References of "Journal of Biogeography"
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See detailOrigin and fate of the single island endemic moss Orthotrichum handiense
Patino Llorente, Jairo ULg; Medina, R; Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg et al

in Journal of Biogeography (2013), 40

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See detailInverted patterns of genetic diversity in continental and island populations of the heather Erica scoparia s.l.
Desamore, Aurélie ULg; Laenen, Benjamin ULg; González-Mancebo, JM et al

in Journal of Biogeography (2012), 39(3), 574--584

Aim  Using the heather Erica scoparia s.l. as a model, this paper aims to test theoretical predictions that island populations are genetically less diverse than continental ones and to determine the ... [more ▼]

Aim  Using the heather Erica scoparia s.l. as a model, this paper aims to test theoretical predictions that island populations are genetically less diverse than continental ones and to determine the extent to which island and continental populations are connected by pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow.Location  Macaronesia, Mediterranean, Atlantic fringe of Europe.Methods  Patterns of genetic diversity are described based on variation at two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) loci and one nuclear DNA (nDNA) locus for 109 accessions across the entire distribution range of the species. Global patterns of genetic differentiation were investigated using principal coordinates analysis. Genetic differentiation between island and continental areas, estimations of pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow, and the presence of phylogeographical signal were assessed by means of Fst/NST (continental scale) and Fij/Nij (local scale). Extant and past distribution ranges of the species were inferred from niche modelling using layers describing present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) macroclimatic conditions.Results  The Azores exhibited a significantly higher genetic diversity than the continent. The lowest levels of genetic differentiation were observed between the Azores and the western Mediterranean, and the diversity observed in the Azores resulted from at least two colonization waves. Within the Azores, kinship coefficients showed a significant and much steeper decrease with geographical distance in the cpDNA than in the nDNA. The distribution predicted by LGM models was markedly different from the current potential distribution, particularly in western Europe, where no suitable areas were predicted by LGM models, and along the Atlantic coast of the African continent, where LGM models predicted highly suitable climatic conditions.Main conclusions  The higher diversity observed in Azorean than in continental populations is inconsistent with MacArthur and Wilson’s equilibrium model and derived theoretical population genetic expectations. This inverted pattern may be the result of extinction on the continent coupled with multiple island colonization events and subsequent allopatric diversification and lineage hybridization in the Azores. The results highlight the role of allopatric diversification in explaining diversification on islands and suggest that this process has played a much more significant role in shaping Azorean biodiversity than previously thought. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent origin, active speciation and dispersal for the lichen genus Nephroma (Peltigerales) in Macaronesia
Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg; Villareal, Juan Carlos; Wheeler, Tim et al

in Journal of Biogeography (2011)

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See detailPredicting alpha diversity of African rain forests: models based on climate and satellite-derived data do not perform better than a purely spatial model
Parmentier, Ingrid; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Buermann, Wolfgang et al

in Journal of Biogeography (2011), 38(6), 1164-1176

Aim Our aim was to evaluate the extent to which we can predict and map tree alpha diversity across broad spatial scales either by using climate and remote sensing data or by exploiting spatial ... [more ▼]

Aim Our aim was to evaluate the extent to which we can predict and map tree alpha diversity across broad spatial scales either by using climate and remote sensing data or by exploiting spatial autocorrelation patterns. Location Tropical rain forest, West Africa and Atlantic Central Africa. Methods Alpha diversity estimates were compiled for trees with diameter at breast height ‡ 10 cm in 573 inventory plots. Linear regression (ordinary least squares, OLS) and random forest (RF) statistical techniques were used to project alpha diversity estimates at unsampled locations using climate data and remote sensing data [Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), Quick Scatterometer (QSCAT), tree cover, elevation]. The prediction reliabilities of OLS and RF models were evaluated using a novel approach and compared to that of a kriging model based on geographic location alone. Results The predictive power of the kriging model was comparable to that of OLS and RF models based on climatic and remote sensing data. The three models provided congruent predictions of alpha diversity in well-sampled areas but not in poorly inventoried locations. The reliability of the predictions of all three models declined markedly with distance from points with inventory data, becoming very low at distances > 50 km. According to inventory data, Atlantic Central African forests display a higher mean alpha diversity than do West African forests. Main conclusions The lower tree alpha diversity in West Africa than in Atlantic Central Africa may reflect a richer regional species pool in the latter. Our results emphasize and illustrate the need to test model predictions in a spatially explicit manner. Good OLS or RF model predictions from inventory data at short distance largely result from the strong spatial autocorrelation displayed by both the alpha diversity and the predictive variables rather than necessarily from causal relationships. Our results suggest that alpha diversity is driven by history rather than by the contemporary environment. Given the low predictive power of models, we call for a major effort to broaden the geographical extent and intensity of forest assessments to expand our knowledge of African rain forest diversity. [less ▲]

