. We aimed to assess this standard care against sublingual lorazepam, a medication potentially as ... [more ▼]

In Sub-Saharan Africa, intrarectal diazepam is the first-line anticonvulsant mostly used in children. We aimed to assess this standard care against sublingual lorazepam, a medication potentially as effective and safe, but easier to administer. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the pediatric emergency departments of 9 hospitals. A total of 436 children aged 5 months to 10 years with convulsions persisting for more than 5 minutes were assigned to receive intrarectal diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, n = 202) or sublingual lorazepam (0.1 mg/kg, n = 234). Sublingual lorazepam stopped seizures within 10 minutes of administration in 56% of children compared with intrarectal diazepam in 79% (P < .001). The probability of treatment failure is higher in case of sublingual lorazepam use (OR = 2.95, 95% CI = 1.91-4.55). Sublingual lorazepam is less efficacious in stopping pediatric seizures than intrarectal diazepam, and intrarectal diazepam should thus be preferred as a first-line medication in this setting. [less ▲]

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See detailLow citrulline in Leigh disease: still a biomarker of maternally inherited Leigh syndrome.
Debray, François-Guillaume ULg; Lambert, Marie-Hélène ULg; Allard, Pierre et al

in Journal of Child Neurology (2010), 25(8), 1000-2

Two siblings presented with encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and hypocitrullinemia. Muscle and liver biopsies were considered for respiratory chain studies, but because of hypocitrullinemia, molecular ... [more ▼]

Two siblings presented with encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and hypocitrullinemia. Muscle and liver biopsies were considered for respiratory chain studies, but because of hypocitrullinemia, molecular analysis for maternally inherited Leigh syndrome was first performed, revealing in both siblings the mitochondrial DNA T8993G mutation (95% heteroplasmy), allowing to avoid tissue biopsies. Hypocitrullinemia, an occasional finding in mitochondrial diseases, has been specifically associated with T8993G mutation. However, only few patients have been reported, and the prevalence of hypocitrullinemia in 8993 mitochondrial DNA mutations is unknown. In a small series of 16 Leigh syndrome patients, sensitivity and specificity of hypocitrullinemia (< or = 12 micromol/L) for 8993 mitochondrial DNA mutations were 66% and 85%, respectively. Although studies in larger cohorts are necessary, we suggest considering T8993G mutation early in the diagnostic evaluation of infantile mitochondrial diseases with hypocitrullinemia, which minimizes the need for invasive procedures associated with a small but nonnegligible risk of complications and incorrect diagnosis. [less ▲]

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See detailProgressive encephalopathy in a child with cerebral folate deficiency syndrome.
Bonkowsky, Joshua L; RAMAEKERS, Vincent ULg; Quadros, Edward V et al

in Journal of Child Neurology (2008), 23(12), 1460-3

Cerebral folate deficiency syndrome, a recently recognized cause of developmental delay, regression, and seizures, is associated with autoantibodies against folate receptors. A female child with ... [more ▼]

Cerebral folate deficiency syndrome, a recently recognized cause of developmental delay, regression, and seizures, is associated with autoantibodies against folate receptors. A female child with developmental delay and a history of seizures who presented with seizures and unexplained coma is reported. Extensive testing to evaluate the patient's coma and subsequent developmental regression were unrevealing until the results of her cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitter analysis returned. These showed low levels of methyltetrahydrofolate, the active metabolite of folate in the cerebrospinal fluid; subsequently, elevated titers of autoantibodies against folate receptors were found. Despite treatment with folinic acid, she developed intractable epilepsy and severe developmental delay. [less ▲]

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