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See detailEnzyme sensor with Polydimethylsiloxane membrane and CMOS potentiostat for wide-range glucose measurements.
Mross, Stefan; Fuerst, Peter; Pierrat, Sebastien et al

in IEEE Sensors Journal (2015), 15(12), 7096-7104

We report on an electrochemical measurement setup comprising a glucose sensor and a CMOS potentiostat with a two-layer membrane as the first steps toward the development of an integrated in-situ sensor ... [more ▼]

We report on an electrochemical measurement setup comprising a glucose sensor and a CMOS potentiostat with a two-layer membrane as the first steps toward the development of an integrated in-situ sensor system for bioreactors. The potentiostat has a chip size of 2.1 mm× 2.5 mm and a linear current range from −220 nA to 240 nA with a linearity of R2 = 0.9995. For wide range measurements of glucose concentrations in cell culture media, electrodes functionalized with the enzyme glucose oxidase were spin-coated with membranes made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). A two-stage curing scheme of the PDMS was applied, and different membrane thicknesses and curing times were evaluated. With these membranes, glucose concentrations up to 500 mM were measured with a linear measurement range up to 200 mM. The sensors were successfully employed in the glucose monitoring of a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to monitor the glucose consumption of the cells. For interference elimination, the cellulose acetate membranes were employed. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign and implementation of an optimized double closed-loop control system for MEMS vibratory gyroscope
Chen, Fang; Yuan, Weizheng; Chang, Honglong et al

in IEEE Sensors Journal (2014), 14(1), 184--196

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See detailTwo-mass MEMS velocity sensor: internal feedback loop design
Alshehri, Ali; Kraft, Michaël ULg; Gardonio, Paolo

in IEEE Sensors Journal (2013), 13(3), 1003--1011

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See detailA high-resolution silicon-on-glass z axis gyroscope operating at atmospheric pressure
Ding, Haitao; Liu, Xuesong; Lin, Longtao et al

in IEEE Sensors Journal (2010), 10(6), 1066--1074

This paper describes a high-resolution silicon-on-glass <i>z</i> axis gyroscope operating at atmospheric pressure. The mechanical structure is designed in such a way that it exhibits low cross coupling ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a high-resolution silicon-on-glass <i>z</i> axis gyroscope operating at atmospheric pressure. The mechanical structure is designed in such a way that it exhibits low cross coupling between drive and sense mode of less than 0.5\% simulated using finite-element method and 1.35\% verified by experimental measurements. Due to a symmetrically designed structure, the specified bandwidth can be maintained despite of fabrication imperfections. The fabrication process flow is based on a combination of silicon on glass bonding and deep reactive ion etching which results in a large proof mass and capacitances. A closed loop self-oscillation drive interface is used to resonate the gyroscope in the drive mode, which reaches steady-state after 150 ms. Using area-varying capacitors, large quality factors of 217 and 97 for drive and sense mode, respectively, were achieved operating at atmospheric pressure. A low drive voltage, with a 1 V<sub>peak-peak</sub> AC drive amplitude and 10 V DC bias was used to excite the drive mode. The measured scale factor was 10.7 mV/\^A°/s in a range of \^A$\pm$300\^A°/s with a <i>R</i> <sup>2</sup>-nonlinearity of 0.12\%. The noise equivalent angular rate is 0.0015\^A°/s/Hz<sup>1/2</sup> (=5.4\^A°/h/Hz<sup>1/2</sup>) in a 50 Hz bandwidth. The measured SNR was 34 dB at an angular rate input signal with an amplitude of 12.5\^A°/s and a frequency of 10 Hz. Without any active temperature control, zero bias stability of 1\^A°/s was achieved for long-term measurements over six hours and 0.3\^A°/s for short-term measurements over 120 seconds (1-\^A?`). [less ▲]

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See detailA simple, low-cost double beam spectrophotometer for colorimetric detection of nitrite in seawater
Gong, Weidong; Mowlem, M.; Kraft, Michaël ULg et al

in IEEE Sensors Journal (2009), 9(7), 862--869

This paper reports on the optical detection system of a prototype nitrite sensor for seawater analysis. The sensor uses a colorimetric Griess reaction that produces an Azo dye with an absorption peak at ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on the optical detection system of a prototype nitrite sensor for seawater analysis. The sensor uses a colorimetric Griess reaction that produces an Azo dye with an absorption peak at 540 nm. A simple low-cost double beam spectrophotometer using a green light emitting diode (LED) light source, two integrated photo detectors and lock-in detection is described. A log-ratio amplifier is used to produce an output proportional to absorbance. The optical devices were mounted in a cast resin block to prevent shock and vibration. Experimental results show the detection system has a limit of detection of 0.1 muM. [less ▲]

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See detailRELIABILITY ACCELERATED TESTING OF MEMS ACCCELEROMETERS
Bazu, Marius; Gălăţeanu, Lucian; Ilian, Virgil Emil et al

in IEEE Sensors Journal (2007), 1

An attempt to assess the reliability of a batch of MEMS accelerometers is presented. The testing plan is application oriented and contains combined tests: thermal and mechanical stresses (two variants ... [more ▼]

An attempt to assess the reliability of a batch of MEMS accelerometers is presented. The testing plan is application oriented and contains combined tests: thermal and mechanical stresses (two variants: vibration and tilting) were used. The results demonstrated the good reliability of the tested device, the failure rate being smaller than 6.10-8h-1. [less ▲]

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See detailMicromachined vibratory gyroscopes controlled by a high-order bandpass sigma-delta modulator
Dong, Yufeng; Kraft, Michaël ULg; Redman-White, William

in IEEE Sensors Journal (2007), 7(1), 59--69

This work reports on the design of novel closed-loop control systems for the sense mode of a vibratory-rate gyroscope based on a high-order sigma-delta modulator (SigmaDeltaM). A low-pass and two ... [more ▼]

This work reports on the design of novel closed-loop control systems for the sense mode of a vibratory-rate gyroscope based on a high-order sigma-delta modulator (SigmaDeltaM). A low-pass and two distinctive bandpass topologies are derived, and their advantages discussed. So far, most closed-loop force-feedback control systems for these sensors were based on low-pass SigmaDeltaM's. Usually, the sensing element of a vibratory gyroscope is designed with a high quality factor Q to increase the sensitivity and, hence, can be treated as a mechanical resonator. Furthermore, the output characteristic of vibratory rate gyroscopes is narrowband amplitude-modulated signal. Therefore, a bandpass SigmaDeltaM is a more appropriate control strategy for a vibratory gyroscope than a low-pass SigmaDeltaM. Using a high-order bandpass SigmaDeltaM, the control system can adopt a much lower sampling frequency compared with a low-pass SigmaDeltaM while achieving a similar noise floor for a given oversampling ratio (OSR). In addition, a control system based on a high-order bandpass SigmaDeltaM is superior as it not only greatly shapes the quantization noise, but also alleviates tonal behavior, as is often seen in low-order SigmaDeltaM control systems, and has good immunities to fabrication tolerances and parameter mismatch. These properties are investigated in this study at system level [less ▲]

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