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See detailOut of Africa: northwestwards Pleistocene expansions of the heather Erica arborea
Desamore, Aurélie ULg; Laenen, Benjamin ULg; Devos, Nicolas ULg et al

in Journal of Biogeography (2011), 38

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See detailPutative glacial refugia of Cedrus atlantica deduced from Quaternary pollen records and modern genetic diversity
Cheddadi, R.; Fady, B.; François, Louis ULg et al

in Journal of Biogeography (2009), 36(7), 1361-1371

Aim To investigate the impact of past environmental changes on Cedrus atlantica and its current genetic diversity, and to predict its future distribution. Location Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. Methods ... [more ▼]

Aim To investigate the impact of past environmental changes on Cedrus atlantica and its current genetic diversity, and to predict its future distribution. Location Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. Methods Eleven fossil pollen records from these three countries were used to locate putative glacial refugia and to reconstruct past climate changes. A mechanistic vegetation distribution model was used to simulate the distribution of C. atlantica in the year 2100. In addition, a genetic survey was carried out on modern Moroccan C. atlantica. Results Pollen records indicate that Cedrus was present during the last glacial period, probably in scattered refugia, in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. In the Tunisian and Algerian sites, cedar expanded during the late glacial and the early Holocene, then disappeared after c. 8000 yr bp. Reconstructed mean annual precipitation and January temperature show that the last glacial period in Morocco was cooler by 10-15 degrees C and drier by c. 300-400 mm year(-1) than the climate today. Modern chloroplast microsatellites of 15 C. atlantica populations in Morocco confirm the presence of multiple refugia and indicate that cedar recolonized the Moroccan mountains fairly recently. Model simulation indicates that by the year 2100 the potential distribution of C. atlantica will be much restricted with a potential survival area located in the High Atlas. Main conclusions Environmental changes in northern Africa since the last glacial period have had an impact on the geographical distribution of C. atlantica and on its modern genetic diversity. It is possible that by the end of this century C. atlantica may be unable to survive in its present-day locations. To preserve the species, we suggest that seedlings from modern C. atlantica populations located in the High Atlas mountains, where a high genetic diversity is found, be transplanted into the western High Atlas. [less ▲]

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See detailThe barriers to oceanic island radiation in bryophytes: insights from the phylogeography of the moss Grimmia montana
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Devos, Nicolas ULg; Goffinet, Bernard et al

in Journal of Biogeography (2008), 35

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See detailMandibles and molars of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus (L.): integrated latitudinal pattern and mosaic insular evolution
Renaud, Sabrina; Michaux, Johan ULg

in Journal of Biogeography (2007), 34(2), 339-355

Aim The distinct nature of island populations has traditionally been attributed either to adaptation to particular insular conditions or to random genetic effects. In order to assess the relative ... [more ▼]

Aim The distinct nature of island populations has traditionally been attributed either to adaptation to particular insular conditions or to random genetic effects. In order to assess the relative importance of these two disparate processes, insular effects were addressed in the European wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus (Linnaeus, 1758). Location Wood mice from 33 localities on both mainland and various Atlantic and western Mediterranean islands were considered. This sampling covers only part of the latitudinal range of A. sylvaticus but included the two main genetic clades identified by previous studies. Islands encompass a range of geographical conditions (e.g. small islands fringing the continent through large and isolated ones). Methods The insular syndrome primarily invokes variations in body size, but ecological factors such as release from competition, niche widening and food availability should also influence other characters related to diet. In the present study, the morphology of the wood mice was quantified based on two characters involved in feeding: the size and shape of the mandibles and first upper molars. The size of the mandible is also a proxy for the body size of the animal. Patterns of morphological differentiation of both features were estimated using twodimensional outline analysis based on Fourier methods. Results Significant differences between mainland and island populations were observed in most cases for both the mandibles and molars. However, molars and mandibles displayed divergent patterns. Mandible shape diverged mostly on islands of intermediate remoteness and competition levels, whereas molars exhibited the greatest shape differentiation on small islands, such as Port-Cros and Porquerolles. A mosaic pattern was also displayed for size. Body and mandible size increased on Ibiza, but molar size remained similar to mainland populations. Mosaic patterns were, however, not apparent in the mainland populations. Congruent latitudinal variations were evident for the size and shape of both mandibles and molars. Main conclusions Mosaic evolution appears to characterize insular divergence. The molar seems to be more prone to change with reduced population size on small islands, whereas the mandible could be more sensitive to peculiar environmental conditions on large and remote islands. [less ▲]

