References of "Journal of Alzheimer's Disease [=JAD]"
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See detailThe Benefits of Errorless Learning for Serial Reaction Time Performance in Alzheimer's Disease.
Schmitz, Xavier ULg; Bier, Nathalie; Joubert, Sven et al

in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease [=JAD] (2014), 39(2), 287-300

Identifying the conditions favoring new procedural skill learning in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) could be important for patients’ autonomy. It has been suggested that error elimination is beneficial during ... [more ▼]

Identifying the conditions favoring new procedural skill learning in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) could be important for patients’ autonomy. It has been suggested that error elimination is beneficial during skill learning, but no study has explored the advantage of this method in sequential learning situations. In this study, we examined the acquisition of a 6-element perceptual-motor sequence by AD patients and healthy older adults (control group). We compared the impact of two preliminary sequence learning conditions (Errorless vs. Errorful) on Serial Reaction Time performance at two different points in the learning process. A significant difference in reaction times for the learned sequence and a new sequence was observed in both conditions in healthy older participants; in AD patients, the difference was significant only in the errorless condition. The learning effect was greater in the errorless than the errorful condition in both groups. However, while the errorless advantage was found at two different times in the learning process in the AD group, in the control group this advantage was observed only at the halfway point. These results support the hypothesis that errorless learning allows for faster automation of a procedure than errorful learning in both AD and healthy older subjects. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing the salience of fluency improves recognition memory performance in mild Alzheimer’s disease
Bastin, Christine ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg; Genon, Sarah ULg et al

in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease [=JAD] (2013), 33

Recognition memory can rely on recollection (recall of the details from the encoding episode) and familiarity (feeling that some information is old without any recollection). In Alzheimer’s disease (AD ... [more ▼]

Recognition memory can rely on recollection (recall of the details from the encoding episode) and familiarity (feeling that some information is old without any recollection). In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), whereas there is a clear deficit of recollection, the evidence regarding familiarity is mixed, with some studies showing preserved familiarity and others reporting impairment. The current study examined whether recognition memory performance can be improved in AD when the use of familiarity is facilitated by the salience of processing fluency due to an earlier encounter with the information. Fifteen AD patients and 16 healthy controls performed a verbal recognition memory task where the salience of fluency was manipulated by means of letters overlap. Studied and unstudied words were constituted of either two separate sets of letters (no-overlap condition, high fluency salience) or the same set of letters (overlap condition, low fluency salience). The results showed that, although performance was globally poorer in AD patients than in the controls, both groups performed significantly better in the no-overlap condition than in the overlap condition. This suggests that AD patients benefited as much as the controls from the salience of fluency. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk of Alzheimer’s Disease biological misdiagnosis linked to cerebrospinal collection tubes
Perret-Liaudet A; Pelpel M,; Tholance Y et al

in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease [=JAD] (2012), 31((1)), 13-20

Tau proteins and amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the current recognized cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers used as an aid in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is no consensus on ... [more ▼]

Tau proteins and amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the current recognized cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers used as an aid in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is no consensus on their clinical use due to non-qualified cut-off values, probably related to the observed high pre-analytical and analytical variability. Standardized pre-analytical protocols have therefore been proposed. Importantly, these recommend the use of polypropylene collection/sampling tubes while, to date, no broad comparison of these types of tubes has been conducted. In this study, we first compared, as part of a real clinical workflow, the impact of four different collection tubes on the CSF concentration of Aβ peptides (Aβ42, Aβ40) and total (hTau) and phosphorylated (P-Tau181P) tau proteins measured using routine ELISA kits. We then extended this study to 11 polypropylene tubes used by different clinical laboratories, and investigated their plastic polymer composition using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy. Significant concentration variations linked solely to the use of different types of tubes were observed. This was particularly marked for Aβ peptides, with >50% disparity occurring in less than five minutes. Polymer composition analysis revealed that most polypropylene tubes were in fact copolymers with at least polyethylene. There was no clear correlation between tube composition and pre-analytical behavior. Our results show that the use of polypropylene tubes does not guarantee satisfactory pre-analytical behavior. They also point to collection/sampling tubes being a major pre-analytical source of variability that could impact the significance of AD biological diagnosis. [less ▲]

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See detailDissociation between controlled and automatic processes in the behavioral variant of fronto-temporal dementia
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg

in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease [=JAD] (2011), 22(3), 897-907

A decline of cognitive functioning affecting several cognitive domains was frequently reported in patients with frontotemporal dementia. We were interested in determining if these deficits can be ... [more ▼]