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See detailParasites and the island syndrome: the colonization of the western Mediterranean islands by Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Dujardin, 1845)
Nieberding, Caroline M. ULg; Morand, S.; Libois, Roland ULg et al

in Journal of Biogeography (2006), 33(7), 1212-1222

Aim Populations of free-living vertebrates on islands frequently differ from their mainland counterparts by a series of changes in morphometric, life-history, behavioural, physiological and genetic traits ... [more ▼]

Aim Populations of free-living vertebrates on islands frequently differ from their mainland counterparts by a series of changes in morphometric, life-history, behavioural, physiological and genetic traits, collectively referred to as the 'island syndrome'. It is not known, however, whether the 'island syndrome' also affects parasitic organisms. The present study establishes the colonization pattern of the Mediterranean islands by the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus, a direct and specific parasite of rodent hosts of the Apodemus genus, and evaluates the effects of island colonization by this species on two components of the island syndrome: the loss of genetic diversity and the enlargement of the ecological niche. Location Heligmosomoides polygyrus was sampled on seven western Mediterranean islands - Corsica, Crete, Elba, Majorca, Minorca, Sardinia and Sicily - as well as in 20 continental locations covering the Mediterranean basin. Methods The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (690 base pairs) was sequenced in 166 adult H. polygyrus individuals sampled in the 27 continental and island locations. Phylogenetic reconstructions in distance, parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities were carried out on the whole cytochrome b gene data set. The levels of nucleotide, haplotype and genetic divergence (Kimura two-parameter distance estimator) diversities were estimated in each island population and in the various continental lineages. Results Phylogenetic reconstructions show that the mainland origins of H. polygyrus were continental Spain for the Balearic Islands (Majorca, Minorca), northern Italy for the Tyrrhenian Islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Elba), southern Italy for Sicily, and the Balkan region for Crete. A comparison of island H. polygyrus populations with their mainland source populations revealed two characteristic components of the island syndrome in this parasite. First, island H. polygyrus populations display a significant loss of genetic diversity, which is related (r(2) = 0.73) to the distance separating the island from the mainland source region. Second, H. polygyrus exhibits a niche enlargement following insularization. Indeed, H. polygyrus in Corsica is present in both A. sylvaticus and Mus musculus domesticus, while mainland H. polygyrus populations are present exclusively in Apodemus hosts. Main conclusions Our results show that H. polygyrus has undergone a loss of genetic diversity and a niche (host) enlargement following colonization of the western Mediterranean islands. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for components of the 'island syndrome' in a parasitic nematode species. [less ▲]

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See detailMultivariate analysis of a fine-scale breeding bird atlas using a geographical information system and partial canonical correspondence analysis: Environmental and spatial effects
Titeux, N.; Dufrêne, Marc ULg; Jacob, J.-P. et al

in Journal of Biogeography (2004), 31(11), 1841-1856

Aim: To assess the relative roles of environment and space in driving bird species distribution and to identify relevant drivers of bird assemblage composition, in the case of a fine-scale bird atlas data ... [more ▼]

Aim: To assess the relative roles of environment and space in driving bird species distribution and to identify relevant drivers of bird assemblage composition, in the case of a fine-scale bird atlas data set. Location: The study was carried out in southern Belgium using grid cells of 1 x 1 km, based on the distribution maps of the Oiseaux nicheurs de Famenne: Atlas de Lesse et Lomme which contains abundance for 103 bird species. Methods: Species found in < 10% or > 90% of the atlas cells were omitted from the bird data set for the analysis. Each cell was characterized by 59 landscape metrics, quantifying its composition and spatial patterns, using a Geographical Information System. Partial canonical correspondence analysis was used to partition the variance of bird species matrix into independent components: (a) 'pure' environmental variation, (b) spatially-structured environmental variation, (c) 'pure' spatial variation and (d) unexplained, non-spatial variation. Results: The variance partitioning method shows that the selected landscape metrics explain 27.5% of the variation, whilst 'pure' spatial and spatially-structured environmental variables explain only a weak percentage of the variation in the bird species matrix (2.5% and 4%, respectively). Avian community composition is primarily related to the degree of urbanization and the amount and composition of forested and open areas. These variables explain more than half of the variation for three species and over one-third of the variation for 12 species. Main conclusions: The results seem to indicate that the majority of explained variation in species assemblages is attributable to local environmental factors. At such a fine spatial resolution, however, the method does not seem to be appropriated for detecting and extracting the spatial variation of assemblages. Consequently, the large amount of unexplained variation is probably because of missing spatial structures and 'noise' in species abundance data. Furthermore, it is possible that other relevant environmental factors, that were not taken into account in this study and which may operate at different spatial scales, can drive bird assemblage structure. As a large proportion of ecological variation can be shared by environment and space, the applied partitioning method was found to be useful when analysing multispecific atlas data, but it needs improvement to factor out all-scale spatial components of this variation (the source of 'false correlation') and to bring out the 'pure' environmental variation for ecological interpretation. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptive latitudinal trends in the mandible shape of Apodemus wood mice
Renaud, S.; Michaux, Johan ULg

in Journal of Biogeography (2003), 30(10), 1617-1628

Aim Size and shape of the mandible are investigated across the latitudinal range of the European wood mouse ( Apodemus sylvaticus), in order to address the relative importance of genetic structure ... [more ▼]

Aim Size and shape of the mandible are investigated across the latitudinal range of the European wood mouse ( Apodemus sylvaticus), in order to address the relative importance of genetic structure, insularity, and geographical gradient in patterning morphological variation. Results are compared with those on two Asiatic species of wood mice, A. argenteus and A. speciosus. Location The European wood mouse is sampled by a set of trapping localities including both, islands and mainland populations, as well as the four genetic groups identified in previous studies. The localities cover a latitudinal gradient from 55 degreesN to 36 degreesN. Methods Different Fourier methods are applied to the outlines of mandibles and their results compared in the case of A. sylvaticus. All provide similar results and allow a quantification of the size and shape variations across the geographical range of the European wood mouse. Using the method allowing for the best reduction of the informative data set, a comparison of the European wood mouse with the two Asiatic species was performed. Results Within the European wood mouse A. sylvaticus, a strong latitudinal gradient in mandible shape overrides the influence of insularity and genetic structure. Yet, random morphological divergence in insular conditions can be identified as a secondary process of shape differentiation. Size displays no obvious pattern of variation, neither with insularity or latitude. A comparison with two other species of wood mice suggests that a similar latitudinal gradient in mandible shape exists in different species, mandibles being flatter in the north and wider in the south. Main conclusion The latitudinal gradient in mandible shape observed in the three species of wood mice is interpreted as an intraspecific adaptive response to gradual changes in feeding behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailBiogeography and ecology of paedomorphosis in Triturus alpestris (Amphibia, Caudata)
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Duguet, R.; Džukić, Georg et al

in Journal of Biogeography (2001), 28(10), 1271-1280

Aim Paedomorphosis is an evolutionary change in which larval structures are retained in adult animals. In newts and salamanders, this heterochronic process is widely represented and concerns the retention ... [more ▼]

Aim Paedomorphosis is an evolutionary change in which larval structures are retained in adult animals. In newts and salamanders, this heterochronic process is widely represented and concerns the retention of gill slits. We want to find out whether ecological and geographical determinants may be associated with paedomorphosis in the Alpine newt Triturus alpestris. Location Europe. Methods Determination of the main characteristics of all known aquatic sites containing paedomorphic Alpine newt individuals. Results Although metamorphs are common in Europe, paedomorphs are only found at the southern margin of the geographical range of the species: mainly in Italy and in the Balkans. They were recorded in eighty-seven aquatic sites. No single trend was outlined for the analysed ecological parameters of the aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g. altitude, maximum water depth, drying and presence of forest). Main conclusions Contrary to the first models of paedomorphosis, the main traits of aquatic and terrestrial habitat do not explain the occurrence of paedomorphs in natural populations. Although they were found in favourable aquatic habitats surrounded by hostile terrestrial landscapes, they also exist in temporary waters located at proximity of appropriate terrestrial environments. These results support models predicting paedomorphosis in varied environments, but require complementary investigations on the costs and benefits of the alternative ontogenetic pathways. On the other hand, the southern limitation of the heterochronic phenomenon suggests a genetic basis for paedomorphosis in the studied species. [less ▲]

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See detailGeographic structure and potential ecological factors in Belgium
Dufrêne, Marc ULg; Legendre, P.

in Journal of Biogeography (1991), 18(3), 257-266

The available potential ecological factors have been scored in the form of presence/absence in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) squares in Belgium. A correspondence analysis shows a strong underlying ... [more ▼]

The available potential ecological factors have been scored in the form of presence/absence in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) squares in Belgium. A correspondence analysis shows a strong underlying gradient in the data set which induces an extraordinary horseshoe effect. This gradient follows closely the altitude component. Applying the k-means clustering method on UTM squares produced geographically compact groups which are largely hierarchically nested. This indicates strong regional trends in the ecological data set. As homogeneous groups may also be artefacts created by the clustering algorithms on a continuous gradient, the relevance of the borders between homogeneous areas is tested. In general, k-means borders correspond to the main breaking lines between adjacent UTM squares. They can be referred to as natural borders. -Authors [less ▲]

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