A decline of cognitive functioning affecting several cognitive domains was frequently reported in patients with frontotemporal dementia. We were interested in determining if these deficits can be interpreted as reflecting an impairment of controlled cognitive processes by using an assessment tool specifically developed to explore the distinction between automatic and controlled processes, namely the process dissociation procedure (PDP) developed by Jacoby [1]. The PDP was applied to a word stem completion task to determine the contribution of automatic and controlled processes to episodic memory performance and was administered to a group of 12 patients with the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD) and 20 control subjects (CS). Bv-FTD patients obtained a lower performance than CS for the estimates of controlled processes, but no group differences was observed for estimates of automatic processes. The between-groups comparison of the estimates of controlled and automatic processes showed a larger contribution of automatic processes to performance in bv-FTD, while a slightly more important contribution of controlled processes was observed in control subjects. These results are clearly indicative of an alteration of controlled memory processes in bv-FTD. [less ▲]

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See detailControlled Memory Processes in Questionable Alzheimer's Disease: A View from Neuroimaging Research
Bastin, Christine ULg; Kerrouche N; Lekeu, Françoise ULg et al

in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease [=JAD] (2010), 20(2), 547-560

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive loss of controlled cognitive processes, and neuroimaging studies at early stages of AD provide an opportunity to tease out the neural correlates ... [more ▼]

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive loss of controlled cognitive processes, and neuroimaging studies at early stages of AD provide an opportunity to tease out the neural correlates of controlled processes. Accordingly, controlled and automatic memory performance was assessed with the Process Dissociation Procedure in 50 patients diagnosed with questionable Alzheimer's disease (QAD). The patients' brain glucose metabolism was measured using FDG-PET. After a follow-up period of 36 months, 27 patients had converted to AD, while 23 remained stable. Both groups showed a similar decrease in controlled memory processes but preserved automatic processes at entry into the study. Voxel-based cognitive and metabolic correlations showed that a decrease in controlled memory processes was preferentially correlated with lower activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices in very early AD patients. In stable QAD patients, reduced controlled performance in verbal memory correlated with impaired activity in the left anterior hippocampal structure. The results demonstrated the central role of a medial frontal-posterior cingulate network for controlled processing of episodic memory in the early stages of AD. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodological issues in primary prevention trials for neurodegenerative dementia.
Andrieu, Sandrine; Coley, Nicola; Aisen, Paul et al

in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease [=JAD] (2009), 16(2), 235-70

The prevention of neurodegenerative dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease, is a public health priority. Due to the large numbers of affected patients, even interventions bringing about a relatively small ... [more ▼]

The prevention of neurodegenerative dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease, is a public health priority. Due to the large numbers of affected patients, even interventions bringing about a relatively small delay in disease onset could have large public health effects. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are required to demonstrate the effectiveness of preventive interventions, but such trials raise specific methodological questions because they are new in the field of neurodegenerative diseases, and require large numbers of elderly subjects and lengthy follow-up periods. We performed a literature search to identify primary prevention RCTs for neurodegenerative dementia. The methodology of the trials was summarized and discussed during two expert meetings. Overall, 39 trials were identified that assessed dementia incidence or cognitive decline as a primary or secondary study outcome. Age was the most common selection criteria for target populations. Follow-up periods ranged from one month to nine years and were longest in studies measuring dementia incidence as an outcome. Results of RCTs have so far been generally negative and conflicting with those of observational studies, perhaps due to methodological issues. Future trials must therefore carefully consider the target population, outcomes and duration of follow-up to be used, and should assess the problem of attrition. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes cognitive impairment influence burden in caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease?
Germain, Sophie ULg; Adam, Stéphane ULg; Olivier, Catherine ULg et al

in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease [=JAD] (2009), 17(1), 105-114

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by a progressive deterioration of various cognitive and behavioral abilities and it also has a health impact on the patients’ caregiver. Our aim was to determine the ... [more ▼]

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by a progressive deterioration of various cognitive and behavioral abilities and it also has a health impact on the patients’ caregiver. Our aim was to determine the patient (and to a lesser extent the caregiver’s) characteristics that contribute most to the caregiver burden. We used the baseline data from the ICTUS study, a European longitudinal cohort of patients with mild to moderate AD. Data from 1091 patients and their caregivers has been used for analysis. Three principal components analyses were performed on variables from the domains of cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms and daily function using MMSE plus ADAS-Cog, NPI and IADL subscores respectively. These were followed by a stepwise logistic regression to identify patient characteristics which best predict caregiver burden. The regression model (R2 = 0.35, p < .001) shows that the best explanatory variables are (1) neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI), (2) difficulties in the IADL, (3) time taken by caregiving, (4) demographic variables such as caregiver’s age and patient sex and (5) severity of cognitive impairment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that although the strongest determinant of the caregiver burden is behavioral disturbance, the impact of the degree of cognitive impairment on burden is also significant. [less ▲]

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